Esl developmental Continuum – a stages a stages Stage A1 – Speaking and listening



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ESL Developmental Continuum – A Stages


A Stages

Stage A1Speaking and listening

STAGE

Standards and progression profiles

A1 beginning

(A1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A1 have very little or no oral English.  They do not respond meaningfully to English. They will join in activities, watching and copying what other students do in the classroom but may not speak.  They may spontaneously repeat words or phrases without understanding their meaning.  They may not speak in the classroom except to same language peers.

A1 progressing towards

(A1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A1 are settling into situations where English is the dominant language. They begin to understand that communication with teachers and peers needs to be conducted in English. They begin to learn the very basic oral English needed to manage learning in an English-speaking classroom. Through their first language experiences, they understand that different forms of language are used in different situations and contexts. They begin to adapt their limited, emerging English language resources to respond to new communicative and functional demands. They recognise the importance of non-verbal communication. They begin to become familiar with patterns in the sounds, intonation, rhythm, grammar and meaning of English.


A1 Standard

(A1.3)

At Stage A1, students communicate in basic English in routine, familiar, social and classroom situations. They follow and give simple instructions, exchange basic personal information and negotiate well-known, predictable activities and contexts. They begin to modify their responses and manner of interaction to match the responses of others, and to the context. They use simple learned formulas and patterns, and create original utterances by substituting words. Their utterances are characterised by a short ‘telegraphic’ structure, simple subject/verb/object construction and overgeneralisation of rules. They use some basic communication and learning strategies to participate in and sustain interaction in English. They recognise that intonation carries meaning, and they listen for key words and for repetition of words and phrases. They use comprehensible pronunciation, stress and intonation. They use classroom resources such as pictures to help them communicate.

Indicators of progress

Indicators of progress in the Speaking and Listening dimension are organised into four aspects:



  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on producing and responding to oral English texts used for social interaction and in the school context across the curriculum.

  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding and using spoken English in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way spoken English is used and interpreted.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of spoken English.


  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies students at this stage typically use to speak in and learn English.

Stage A1: Texts and responses to texts


At the end of Stage A1, students can routinely use spoken English to do the following things:

Receptive

  • display attentive listening behaviour, i.e. sit on floor and listen for sustained periods with some visual support

  • follow simple instructions in familiar school routines, relying on key words, non-verbal language and context

  • respond appropriately with simple non-verbal language to comments, or indicate non-comprehension, e.g. smile when greeted, shake or nod head

  • participate in simple, familiar songs, rhymes and chants

  • check on understanding of simple, familiar instructions and routines, e.g. T: It’s playtime. S: Go outside?

  • identify single items of information from short spoken texts, pictures or diagrams in a known context, e.g. number, colour, name, ‘Point to the three little pigs.’

Productive

  • give some basic personal information, using learned formulas or brief answers, e.g. My name is ..., I’m a boy/girl ...

  • expand on basic personal information when prompted, supported and given adequate time

  • make simple requests or express basic needs using learned sentence patterns or 2–3 word utterances, e.g. May I have a drink, please?, It’s home time, Go now?
  • use learnt phrases in play, e.g. give me, stop it, I don’t like


  • usually respond to questions with a single word or phrase, but can make longer utterances by substituting words in known sentence patterns

  • negotiate simple social or learning activities by suggesting, initiating or directing, e.g. Play football? Stop that!

Stage A1: Cultural conventions of language use


At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of spoken texts is shown when they:

Receptive

  • distinguish English from other languages, e.g. on hearing English, respond in English

  • tune in to the particular sounds of English, e.g. recognise rhyming words in a listening game, respond to known words in texts

  • recognise that some particular words, gestures or intonations may be appropriate or inappropriate in certain contexts

Productive

  • use acceptable social formulas and gestures and interact appropriately in context, e.g. thank you, excuse me, please

  • recognise that conversation breakdown is not acceptable and repeat, re-pronounce or self-correct words in order to help the other person understand

  • can tell when a response is required and attempt to respond either non-verbally or using known words

  • can appear to be interacting appropriately by copying the actions of other students.

