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Session 8: Selected World Leaders



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Session 8: Selected World Leaders

Materials
  • Textbook or other instructional resources


  • Internet access

  • Attachment D: Selected World Leaders
Instructional Activities

1. Distribute Attachment D, and instruct students to use the textbook or other instructional resources and the Internet to complete the handout. Have students discuss answers in pairs.

2. Have each student pair write two “60 Minutes-style” questions that focus on the main impact and/or contribution that each leader had on the world. The questions must show understanding of the time and person, for example: “Margaret Thatcher, how did your focus on business affect trade?”


Session 9: Assessment

Materials

  • Attachment E: Sample Assessment Items
Instructional Activities

1. Distribute copies of Attachment E, and have students complete the assessment.

Attachment A: Beginnings of the Cold War, 1945–1948

I. Clash of Ideologies – The United States vs. The Soviet Union

A. Political ideologies

1. United States – republican form of democracy

a. Citizens elect government officials.

b. Government is based on a multi-party system.

c. Government is based on Enlightenment ideas.

d. Bill of Rights guarantees protection from government’s power.

2. Soviet Union – communist dictatorship

a. Communist party selects government officials.

b. Government is based on a one-party system controlled by one leader.

c. Government is based on the ideas of Lenin and Stalin.

d. Citizens have only those rights granted to them by the government. Rights may be denied by the government.

B. Economic ideologies

1. United States – capitalism (free enterprise)

a. Economic system is based on ideas expressed in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith.

b. Individuals control the “market” to answer economic questions.

c. Economy is based on consumer goods that help individuals make a profit.

d. Citizens pay taxes to government so that it can provide services.

2. Soviet Union – communism (command economy)

a. Economy is based loosely on ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

b. Government commands resources to answer economic questions.

c. Economy is based on capital goods to build up the power of the state.

d. Citizens often experience shortages of everyday consumer goods.

II. The Yalta Conference

A. Meeting of Big Three

1. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.)

2. Prime Minister Winston Churchill (U.K.)

3. Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin (U.S.S.R.)

B. Purposes of the conference

1. To determine the reorganization of postwar Europe—i.e., the re-establishment of the nations conquered by Germany

2. To divide Germany and its capital, Berlin, into four occupation zones

a. United States, Great Britain, and France unified zones to create West Germany and West Berlin (each democratic).

b. Soviet Union’s zones became East Germany and East Berlin (each communist).

C. Effects of the conference

1. Fulfilled Stalin’s desire for creating a buffer zone

2. Divided Europe between democratic states and communist states

3. Instigated long period of mistrust between Eastern and Western countries

Attachment B: Early Events of the Cold War


Event

Description

Cause(s)

Effect(s)

Countries of Eastern Europe became satellites of the U.S.S.R.










Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech

1946










Truman Doctrine

1947










Marshall Plan

1947










Berlin Blockade

1948









Berlin Airlift

Operation Vittles”


1948–49










Attachment C1: NATO vs. Warsaw Pact – Research Sheet



Include the following information on your storyboard:
1. An explanation of the purpose of each organization

2. A map of each alliance’s members during the Cold War

3. A map of NATO members after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact

4. A timeline of major actions taken by each group

5. A chart of important statistics

6. Political cartoons that depict each side’s perspective of the Cold War

7. An explanation of why the Warsaw Pact collapsed

8. An explanation of the buildup of nuclear arms

9. Other information deemed important during your research

10. Pictures with captions

11. A “Works Cited” page on the back of the display board
Be sure your information appears in a font size large enough to be easily read from a reasonable distance away. Avoid colors that are too light.

Remember to cite your sources in an acceptable bibliographic format!


Attachment C2: Korean War – Research Sheet



Include the following information on your storyboard:

1. Identification of reasons for United States and United Nations involvement

2. Identification of who fought on each side

3. Identification of who sent aid to each side

4. Identification of the leaders of each side

5. A map of the war during its different stages

6. An explanation of the involvement by communist China

7. A timeline of major events

8. Charts and/or graphs that reflect the number of casualties, the monetary cost of war, and other important data

9. Political cartoons

10. The outcomes of war

11. Pictures with captions

12. Stories from the war

13. A description of Korea today

14. A “Works Cited” page on the back of the display board

Be sure your information appears in a font size large enough to be easily read from a reasonable distance away. Avoid colors that are too light.

Remember to cite your sources in an acceptable bibliographic format!



