“Unit Two: Studying Africa through the Social Sciences; Module 7B: African History, the Era of Global Encroachment.” Exploring Africa. http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/m7b/. This site presents an activity on “African Resistance, Nationalism, and Independence.”
“How to Write an Outline.” http://www.lavc.cc.ca.us/Library/outline.htm. This site offers tips on creating an outline.
1. Introduce the African independence movement activity by explaining why Europeans were not as willing to give up their colonies in Africa as they were those in Asia. Inform students that many independence movements took place in Africa after World War II. Some of these were peaceful transitions, while others involved violent resistance. Explain that by the end of this activity, students will understand the reasons for colonization by Europeans and resistance by African peoples. Explain that the students will be creating an outline of an Internet article on an African nation and its independence movement and then writing a newspaper article about it.
2. Have students go to the Web site listed above dealing with African independence movements. If students are uncertain about the steps used in creating an outline, explain the process by using the “How to Write and Outline” Web site listed above. Another option is to provide students with a skeleton outline and have them fill it in with appropriate information. Be sure to monitor to ensure that they are not wasting time by writing down too much information. Once students are finished, go over the outline, highlighting the reasons for colonization and reasons for the growing movements toward independence.
3. Instruct students to write a newspaper article about an African nation and its independence movement by using the second writing assignment on the Web page just outlined, selecting one of the following nations, including information on the accompanying aspects:
West Africa: Peaceful transition
Algeria: War of Independence from France
Kenya (Britain): Violent struggle under leadership of Jomo Kenyatta
South Africa: Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa
Tell students that the articles must be concise and to the point and demonstrate correct mechanics, i.e., grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Selected students will present their articles at the next class.
Session 4: The Independence Movement in Africa, part 2
Outline map of postcolonial Africa
1. Distribute copies of the outline map of postcolonial Africa. Have selected students present their newspaper articles from the previous session. During the presentations, have the rest of class
label on their maps each African nation discussed and its date of independence
color each African nation according to the nation from which it gained independence
label each African nation with either a “P” for peaceful movement or a “V” for violent movement
create a legend on the map.
As papers are presented, instruct students also to listen for and take notes on similarities among the independence movements.
2. Once student presentations are finished, go over the information students recorded, emphasizing similarities among the independence movements.
Session 5: The Middle East Mandate System
Attachment B: Middle East Mandate System Notes
Web site such as “Zionism and Arab nationalism.” Two Peoples, One Land. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/nation-world/mideast/revolts/
1. Distribute Attachment B: Middle East Mandate System Notes, and go over them with students, asking the following questions to focus discussion:
What is the meaning of the phrase “To the victor go the spoils.”? What effect could that attitude have had on the Ottoman Empire?
Which two main European Powers wanted to gain more territory? Which of President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points contradicted this goal?
What kinds of religious conflicts could and did arise as a result of the mandate system?
2. To help students see how the aftermath of the Middle East mandate system still affects the world today, organize students to research the Palestinian question. Have students access the Web article on “Zionism and Arab nationalism” listed above. Divide them into groups, and assign each group one section of the article and accompanying timeline. Have each group read their section and create a short summary of the information in their own words. (This step is designed to help them rethink the meaning of information and paraphrase it.) Once groups are finished, have groups present their summaries to the class to outline the long story of the strife in the Middle East.
3. Hold a concluding activity to sum up the unit. Go back to Session 1, and ask the class the same assignment questions that they answered earlier. If their answers change, discuss why. Discuss the effects of independence movements on the world today.