Stage A1: Linguistic structures and features


At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of spoken English is shown when they:

Receptive


  • understand gender in common pronouns and possessive adjectives

  • respond to key words in a range of common spoken instructions, e.g. Shut the door

  • understand the tense of statements or instructions, mostly through time references, e.g. We went yesterday, Tomorrow we will go, Now we can eat lunch

  • have difficulty understanding discussions between teacher and learners at native speaker speed

Productive

  • create original utterances by substituting new words in learned patterns or formulas, e.g. It’s home time. It’s go time.

  • use words from word sets related to need, interest or experience, e.g. family, school, colours, numbers, days, months

  • use single word or phrase response to questions, e.g. Yes, No, I don’t know

  • use a range of formulas appropriately for different purposes and functions, e.g. What’s the time? Oh, no! Very good!

  • construct simple subject-verb-object sentences, largely using present tense, e.g. We buy house

  • demonstrate variable placement of common adjectives to describe or add emphasis, e.g. big truck, car blue

  • use some grammatical patterns to create new meanings, e.g. played, eated, goed; to the farm, to the Australia.

  • use intonation to enhance meaning or to distinguish statements from questions

  • use comprehensible pronunciation

  • speak with breakdowns in fluency and meaning due to limited English resources

  • express negation using ‘no’ or ‘not’ e.g. I no like vegetable, I not go

  • use 'telegraphic' speech patterns, where function words may be omitted or not used correctly, e.g. 'Me go to shopping and buyed many thing.’

Stage A1: Maintaining and negotiating communication

At the end of Stage A1, students may use the following strategies to maintain and negotiate spoken communication:

Receptive


  • listen to a sustained text, focusing on visual support, e.g. instructions and demonstrations about an art activity

  • question to check meaning, to clarify, or to confirm, e.g. T: Stick it in your book, S: language book?

  • check understanding of classroom conversations or instructions by asking other first language speakers to clarify

  • use strategies such as watching and listening to what other students are doing, following them, watching the teacher’s face

Productive

  • ask for attention or assistance from the teacher or a friend, e.g. check understanding, ask for repetition

  • use non-verbal language to sustain interaction with others, e.g. nod, smile, laugh, gesture

  • substitute words or manipulate learned formulas to create new phrases e.g. in chants

  • borrow key words from previous speaker, e.g. Child 1: Do you want to play chasey? Child 2: Yeah, play chasey

  • imitate pronunciation, stress and intonation patterns, e.g. from stories, songs, rhymes, media

  • rehearse or role play using formulas or short exchanges, e.g. from popular stories or songs; ‘Little pig, little pig let me in.’

  • provide the initial context for a conversation and then rely on another speaker to provide appropriate words in English, e.g. read with the teacher, interact through gestures, facial expressions, point to illustrations, repeat words.

Stage A1 – Reading

STAGE


Standards and progression profiles

A1 beginning

(A1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A1 do not seem to recognise English print.  They may recognise their own language, if it has a written form, and may recognise that English print is different from their own language.  They show little interest in environmental print and books and have a very limited attention span during shared reading activities.

A1 progressing towards

(A1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A1 show interest in print and recognise some environmental print including their name. They can recognise and name some letters. They watch and listen as texts are read aloud to them but may not join in. They rely on peer or teacher support to complete structured activities. They show an interest in books and focus on illustrations. They demonstrate reading-like behaviour such as holding a book, sitting and looking at a book, turning pages and looking at pictures.

A1 Standard

(A1.3)

At Stage A1, students read and engage with a wide range of short, simple repetitive texts, including shared recounts, fictional and everyday texts. They read some familiar words, phrases, logos, numbers, and signs in context. They complete simple, structured activities such as sequencing sentences and pictures. They show early understanding that texts are written and structured for a variety of purposes. They recognise some common letters and letter patterns. They name some letters of the alphabet and know the sounds some letters and letter groups commonly make. They recognise some basic features of texts, including text and page directionality, and understand the function of titles and illustrations. They handle books appropriately. When listening to texts read aloud, they listen for key words and for repetition of words and phrases. They focus on illustrations and other non-print features that assist them to understand texts.


