Part I: Read the passage below. Answer the questions that follow the selection.
A Staten Island couple is suing New York City after ascertaining, in other words discovering, that their son’s brain was on exhibition, or display, at a city morgue. His parent say they had no idea his brain was purged, for instance cleansed or expunged, during an autopsy until some of the teen’s classmates spotted it floating in a cruet, like a large beaker, while on a field trip. After the incident, the city returned the brain. Unlike putting him to rest, the family disinterredtheir son, so they could bury him with his missing organ. A city attorney says officials are scrutinizing the family’s legal options because of someone’s oversight and disrespect, and hope to resolve the case.
1) What is the meaning of the word “ascertain”?
* learning * eliminating * reading * researching
2) Which type of clue was used to determine the answer? (use the list above)
3) What is the meaning of the word “exhibition”?
* side show * broadcast * presentation * visual aid
4) Which type of clue was used to determine the answer? (use the list above)
5) What is the meaning of the word “purged”?
* kept * expelled * removed * both expelled and removed
6) Which type of clue was used to determine the answer? (use the list above)
7) What is the meaning of the word “cruet”?
* barrel * box * coffin * all of these
8) Which type of clue was used to determine the answer? (use the list above)
9) What is the meaning of the word “disinterred”?
* exhumed * buried * exorcised * blessed
10) Which type of clue was used to determine the answer? (use the list above)
11) What is the meaning of the word “scrutinized”?
* investigated * filing * explored * both investigate and explore
12) Which type of clue was used to determine the answer? (use the list above)
Figurative Language/Literary Terms - What Do You Know? Part One: Match the following words to their correct definition.
_____1.) Alliteration A.) Use of words to create a sensory experience or image
A form of language spoken by people in a particular region is called:
BAM is an example of:
When characters speak, it is called:
“That was so good, I could smack my Mammie!” is an example of:
When, where, and the time a story takes place is called the:
When the climax or conflict is solved it is called the:
The sequence of events in a story is the:
Read the following selection, and answer the corresponding questions for “Reading Selection 1” on your unit test.
The rain was still falling by the time he reached the little wooden shack that stood in the center of the green, fertile valley. He opened his cloak for an instant to knock at the door, not really expecting a reply.
But it opened, pulled over the roughness of the rock floor by great hairy hands.
“Come in,” a voice commanded him. “Hurry! Before the rain floods me out!”
“Thank you,” the traveler said, removing the soggy garment that covered him and squeezing out some of the water. “It’s good to find a dry place. I’ve come a long way.”
“Not many people are about in this weather,” the man told him, pulling at his beardwith a quick, nervous gesture.
“I came looking for you.”
“For me? What is your name?”
“You can call me Shem. I come from beyond the mountains.”
The bearded man grunted. “I don’t know that name. What do you seek?”
The man smiled proudly. “That is correct. They’re the only such creatures in this part of the world, and I intend to breed them and sell them as beasts of burden.”
“They can do the work of strong horses, and at the same time, use their horns to defend themselves from attack.”
“True,” Shem agreed. “Very true. I…Idon’t suppose you’d want to part with them…?”
“Part with them! Are you mad, man? It costs me money to bring them all the way from Africa!”
“How much would you like for them?”
The bearded man rose from his seat. “No amount, ever! Come back in two years when I’vebred some. Until then, be gone with you!”
“I must have them, sir.”
“You must have nothing! Be gone from here now before I take a club to you!” And with those words, he took a menacing step forward.
Shem retreated out the door, back into the rain, skipping lightly over a rushing stream of water from the higher ground. The door closed on him, and he was alone. But he looked out into the fields, where a small barn-like structure stood glistening in the downpour. They would be in there; he knew it.
He made his way across the field, sometimes sinking to his ankles in puddles of muddy water. But finally, he reached the outbuilding and went in through a worn, rotten door.
Yes, they were there…Two tall and handsome beasts, very much like horses, but with longer tails and with that gleaming, twisting horn shooting straight up from the center of their foreheads. Unicorns – one of the rarest of God’s creatures!
He moved a bit closer, trying now to lure them out of the building without startling them. But there was a noise, and he turned suddenly to see the bearded man standing there, a long staff upraised in his hands.
“You try to steal them!” he shouted, lunging forward.
The staff thudded against the wall, inches from Shem’s head. “Listen, old man…”
“Die! Die, you robber!”
