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Attachment C: Sample Assessment Items

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Attachment C: Sample Assessment Items

An asterisk (*) indicates the correct answer.

1. A humanist would most likely tell someone to

A start their own trading business.

B study poetry, philosophy, and history.*

C support the Inquisition and the Pope.

D reject Christianity entirely.

2. Who was a well-known Renaissance author of sonnets?

A Michelangelo

B Shakespeare*

C Erasmus

D Luther

3. Michelangelo painted

A the Mona Lisa.

B a portrait of King Philip II.

C Praying Hands.

D the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.*

4. The movement of humanism studied the ancient cultures of

A Greece and Rome.*

B Egypt and Palestine.

C Africa and India.

D Persia and China.

5. What were the approximate dates of the Renaissance?

A 500–900 a.d. (c.e.)

B 900–1350 a.d. (c.e.)

C 1350–1600 a.d. (c.e.)*

D 1600–1800 a.d. (c.e.)

6. Where did the Renaissance begin?

A Italy*

B England

C France

D Spain

7. What does renaissance mean?

A reconstruction

B resurrection

C rebellious

D rebirth*

8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Renaissance art?

A life-like gestures and action

B religious and secular themes

C very flat and unrealistic style*

D human emotions and feelings

9. Leonardo de Vinci painted

A the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral.

B The Last Supper.*

C Praying Hands.

D the library of Pope Julius II.

10. Who best represented the humanist philosophy of the Renaissance?

A Shakespeare

B Erasmus*

C Cervantes

D Luther

11. The Songhai Empire traded

A coffee and ceramics.

B silk and tea.

C gold and salt.*

D textiles.

12. Which of the following was NOT a Chinese good desired by Europeans?

A Wool*

B Porcelain

C Paper

D Silk

Organizing Topic

The Reformation

Standard(s) of Learning

WHII.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Reformation in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

a) explaining the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged, including the views and actions of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth I;

b) describing the impact of religious conflicts, the Inquisition, and Catholic Reformation on society and government actions;

c) describing changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies, and assessing the role of the printing press.

Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills

Correlation to

Instructional Materials

Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history.

Use maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and to interpret the past.

Identify and compare contemporary political boundaries with the location of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms.

Analyze trends in human migration and cultural interaction.


Explain that for centuries, the Roman Catholic Church had little competition in religious thought and action. The resistance of the Church to change led to the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in the birth of new political and economic institutions.

Summarize the following conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome:

  • Merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury.

  • German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church.

  • The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict.

  • Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.

Summarize the beliefs of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VII, and Elizabeth I. Use the following information as a guide:

  • Martin Luther (The Lutheran tradition)

  • Views: Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God

  • Actions: 95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church

  • John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)

  • Views: Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic

  • Actions: Expansion of the Protestant Movement

  • King Henry VIII

  • Views: Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome

  • Actions: Divorced; broke with Rome; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England

  • Queen Elizabeth I

  • Anglican Church
  • Tolerance for dissenters

  • Expansion and colonialism

  • Victory over the Spanish Armada (1588)

Explain that the Reformation had its roots in disagreements about theology, but it led to important economic and political changes. Religious differences and hatreds caused war and destruction.

Summarize the major economic, political, and theological issues involved in the Reformation, using the following information as a guide:

  • Reformation in Germany

  • Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending the authority of the Pope in their states.

  • The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church.

  • Conflict between Protestants and Catholics resulted in devastating wars (e.g., Thirty Years’ War).

  • Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later revoked).

  • Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years’ War from a religious to a political conflict.

  • Catholic Reformation

  • Dissenters prior to Martin Luther: Jan Huss, John Wycliffe

  • Counter-Reformation:

    – The Council of Trent reaffirmed most Church doctrine and practices.

    – The Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world.

    – The Inquisition was used to reinforce Catholic doctrine.

Explain that at first, the Reformation divided the countries of Europe on religious principles, leading to religious intolerance.

Explain that power in most European states was concentrated in the monarch.

Explain that gradually, religious toleration emerged.

Summarize the changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies during the Reformation, using the following information as a guide:

  • Growth of secularism

  • Growth of individualism

  • Eventual growth of religious tolerance

Summarize the role of the printing press in the spread of new ideas, using the following information as a guide:

  • Growth of literacy was stimulated by the Gutenberg printing press.

  • The Bible was printed in English, French, and German.

  • These factors had an important impact on spreading the ideas of the Reformation and the Renaissance.

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