Indicators of progress

Indicators of progress in the Reading dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on reading and responding to written English texts used for social and academic purposes.

  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way written English is used and interpreted.

  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.

  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to read and respond to written English.

Stage A1: Texts and responses to texts


At the end of Stage A1, students can routinely read the following kinds of texts, and respond to them in the following ways:

  • read short, learned texts, e.g. simple rhymes, songs, repetitive texts

  • read some environmental print and familiar words in context, e.g. recognise names, some letters, some common signs and logos, numbers

  • read their own writing, or a simple text written by the teacher, e.g. about a shared experience

  • join in with shared reading activities e.g. whole class reading of repetitive Big Book

  • complete simple activities based around texts, e.g. sequence pictures to retell story, dramatise a story, paint or draw characters,

  • adopt teacher’s intonation patterns when reading familiar texts
  • show a personal response to a text, e.g. look at or read a book in own time, role-play, draw a picture


  • recognise some familiar vocabulary, mainly content words in supported context, e.g. shared reading

  • follow simple written texts that are read to them

  • identify characters in a narrative

  • draw pictures of the stages of a narrative; match pictures and words of a procedure

  • concentrate during group reading activities

  • understand some main ideas in a simple story read aloud, supported by visuals.

Stage A1: Cultural conventions of language use


At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of the texts they read is shown when they:

  • show awareness that written and visual texts are created to share a message

  • can recognise that environmental print is significant, e.g. asks the teacher to read a sign

  • identify whether a text tells a story or gives information

  • understand that print contains a consistent message, e.g. indicates when the ending of a well-known story varies

  • identify reading purposes of texts, e.g. enjoyment, information

  • choose books to look at or read independently.

Stage A1: Linguistic structures and features


At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of the texts they read is shown when they:

  • are able to distinguish Roman script from non-Roman script

  • recognise the function of capital letters and full stops , e.g. count sentences
  • show awareness of basic conventions of print in English, e.g. follow text with finger from left to right and from the top to the bottom of the page


  • show awareness that words are separated by spaces, e.g. by pointing to words, counting words

  • understand and use the metalanguage for some basic conventions of book layout and aspects of reading, e.g. word, letter, page, title, cover

  • recognise and name some letters of the alphabet

  • identify common letters in different words consistently, e.g. point to all the ‘t’s in a sentence

  • relate some letters of the alphabet to sounds, e.g. relate some non-consonants to their usual/common sounds

  • identify some sounds in words

  • recognise some common letters and letter patterns in words, e.g. refer to charts, books

  • identify repetitive word or letter patterns in sentences and phrases

  • recognise some familiar personally significant words in context, e.g. own name, peers’ names, ‘today is’

  • match words to sentence in a known text

  • match familiar words or simple sentences with pictures.

Stage A1: Maintaining and negotiating communication


At the end of Stage A1, students may use the following strategies to assist them to read and comprehend texts:

  • use illustrations to discern the story line of a text

  • use illustrations to predict individual words in texts about familiar topics

  • read with or slightly after the teacher, e.g. join in the familiar part of a story

  • focus on reading repetitive words or phrases in known texts

  • listen for key words in a shared reading text, e.g. names of characters

  • memorise a familiar or favourite part of a text

  • practise by re-reading their favourite texts
  • choose texts to read that are familiar or well supported by illustrations


  • attempt to decode known and unknown words using initial sounds and other early decoding skills

  • focus on meaning of content words (particularly nouns and verbs) associated with accompanying pictures or words pointed to by teacher,

  • tend to ignore meaning carried by structural words such as the, and, as, in, of and other language not pointed out or supported by illustrations

  • show comprehension through appropriate contextual activities, e.g. sequencing pictures

  • use simple dictionaries and word charts.

Stage A1 – Writing

 STAGE

Standards and progression profiles

A1 beginning

(A1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A1 do not recognise English print and may show little interest in writing.  They draw pictures to communicate meaning and may discuss their pictures using labels or a simple phrase.  Depending on their prior experiences, they may have difficulty with the mechanics of writing, for example, they might not be used to holding pencils or crayons and making ‘marks’ on the page. 