But Shem leaped to one side around the bearded figure of wrath and through the open doorway. Behind him, the unicorns gave a fearful snort and trampled the earth with their hoofs.
Shem kept running, away from the shack, away from the man with the staff, away from the fertile valley.
After several hours of plodding over the rain-swept hills, he came at last upon his father’s village, and he went down among the houses to the place where a handful of people had gathered.
And he saw his father standing near the base of a great wooden vessel, and he went up to his father sadly.
“Yes, my son?” the old man questioned, unrolling a long damp scroll of parchment.
“No unicorns, father.”
“No unicorns,” Noah repeated sadly, scratching out unicorns on his list. “It is too bad. They were handsome beasts…”
Textual Analysis/Reading Selection ____ 21. Refer to Reading Selection 1. The author’s main purpose in this selection is to
a. generate sympathy. c. warn readers.
b. offer an explanation. d. amuse readers.
____ 22. Refer to Reading Selection 1. What might the reader infer about the man who answered the door through the author’s use of indirect characterization in the following statement? “Not many people are about in this weather,” the man told him, pulling at his beard with a quick, nervous gesture.”
a. The man was embarrassed that a visitor
saw him when he wasn’t looking his best.
b. The man must have been guilty of a crime.
c. The man was expecting other company and wished the visitor to leave.
d. The man was distrustful of strangers.
____ 23. Refer to Reading Selection 1. What does the reader infer about the visitor through the author’s use of indirect characterization in the following statement? “Very true. I...I don’t suppose you’d want to part with them...?”
a. The visitor is reluctant to ask for the man’s prized possessions.
b. The visitor is in a huge hurry.
c. The visitor has a speech impediment.
d. The visitor is frightened of the man.
____ 24. Refer to Reading Selection 1. Based upon context clues, what is the synonym for menacing? (The word has been placed in bold lettering within the reading selection.)
d. The old man is deliberately lying and has no intention of allowing Shen to take his unicorns - ever.
____ 31. Refer to Reading Selection 1. Which of the following is the best title for this selection?
a. “The Purchase Not Made” c. “The Wet Traveler”
b. “The Selfish Sometimes Win” d. “The Last Unicorn”
Air Conditioning by Malcolm Jones Jr.
Frank Lloyd Wright hated it. Las Vegas would not exist without it. It has been credited with everything from lowering the incidence of heart attacks to the rise of the sun belt. It has been blamed for the disappearance of the front porch and the exploding size of the federal government. Few of this century’s inventions have been so damned and praised as air conditioning. The rock band NRBQ once wrote a song called “I Love Air Conditioning,” which included the lyric “And when I’m tired, and I’m so confused/Air conditioning I will use.”
There is even a mythology of air conditioning: for years the (unfortunately) baseless tale has circulated that the big character heads—Mickey, Goofy, et al.—at Disney World and Disneyland are air-conditioned. Like the car and the television set, air conditioning has always done double duty. It is both an appliance and a social force.
People knew they wanted air conditioning long before they were able to produce a machine that could do the job. The early efforts would have made Rube Goldberg blush. The first serious attempt to build an air conditioner in the United States took place in Florida in the 1830s. Dr. John Gorrie created a system that forced air over buckets of ice suspended from the ceiling to lower the temperatures of hospital patients suffering from malaria and yellow fever. Not much progress had been made by the summer of 1881, when President James Garfield lay dying from an assassin’s bullet. Naval engineers contrived a box in which melted ice water saturated flaglike cloths over which a fan blew hot air. This could lower the room temperature by 20 degrees, but in the two months that their machine comforted the dying president, it consumed more than half a million pounds of ice.
What we would recognize as an air conditioner—a machine that cools, cleans and dehumidifies air—was not invented until 1902, when a young engineer named Willis Carrier created what he called an Apparatus for Treating Air. Carrier built his machine for the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y., where humidity was bedeviling printers' efforts to accurately print color. Carrier used chilled coils to cool the air and lower humidity to 55 percent—or to any level desired and precisely every time. This exactness was the most wondrous aspect of the new invention. Carrier’s machine was the template from which all future air conditioners would be struck.
