2. Brainstorm with students a list of things that would cause them to have feelings of national pride.
3. Explain how the agreements at the Congress of Vienna stirred nationalistic feelings as well as discontent. Points may include the following:
The agreements conflicted with the rising desire for democracy.
Different ethnic groups were spread throughout several countries (e.g., Slavs could be found in Germany, Austria, Russia, and Italy).
The agreements did not appeal to the increasing number of supporters of liberalism, who were found among the middle class, college students, and factory workers.
4. Discuss the various revolts against the decisions made at the Congress of Vienna, such as the Revolutions of 1848. Include the reason for the revolutions, the major happenings, and the impact they had.
5. Explain how Great Britain was able to avoid the revolutionary events on the continent in the early to mid-1800s. Information should include the following:
Britain was no longer an absolute monarchy, so the people already had a say in their government.
Britain already had begun some reforms, such as abolishing slavery and expanding political reforms (e.g., the Reform Bill of 1832, which expanded the electorate).
6. Direct students to make a chart comparing Great Britain and France in the period between 1815 and 1848. When they are finished, have them share their charts with the class to create a large class chart detailing this comparison.
Count Cavour, the Sardinian (Piedmont) minister, was responsible for unifying northern Italy under the Piedmont monarchy.
Garibaldi, a nationalistic leader of the “red shirts” in southern Italy, overthrew the monarch in that area. Even though he preferred a republic, he turned the area over to Cavour, leaving the Papal States as the last holdout.
In 1870, the Papal States were forced to join the unification, leaving them only with what is today the Vatican.
Distribute copies of an outline map of Italy, and instruct students to draw on the map the different Italian states and annotate when each state entered the unification process.
2. Discuss with students the unification of Germany, including the following information:
Otto von Bismarck, the “Iron Chancellor” of Prussia, led the unification process for Germany around the state of Prussia.
Bismarck’s actions reflected the Machiavellian Realpolitik belief, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 was the final step in the German unification process and helped lay the foundation for World War I, in which France was punished severely and lost territory to Germany.
Have students look at a European map prior to the unification of Germany and locate Prussia. If the textbook does not have this map, visit http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map36pol.html.
3. Display a political cartoon relating to Bismarck, and have students analyze it as a group activity.
4. Instruct students to predict the impact of the unification of Italy and Germany on European politics. Possible responses may include the following:
The unification introduced two more major powers into Europe.
Italy and Germany now must compete with other countries that have a head start on industrial and colonial development. To counteract this inequality and unite Germany, Bismarck will mastermind and win the Franco-Prussian War.
France will seek revenge for the Franco-Prussian War.
Alliance systems may develop in Europe.
Military buildups will occur among competing European nations.