A1 progressing towards

(A1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A1 use drawing as a means of expression.  They attempt to copy writing from other sources, for example environmental print, other students, the teacher’s model.  They will observe shared writing tasks, watching as the teacher writes but most likely will not contribute because of their limited English. Concentration during shared writing tasks might be limited. They talk about their writing and pictures drawing on their oral English language and may use their first language with same language peers or bilingual teacher. Students from script-different backgrounds will need more time to develop the directional concepts of left to right and top to bottom when writing.


A1 Standard

(A1.3)

At Stage A1, students communicate their ideas and experiences simply through drawings, copied writing, dictated texts and their own basic writing, showing evidence of a developing understanding about the writing process.  They contribute to shared writing activities. They demonstrate an early awareness that written texts in English are presented through conventions which change according to context and purpose. They write and draw for a particular audience, and, with support, produce simple descriptions, recounts, and procedures. Students’ writing reflects their oral structures, and they link ideas using basic conjunctions. They show awareness of the need for basic punctuation. They demonstrate knowledge of some sound–letter relationships, and show evidence of some basic planning. They model their writing on shared writing activities and published texts, often copying words or phrases from books or word lists. They form letters and place text appropriately on the page.

Indicators of progress

Indicators of progress in the Writing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on communicating in written English for social and academic purposes.

  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on producing written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and understanding the relationship between text and context, audience and purpose.

  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on the control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to produce written English.




Stage A1: Texts and responses to texts


At the end of Stage A1, students can routinely write the following kinds of texts and respond in the following ways to texts they have read or heard:

  • write a simple text that fulfils a function, e.g. simple description, recount, procedure

  • draw to illustrate a simple text, e.g. to relate an ongoing activity, to give additional information, to retell a simple story

  • contribute ideas, words or sentences to a class or group shared story

  • write well-known symbols, words, phrases or short texts, e.g. Today is Monday

  • complete simple repetitive modelled sentences, e.g. I like …; I went to …; Today is …

  • reread their own texts, or sentences scribed by another

  • choose a topic to write or draw about

  • write or complete simple sentences from own experience

  • write a caption or label for an illustration.

Stage A1: Cultural conventions of language use


At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of texts they write is shown when they:

  • show awareness that English writing consists of words formed by letters, and sentences made up of words, e.g. leave spaces between groups of letters or between words

  • use some conventions for printed English, e.g. left to right, top to bottom, copied letters are identifiable

  • respond to the terms writing and drawing appropriately

  • understand some terminology of writing, e.g. word, letter, sentence, space, full stop
  • expect words to have consistent spellings, e.g. copy words carefully, ask how to spell a word, or ask for a word to be written so they can copy it


  • show evidence of layout or planning in writing, e.g. place text appropriately on a page, leave space for a drawing

  • take particular care with handwriting, drawing, or choosing materials when writing for special purposes, e.g. ‘publishing’ a story, making a birthday card

  • use appropriate size, spacing and letter formation.


Stage A1: Linguistic structures and features


At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of the texts they write is shown when they:

  • write sentences or phrases that reflect their oral structures, e.g. go to school, go home, come from

  • dictate sentences or phrases that reflect their oral structures, e.g. go to school, go home, come from

  • label drawings of everyday personal activities using language learnt in the classroom, e.g. live here, play, study

  • write ‘run-on sentences’, e.g. at school we work and at school we play

  • dictate ‘run-on sentences’, e.g. at school we work and at school we play …

  • demonstrate awareness of some sound-letter relationships, e.g. represent words by initial letter, or several letters, such as 'bk' for book

  • write some words using correct spelling

  • spell with accuracy some CVC words (consonant-vowel-consonant) and common words learned in the classroom

  • consistently write the same letters and numbers the same way

  • understand the difference between upper and lower case letters

  • begin to include/experiment with some familiar punctuation, e.g. full stops, capital letters.

