Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
“Henry VIII.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07222a.htm. This site provides information on the life of King Henry VIII and his influence on the church from the Catholic perspective.
“Henry VIII (1509–47 a.d.).” Britannia. http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon41.html. This site provides information on the life and significance of King Henry VIII.
“Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547).” Kings and Queens of England (to 1603). Official Web Site of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page19.asp. This site provides information on King Henry VIII.
“Huguenots.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07527b.htm. This site provides information on the history of the church from the Catholic perspective.
“Huguenot: French Protestant.” Encyclopedia Britanica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275000/Huguenot. This site provides information on the history of the church.
Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/map16rel.gif. This site contains a map of the religious divisions in Europe during the time of the Reformation.
“John Calvin.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03195b.htm. This site provides information on the role of John Calvin in the Reformation from the Catholic perspective.
“Martin Luther.” Washington State University. http://wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/LUTHER.HTM. This site gives information on Martin Luther and other Reformation figures.
“Nantes, Edict of.” Infoplease. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0834814.html. This site provides information on the establishment and subsequent revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Project Wittenberg. http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/wittenberg-home.html. This site contains links to works by and about Martin Luther.
“The Reformation.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12700b.htm#I. This site provides information on the causes, the reformers, the spread, and the consequences of the Reformation from the Catholic perspective.
“Reformation Europe.” Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook02.html. This site provides information on the Reformation.
“Reformation Map.” SchoolHistory.co.uk. http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/year8links/elizabeth/reformationmap.pdf. This site contains an outline map of Europe and the British Isles during the time of the Reformation.
“Religion, Wars of.” Infoplease. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2002. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0841497.html. This site contains information on the causes and effects of the religious wars in France from 1562 to 1598.
“The Wars of Religion.” Discovery and Reformation.World Civilizations: An Internet Classroom and Anthology. Washington State University. http://www.wsu.edu/%7Edee/REFORM/WARS.HTM. This site contains information on the causes and effects of the religious wars in France from 1562 to 1598.
Session 1: Causes of the Reformation
News article on a current issue in which the author calls for reform
1. Display the term reform, and instruct students to define it. Brainstorm modern examples of issues students feel are in need of reform. Instruct students to read a news article about a topical issue that some suggest is in need of reform (e.g., tax laws). Select any topic that will guide student understanding of the discontent felt by citizens when something is or seems to be unfair. Continue with the discussion by asking students questions such as “What causes people to demand reform? How are citizens affected when they perceive unfairness?”
2. Assign a selected reading on the causes, principal reformers, and effects of the Reformation, using some prepared questions to guide their reading. Have them also use the textbook or other instructional resources to identify the causes—i.e., the conditions leading to the Reformation. After students have finished reading, emphasize in class discussion that issues and forces for change included Church corruption and increased education resulting from humanist scholarship and the use of the vernacular in writings. As literacy improved, so did people’s desire to question nature and authority.
3. Distribute copies of Attachment A, and guide students in completing the “Immediate Causes” section by prompting correct answers to leading questions. Have them illustrate their notes with symbols or pictures that give meaning to the notes (e.g., they might draw a dollar sign next to the term usury to help them remember interest on a loan). Direct students to place the unfinished handout in a notebook. They will continue to complete the notes as they participate in the following sessions. This process will assist their review of the information.