Printing plants, textile mills, pharmaceutical manufacturers, the occasional hospital—the first air-conditioned buildings were mostly industrial. (The idea of using Carrier’s invention merely for personal comfort lay decades in the future, although the first air-conditioned home appeared in 1914, when Charles Gates, son of the high-rolling gambler John “Bet a Million” Gates, installed a cooling system in his mansion in—of all places—Minneapolis.) Carrier’s earliest systems were enormous and expensive, as well as dangerous. The original coolant was toxic ammonia. But in 1922 Carrier achieved a double breakthrough, replacing the ammonia with a benign coolant called dielene and introducing a central compressor that made the cooling units much more compact. The biggest step forward came when Carrier sold his invention to the movies, or, more exactly, movie-theater operators.
A handful of movie palaces were air-conditioned in the early ‘20s, but the most important debut was at the Rivoli on Broadway
in New York City in 1925. Adolph Zukor himself, the head of Paramount Pictures, showed up for the opening. Willis Carrier was there, too, literally sweating it out because when the doors opened to let in the first customers, the system had just been turned on and the building was still hot. “From the wings we watched in dismay as 2,000 fans fluttered.” Carrier wrote of that night. “We felt that Mr. Zukor was watching the people instead of the picture—and saw all those waving fans.” At last cool air began flowing through the air ducts. One by one, the patrons dropped their fans into their laps. “Only a few chronic fanners persisted,” according to Carrier, “but soon they, too, ceased fanning. We had stopped them ‘cold’.”
Before long, office buildings, department stores and railroad cars got central air. In 1928 the U.S. House of Representatives got it, followed a year later by the Senate and a year after that by the White House and then the Supreme Court. But the industry’s biggest growth spurt came after World War II. The first window units appeared right after the war, and sales took off immediately, jumping from 74,000 in 1948 to 1,045,000 in 1953. The dripping box jutting out of the bedroom window joined the TV aerial on the roof as instant fixtures in the American suburban landscape.
Washington journalists have written endlessly and only half-jokingly about the effects AC has had on D.C., pointing out that the federal bureaucracy mushroomed only after air conditioning appeared on the scene to keep the city’s famously fetid summers at bay. (Federal workers used to be sent home whenever the temperature/humidity index topped 90 degrees.) But sociologists and historians have been largely silent about a much larger change: the rise of the sun belt in precisely the same decades that air conditioning became commonplace south of the Mason-Dixon line.
than left it. In the next decade, twice as many people moved in as departed. The South today is a busier, more crowded, more urban, more industrialized place than it was 50 years ago. It even looks different. Walk down the street of a Southern or Southwestern city at night, and there’s no one out. All you can hear is the sound of the heat pump on the side of the house; all you can see is the blue glow behind the living-room curtains. Where people once wore seersucker and linen, the shoppers of Atlanta and Houston and Phoenix now buy the same clothes people buy in Cleveland or Seattle.
With 95 percent of the houses buttoned up for air conditioning, their porches gone, the owners inside all year round, there is no longer any need to accommodate the weather. As Raymond Arsenault, a professor of history at the University of South Florida, points out, “Ask any Southerner over 30 years of age to explain why the South has changed in recent decades, and he may begin with the civil-rights movement or industrialization. But sooner or later he will come around to the subject of air conditioning. For better or worse, the air conditioner has changed the nature of Southern life.” Mostly, Arsenault suggests, by making it less Southern.
“General Electric has proved a more devastating invader than General Sherman*,” Arsenault writes. The only thing that allows us to talk about places as different as Miami and Houston and Knoxville and Tucson in the same sentence, the only thing, in fact, that allows us to entertain the notion of something called the sun belt, is that all those places are less unique, blander, if you will, than they were before air conditioning. “The modern shopping mall is the cathedral of air-conditioned culture,” says Arsenault, “and it symbolizes the placelessness of the New South.” Perhaps, but it is, at last, a cool place.
Which statement best illustrates the author’s argument about the significance of air conditioning?
Some major inventions become less important in time.
New inventions are often ignored by the public when they first appear.
Humans are often reckless in their efforts to control the environment.
New technology can cause dramatic change in society.
2. How is the author’s position supported by his use of chronological order?
The development and spread of air conditioning illustrates increasing social changes.
The increasing difficulty in refining the air conditioner illustrates Carrier’s frustration
The transition from personal to commercial use of air conditioning illustrates business control of society.
The political and industrial use of air conditioning illustrates cycles of popularity based on financial trends.
3. What effect is the author most likely trying to achieve in the first paragraph with the repetition of the word it?
confusion about the conflicting impact of air conditioning