Stage A1: Maintaining and negotiating communication

At the end of Stage A1, students may use the following strategies to assist them to write texts:


  • use illustrations to provide more detail to a written text

  • use illustrations as a prompt for a scribe to write for them

  • use words copied from various sources, e.g. labels, signs, word lists

  • use invented spelling which draws heavily on phonetic strategies or based on own pronunciation

  • dictate sentences about a drawing or an experience for others to write

  • write the same very simple texts repeatedly

  • practise correct formation of letters

  • ask for a word to be written so it can be copied

  • copy words, phrases or sentences accurately

  • use basic keyboard skills to write personally significant words and simple modelled sentences, e.g. own name, ‘I went to the park'

  • begin to experiment and attach meaning to their writing.



Stage A2 – Speaking and listening

STAGE

Standards and progression profiles

A2 beginning

(A2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A2 communicate effectively in English, using simple sentences and learned formulae. They take part in everyday activities and routines, relying heavily on a supportive teacher or peer. They can use some appropriate terms when requested, relying on non-verbals to indicate level of politeness in other pragmatic events. They use comprehensible pronunciation, stress and intonation. They can join in well-rehearsed and well-known songs, by following peers and/or teacher.


A2 progressing towards

(A2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A2 can participate in routine exchanges like greetings and simple classroom routines without great difficulty. Discussions between teacher and learners at native speaker speed are still too difficult for them to participate in. They are able to generate own language beyond formulae and two word utterances. They will use approximations of structures as they test hypotheses.

A2 Standard

(A2.3)

At Stage A2, students communicate in an expanding range of predictable social and learning situations. They express ideas and identify key points of information in classroom discussions about familiar topics, and in new topics when they are well supported by visual material, appropriate pace of delivery, and discussion which links their prior knowledge to the new context. They follow a short sequence of instructions related to classroom procedures and learning activities.  They negotiate familiar social and learning situations, using English appropriate to the situation. They adjust their speech choices in response to audience and topic. They combine known conversational formulas and vocabulary, including features of texts read in class, and apply some grammatical rules to make original utterances, of varying grammatical accuracy. They sustain communication by negotiating turn-taking, and by using strategies such as asking a speaker to repeat or to speak slowly, or asking what a word means.

Indicators of progress

Indicators of progress in the Speaking and Listening dimension are organised into four aspects:


  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on producing and responding to oral English texts used for social interaction and in the school context across the curriculum.

  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding and using spoken English in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way spoken English is used and interpreted.

  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of spoken English.

  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies students at this stage typically use to speak in and learn English.


Stage A2: Texts and responses to texts


At the end of Stage A2, students can routinely use spoken English to do the following things:

Receptive

  • follow a classroom discussion about familiar topics or new topics that are well supported by visual material

  • follow a short sequence of instructions related to classroom procedures or learning activities, e.g. book borrowing procedures, rules for using the class computer, order information from a short spoken text using pictures

  • listen to a story then retell or sequence using pictures

  • identify key points of information from short spoken texts with reduced visual support, e.g. the day the excursion will take place

  • understand key information from viewing a range of media, e.g. computer programs, TV, DVDs

  • demonstrate active listening

Productive

  • talk about class topics in class discussions
  • negotiate simple transactions, e.g. at the school canteen


  • participate in short, structured social interactions, e.g. exchanging basic information about family, school

  • negotiate activities with peers in small group tasks, e.g. suggesting, agreeing, disagreeing, clarifying

  • speak in front of a group on a familiar topic, e.g. sharing, recounting personal experience

  • describe a series of events or actions

  • express ideas, humour, simple opinions and describe feelings, e.g. I am very happy

  • participate in discussions between teacher and learners, but still have some difficulty with discussions at native speed, or with idiomatic or figurative language.

Stage A2: Cultural conventions of language use


At the end of Stage A2, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of spoken texts is shown when they:

Receptive

  • identify a number of spoken text types and forms, e.g. stories, poems, plays

  • understand instructions or explanations, when supported by clear contexts in the classroom

  • understand that intonation, volume or stress affects spoken interaction, e.g. modify own pronunciation appropriately

Productive

  • adjust speech according to audience and purpose, e.g. giving a talk, speaking to a friend, adult etc, giving an apology 

  • negotiate familiar social and learning situations, using language appropriate to the situation, e.g. explaining a problem to a teacher, negotiating the rules of a game with a friend, participating in a class discussion, describing an object
  • initiate and manage interaction through conversational formulas, e.g. Oh no? Very lucky! ‘Oh sorry, I don’t know where is the book. I lost it’


  • use modality to express possibility or obligation, e.g. must, should, might.


