At conferences held by the Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin) during the war, it was decided that Germany would be divided into east and west sections. The west would be occupied by America, Great Britain, and France, and the east by the Soviet Union. Berlin would be divided in a similar manner.
West Germany soon began to have an economic revival, while the east lagged behind.
Divided Germany and, later, the Berlin Wall became symbols of the Cold War.
6. Have students look at a map of Germany following WWII to see how it was divided. Discuss problems that developed, including the following:
Families were split up.
The east and west became economic and political rivals.
The government of East Germany tried to keep citizens from leaving the country (Iron Curtain, Berlin Wall).
People tried to flee to the west, where conditions were better.
7. Explain the establishment of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including the following information:
It was established and adopted by members of the United Nations.
It provides a code of conduct for treatment of people under the protection of their government.
8. Which country was NOT an Axis Power during WWII?
D Great Britain*
9. In 1994, Rwanda experienced a biter civil war between what two tribes?
A Tutsi and Hutu*
B Tutsi and Khoisan
C Khoisan and Somalis
D Ethiopians and Hutu
Major Events of the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
Standard(s) of Learning
WHII.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of major events in the second half of the twentieth century by
a) explaining key events of the Cold War, including the competition between the American and Soviet economic and political systems and the causes of the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe;
b) assessing the impact of nuclear weaponry on patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945;
c) describing conflicts and revolutionary movements in eastern Asia, including those in China and Vietnam, and their major leaders, i.e., Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), Chiang Kai-shek, and Ho Chi Minh;
d) describing major contributions of selected world leaders in the second half of the twentieth century including Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Deng Xiaoping.
Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills
Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)
Use maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world to interpret the past.
Identify and compare contemporary political boundaries with the location of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms.
Analyze trends in human migration and cultural interaction.
Explain that competition between the United States and the U.S.S.R. laid the foundation for the Cold War.
Summarize the beginning of the Cold War (1945–1948), using the following information as a guide:
The Yalta Conference and the Soviet control of Eastern Europe
Rivalry between the United States and the U.S.S.R.
Democracy and the free enterprise system vs. dictatorship and communism
President Truman and the Policy of Containment
Eastern Europe: Soviet satellite nations, the Iron Curtain
Summarize the following characteristics/events of the Cold War (1948–1989):
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) vs. Warsaw Pact
Berlin and significance of Berlin Wall
Cuban Missile Crisis
Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence
Explain that the Cold War influenced the policies of the United States and the U.S.S.R. towards other nations and conflicts around the world.
Explain that the presence of nuclear weapons has influenced patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945.
Explain that communism failed as an economic system in the Soviet Union and elsewhere.
Explain that Japanese occupation of European colonies in Asia heightened demands for independence after World War II.
Define containment as a policy for preventing the expansion of communism.
Explain that after World War II, the United States pursued a policy of containment against communism. This policy included the development of regional alliances against Soviet and Chinese aggression. The Cold War led to armed conflicts in Korea and Vietnam.
Summarize the conflicts and revolutionary movements in China after World War II, using the following information as a guide:
Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi): Nationalist China (island of Taiwan)
Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong): Communist China (mainland China)