Attachment C3: Vietnam War – Research Sheet



Include the following information on your storyboard:
1. Identification of reasons for United States and United Nations involvement

2. Identification of who fought on each side

3. Identification of who sent aid to each side

4. Identification of the leaders of each side

5. A map of the war during its different stages

6. A timeline of major events

7. Charts and/or graphs that reflect the number of casualties, the monetary cost of war, and other important data

8. Political cartoons

9. The outcomes of war

10. Pictures with captions

11. Stories from the war

12. A description of Vietnam today

13. A “Works Cited” page on the back of the display board
Be sure your information appears in a font size large enough to be easily read from a reasonable distance away. Avoid colors that are too light.

Remember to cite your sources in an acceptable bibliographic format!


Attachment C4: Berlin Wall – Research Sheet



Include the following information on your storyboard:

1. Identification of who built the wall, and why

2. A description of the conditions of life on each side of the wall

3. A description of the effect of the wall on families whose members lived on different sides

4. A description of what usually happened to those who tried to cross without permission

5. A timeline of major events

6. Pictures with captions

7. Political cartoons

8. Reasons the wall was torn down

9. Interesting stories about the wall

10. A description of Berlin after the collapse of the wall

11. A “Works Cited” page on the back of the display board

Be sure your information appears in a font size large enough to be easily read from a reasonable distance away. Avoid colors that are too light.

Remember to cite your sources in an acceptable bibliographic format!


Attachment C5: Cuban Missile Crisis – Research Sheet



Include the following information on your storyboard:
1. An explanation of what the Cuban missile crisis was, and why it occurred

2. Identification of the countries and leaders involved

3. A map of the blockade

4. A timeline of events

5. Pictures with captions

6. Interesting stories

7. An explanation of the meaning of brinkmanship and the relationship of this term to the Cuban Missile Crisis

8. Political cartoons

9. A description of the temporary effect of the Cuban missile crisis on Cold War relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.

10. A “Works Cited” page on the back of the display board


Be sure your information appears in a font size large enough to be easily read from a reasonable distance away. Avoid colors that are too light.

Remember to cite your sources in an acceptable bibliographic format!


Attachment C6: Communist Buildup in China – Research Sheet



Include the following information on your storyboard:

1. A description of the communist buildup in China

2. Identification of the leaders involved

3. A map of China

4. A timeline of events

5. Pictures with captions

6. Interesting stories

7. Political cartoons

8. A description of the conflict between the nationalists and the communists

9. A “Works Cited” page on the back of the display board

Be sure your information appears in a font size large enough to be easily read from a reasonable distance away. Avoid colors that are too light.

Remember to cite your sources in an acceptable bibliographic format!



Attachment D: Selected World Leaders





Leader

Country

Role as world leader;

Contributions

Indira Gandhi







Margaret Thatcher







Mikhail Gorbachev







Deng Xiaoping






Attachment E: Sample Assessment Items


An asterisk (*) indicates the correct answer.

1. The Cold War was

A a series of military skirmishes between the United States and Germany.

B a technological war between the United States and Japan.

C a conflict between the United States and Iraq.

D a philosophical war between the United States and the Soviet Union.*

2. One outcome of the Yalta Conference was

A the division of Germany into four sectors, controlled by Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.*

B an agreement from the Soviet Union to allow free travel across their borders with Germany.

C an agreement between the United States and Japan to share occupation of Korea.

D a commitment between the United States and Great Britain to end communism in the Soviet Union.


  • The destruction of the Berlin Wall

  • The breakup of the Soviet Union

  • The Soviet economic collapse


3. The events in the box above were the result of

A a worldwide depression following World War II.

B an invasion of Moscow by Poland with support from NATO.

C the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.*

D free democratic elections in the Soviet Union.

4. Truman’s policy of preventing the expansion of communism was called

A the Manhattan Project.

B Containment.*

C the Warsaw Pact.

D Brinkmanship.


5. Vietnam, divided during the Cold War, became a controversial conflict for the United States. Currently, Vietnam is

A a democratic country with free elections.

B an area where the United States has stationed troops to patrol the demilitarized zone.

C a wealthy country due to technological innovations that are exported to the United States.

D a country that has been reunited under a communist government.*

6. Which parallel marked the internationally recognized divide between North and South Korea both before and after the Korean War?

A 17th

B 38th*

C 10th

D 42nd

7. The Cold War ended between 1989 and 1991 with the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the fall of

A The People’s Republic of China.

B Vietnam.

C The Soviet Union.*

D Cuba.

8. What multi-national military pact did the Soviet Union organize to counter NATO?

A Eastern European Treaty Organization

B Alliance of Southeast Asian Nations

C Moscow Pact

D Warsaw Pact*


9. During the Cold War, the greatest deterrence to a nuclear war between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. was

A the threat that both nations would destroy one another if a nuclear war were to occur.*

B that neither nation had the will to fight.

C that each nation depended economically on the other.

D that the Russians had more nuclear missiles, but the U.S. had more accurate ones.





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