Stage A2: Linguistic structures and features


At the end of Stage A2, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of spoken English is shown when they:

Receptive

  • understand common sequence markers in speech, e.g. first, next, then

  • understand phrases of place or location, e.g. over here, next to the chair

  • recognise questions or statements through word order and vocabulary as well as through intonation, e.g. Do you ...? Can anybody ...? Anybody can ...

  • understand some common phrases in both their full and contracted forms, e.g. I’m/I am, You’re/you are

Productive

  • combine known formulas, structures and other vocabulary to communicate, e.g. Yesterday I went to the swim

  • apply some grammatical rules, but may overgeneralise for irregular forms, e.g. formation of plurals (mouses); past tenses (swimmed, buyed)

  • use common prepositions, e.g. in, at, on, near

  • use appropriate verb and noun endings with some consistency, e.g. -ing, -ed, -s

  • use correctly some forms of the verbs to be, to have, e.g. Her name is Maria.

  • express simple negation correctly, e.g. don’t, can’t

  • regularly use appropriate pronouns, e.g. I/me/he/him/she/he/it

  • regularly use appropriate possessive pronouns, e.g. his, her, its, our, their, my

  • use sequence markers to link ideas. e.g. next, and then, after that

  • use how, when, where, why, who question forms.

Stage A2: Maintaining and negotiating communication

At the end of Stage A2, students may use the following strategies to maintain and negotiate spoken communication:

Receptive


  • ask a speaker to repeat or speak slowly, e.g. Say again, please

  • predict meaning from context, e.g. of an unknown word in a conversation

  • ask what a word means, e.g. I don’t understand. What’s ‘fete’?

  • ask for the translation of specific words from other first language speakers

Productive

  • initiate and maintain simple conversations, incorporating courtesy formulas, e.g. for turn taking, leave taking

  • repeat or modify a sentence or phrase, modelling rhythm, intonation and pronunciation on the speech of others

  • use communicative strategies, for example the use of intonation or gesture, to enhance meaning

  • use a repertoire of common classroom formulas, e.g. Just a minute, Give me hand, Be quiet, please, Can I have a brush, please?

  • use vocabulary learned from written texts in speech.

Stage A2 – Reading


STAGE

Standards and progression profiles

A2 beginning

(A2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A2 can follow and read short, simple texts along with the teacher and class in shared reading activities.  They recognize some words in English and make some attempts to read unknown words using initial sounds.  They are mostly reliant on illustrations and teacher support to establish meaning in a text and may not understand everything that they read.  While they continue to use early decoding skills, they are not yet able to predict from language context alone because of their developing English proficiency.


A2 progressing towards

(A2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A2 are beginning to rely less on teacher support when reading individually but still benefit from reading well known texts about familiar topics with support from the teacher. They recognize some common genres and their features.  They are able to identify key information in a text with some support from the teacher but comprehension of unfamiliar topics will be more limited.  They begin to recognize that information can be represented in visual forms. They are beginning to apply their developing reading skills with more confidence and independence. 

A2 Standard

(A2.3)

At Stage A2, students read and respond to a wide range of familiar texts. They predict, ask questions, retell and talk about texts read and viewed in class. With support, they read a range of topic-related classroom texts. They can read well known texts with some fluency. They read back their own writing or sentences scribed by another. They use texts purposefully, following simple procedural texts, and finding basic information in texts. They discuss simply the events in texts and characters’ feelings and actions. They identify the purposes of familiar texts, including catalogues, guides, simple stories and factual texts. They use their developing knowledge of context, letter-sound relationships, word patterns and text structure to read familiar texts and simple unfamiliar texts.  They interpret simple diagrams and identify the layout of a range of text types.


Indicators of progress

Indicators of progress in the Reading dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on reading and responding to written English texts used for social and academic purposes.

  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way written English is used and interpreted.

  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.

  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to read and respond to written English.


