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Organizing Topic The Industrial Revolution Standard(s) of Learning

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Organizing Topic

The Industrial Revolution

Standard(s) of Learning

WHII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century by

a) citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes;

b) explaining the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and subsequent development of socialism and communism;

c) describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement;

d) explaining the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and nationalism;

e) assessing the impact of European economic and military power on Asia and Africa, with emphasis on the competition for resources and the responses of colonized peoples.

Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills

Correlation to

Instructional Materials

Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history.

Use maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and to interpret the past.

Identify and compare contemporary political boundaries with the location of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms.

Analyze trends in human migration and cultural interaction.


Explain that the Industrial Revolution began in England and spread to the rest of Western Europe and the United States.

Explain that with the Industrial Revolution came an increased demand for raw materials from the Americas, Asia, and Africa.

Explain that advancements in technology produced the Industrial Revolution, while advancements in science and medicine altered the lives of people living in the new industrial cities. Cultural changes soon followed.

Explain how the Industrial Revolution produced changes in culture and society.

Summarize the Industrial Revolution, using the following information as a guide:

  • Originated in England because of her natural resources (e.g., coal, iron ore) and the invention and improvement of the steam engine

  • Spread to Europe and the United States

  • Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries

  • Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement

  • Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries

  • Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world

Explain why the spread of industrialism to Europe and the United States accelerated colonialism and imperialism.

Summarize the following technological advancements that helped produce the Industrial Revolution:

  • Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves

  • Steam engine: James Watt

  • Cotton gin: Eli Whitney

  • Process for making steel: Henry Bessemer

Summarize the following advancements in science and medicine:

  • Development of smallpox vaccination: Edward Jenner

  • Discovery of bacteria: Louis Pasteur

Summarize the impact of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries, using the following information as a guide:

  • Population increase

  • Increased standards of living for many but not all

  • Improved transportation

  • Urbanization

  • Environmental pollution

  • Increased education

  • Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions

  • Growth of the middle class

Explain that capitalism and market competition fueled the Industrial Revolution. Wealth increased the standard of living for some.

Explain that social dislocations associated with capitalism produced a range of economic and political ideas, including socialism and communism.

Summarize the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, using the following information as a guide:

  • Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations

  • Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities

  • Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class

  • Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society

Summarize the subsequent development of socialism and communism, using the following information as a guide:

  • Karl Marx’s The Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Kapital

  • Response to the injustices of capitalism

  • Importance to communists of redistribution of wealth

Explain that agricultural economies were based on the family unit. The Industrial Revolution had a significant impact on the structure and function of the family.

Summarize the nature of work in the factory system, using the following information as a guide:

  • Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system

  • Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages

  • Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high

  • Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers

Summarize the impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery:

  • The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.

  • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.

Summarize the following social effects of the Industrial Revolution:

  • Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor

  • Introduction of reforms to end child labor

  • Expansion of education

  • Women’s increased demands for suffrage

Summarize the rise of labor unions, using the following information as a guide:

  • Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions

  • Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children

  • Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management

Explain that industrial nations in Europe needed natural resources and markets to expand their economies.

Explain that nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions. European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms. Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries. Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences.

Explain that European nations competed to control Africa and Asia to secure their own economic and political success.

Describe the following forms of imperialism:

  • Colonies

  • Protectorates

  • Spheres of influence

Explain that imperialism spread economic, political, and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world.

Explain that resistance to imperialism took many forms, including armed conflict and intellectual movements.

Summarize imperialism in Africa and Asia, using the following information as a guide:

  • European domination

  • European conflicts carried to the colonies

  • Christian missionary efforts

  • Spheres of influence in China

  • Suez Canal

  • East India Company’s domination of Indian states

  • American opening of Japan to trade

Summarize the following responses of colonized peoples:

  • Armed conflicts (e.g., events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China)

  • Rise of nationalism (e.g., first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s)

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