Stage A2: Texts and responses to texts


At the end of Stage A2, students can routinely read the following kinds of texts, and respond to them in the following ways:

  • read a range of topic related classroom texts with support

  • read well-known words or phrases in new contexts, e.g. Tuesday, Once upon a time

  • demonstrate understanding of new texts, and respond, e.g. read along with repetitive sections, predict

  • consistently read back own writing or sentences scribed by another

  • participate in simple group activities based on shared texts

  • ask questions, retell and talk about texts read and viewed in class, or give factual information from texts read and viewed in class, e.g. can tell who does what and why

  • recall factual information from texts read and viewed in class

  • retell main events in sequence with guidance and prompts from teacher
  • express opinions about the actions of key characters


  • understand main ideas and recognise characters in a well illustrated story read aloud

  • obtain information from simple diagrams or graphs

  • respond to texts through art, drama, movement and music

  • talk about features of a story or poem that have personal appeal, e.g. fantasy elements, favourite characters, interesting words/phrases

  • identify features of a range of text types, e.g. recount, report, procedure, narrative

  • read well known texts with some fluency, e.g. appropriate pauses and intonation

  • modify intonation when reading to differentiate questions, exclamations or dialogue.

Stage A2: Cultural conventions of language use


At the end of Stage A2, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of the texts they read is shown when they:

  • identify the basic purpose of a new text

  • identify texts as factual or fictional and make comparisons, e.g. using topic, content, layout, illustrations

  • identify stories, lists, poems or songs when reading or listening to text read aloud

  • use texts purposefully, e.g. follow simple procedural texts, find basic information in texts, locate specific information from a known text, use a simple contents page and index to locate information

  • relate something learned from a text to own experience, e.g. by commenting or by identifying with the characters in a story

  • choose books to read that are appropriate and of interest.


Stage A2: Linguistic structures and features


At the end of Stage A2, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of the texts they read is shown when they:

  • sequence a familiar text, e.g. narrative, recount, procedure, explanation


  • read frequently heard phrases fluently, e.g. ‘and then’, ‘and he said’

  • recognise familiar words in different contexts

  • sequence words or phrases in a familiar sentence

  • match a range of familiar spoken words with written words

  • recognise and name all letters of the alphabet

  • relate most letters of the alphabet to sounds

  • recognise some common syllables and patterns within words, e.g. in, on, ing

  • recognise some common prefixes and suffixes and how they change the meaning of words, e.g. un, -er

  • recognise rhyming words

  • recognise beginning, middle or final sounds in words

  • recognise the difference between upper and lower case letters

  • demonstrate that full stops and question marks break up text, e.g. pause appropriately when reading.


Stage A2: Maintaining and negotiating communication


At the end of Stage A2, students may use the following strategies to assist them to read and comprehend texts:

  • draw upon experiences and oral repertoire to anticipate words or phrases

  • choose books that are appropriate and interesting by looking at cover, illustrations or amount of text

  • re-read well-known books and texts

  • sub-vocalise when reading silently

  • use picture cues when reading, e.g. pictures in narratives or in information texts

  • use a range of cues when reading, i.e. meaning, visual, structure

  • use developing knowledge of the patterns of English to predict some words or phrases
  • use knowledge of letters and sounds to read a new word or locate key words


  • read, modelling rhythm, intonation and pronunciation on the example of other readers

  • find words in a dictionary or from class word lists.

Stage A2 – Writing

STAGE

Standards and progression profiles

A2 beginning

(A2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A2 are beginning to write their own very short, simple texts. They write with less need for teacher transcription as they develop an ability to use some basic conventions of writing in English. They write texts using sentence structures based on oral structures and very simple repetitive texts.  Their attempts at spelling draw heavily on phonetic strategies.

A2 progressing towards

(A2.2)

Students progressing towards A2 are becoming more aware of audience and purpose, but still require significant teacher support and modelling and environmental print.  They are beginning to write texts about familiar topics and experiences which include related ideas.  They can develop a simple plan for writing using pictures or drawings.  They use invented spelling and write some words spelt conventionally from a known spelling vocabulary.

A2 Standard

(A2.3)

At Stage A2, students communicate ideas, events and experiences through simple texts based on familiar spoken and written language. They write for a variety of personal and classroom purposes, using known and modelled structures and features. They write everyday texts and simple stories, recounts and factual texts based on their own and shared class experiences. They use their developing oral base and reading repertoire when writing their own texts. They write texts using simple but coherently linked sentences, basic structures and well-known vocabulary. They use some common irregular past tense verbs correctly, and link clauses using basic conjunctions and connectives. They attempt to spell new words, based on known spelling patterns and base words. They use vocabulary lists, modelled texts and familiar books to find how to write new words. They write letters legibly and make some changes to their texts when editing.


Indicators of progress

Indicators of progress in the Writing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on communicating in written English for social and academic purposes.

  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on producing written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and understanding the relationship between text and context, audience and purpose.

  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on the control over the structures and features of written English.

  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to produce written English.


Stage A2: Texts and responses to texts

At the end of Stage A2, students can routinely write the following kinds of texts and respond in the following ways to texts they have read or heard:


  • write simply for a variety of authentic purposes related to classroom topics, using known and modelled structures and features, e.g. a personal recount, simple description

  • initiate writing for own particular purposes, e.g. label drawings, make a birthday card, write a recount about a recent experience

  • write for a ‘real task’, e.g. make a list, write a letter, write a story at home

  • write beyond the immediate environment and beyond known language only if patterning and modelling has been provided by the teacher

  • use vocabulary, modelled writing or ideas from texts read or viewed in class in own writing or drawing.


Stage A2: Cultural conventions of language use


At the end of Stage A2, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of texts they write is shown when they:

  • use a variety of simple text structures, e.g. a title, an opening, ending, caption

  • write, using a text type appropriate to the purpose, e.g. a story, a list, a procedure, a report

  • describe the purpose of a text, e.g. to inform, to describe an event, to tell a story

  • demonstrate an understanding that written texts usually need to be planned, edited and presented

  • use a range of writing implements and writing styles for different purposes, e.g. work for display, first draft on a computer, making a poster

  • use size of writing, colour, layout and choice of media to help transmit messages, e.g. making a sign or a poster.

Stage A2: Linguistic structures and features

At the end of Stage A2, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of the texts they write is shown when they:


  • write, reflecting spoken English in vocabulary and structure

  • write sentences based on simple repetitive, modelled patterns, e.g. I went …

  • write simple sentences and begin to rely less on copying

  • use some common imperatives appropriately, e.g. draw, cut, stop, run, Mix the …, Cook the ...

  • use some common irregular past tense verbs correctly, e.g. went, saw

  • use a mixture of tenses within one text

  • link sentences using common conjunctions and connectives, e.g. but, after, when

  • use small range of reference items, e.g. definite article and pronouns, with some accuracy in short written texts, e.g. Once there was a monster. The monster was hungry.  It eats my lunch

  • spell high frequency words correctly appropriate to year level

  • attempt to spell unknown words

  • use some punctuation consistently, e.g. full stops, question marks, commas

  • demonstrate that a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop

  • use upper and lower case letters appropriately

  • write legibly.


Stage A2: Maintaining and negotiating communication


At the end of Stage A2, students may use the following strategies to assist them to write texts:

  • use pictures, drawings or graphic organisers to develop a simple plan for writing

  • use a simple framework to write a particular text type, e.g. a recipe, a report

  • begin simple editing and redrafting of their writing

  • read own writing aloud to check meaning

  • model writing on other texts, e.g. use words, phrases or sentence patterns from a teacher model or favourite story
  • write repetitive patterns to produce longer texts, e.g. I like ..., and I like ...


  • create and use a bank of known words appropriate to year level in own writing

  • ask how to write new words

  • attempt to spell new words, based on known spelling patterns and base words, e.g. walk, walked, walking

  • use sound or visual features of words to attempt own spelling, e.g. vae/very, ar/are, perpl/purple

  • use a range of resources to find words or phrases needed for own writing or to check spelling, e.g. simple dictionaries, vocabulary lists, modelled texts, familiar books and environmental print



Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Victoria – 2009





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