European Parliament Directorate-General for Research



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European Parliament

Directorate-General for Research

Working Paper



Cultural Policies in the EU Member States

Volume II: Outlook for the 21st Century

Education and Culture Series

EDUC 107 EN

This study was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Culture, Youth, Education, the Media and Sport.

This document is published in EN only.
Abridged Versions are available in ES, DE, EN (original), FR, IT

Editors: Andrea Rosenauer, INST (Research Institute for Austrian and International Literature and Cultural Studies, Vienna),

and Pernille Winther

The authors' names appear at the beginning of each contribution.

Responsible official: Pernille Winther
Division for Social and Legal Affairs
Tel.: (00352) 4300 22688
Fax: (00352) 4300 27720
E-mail: DG4-sociale@europarl.eu.int

Manuscript completed in December 2001.

Paper copies can be obtained through: Publications service

Tel.: (352) 4300-24053/20347

Fax: (352) 4300-27722

E-mail: dg4publications@ep.ec


Further information on DG4 publications can be accessed through: www.europarl.ep.ec/studies

Luxembourg, European Parliament, 2002

The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament.

Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorised, provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.


European Parliament

Directorate-General for Research

Working Paper



Cultural Policies in the EU Member States

Volume II: Outlook for the 21st Century

Education and Culture Series

EDUC 107 EN

05-2002

CONTENTS





Introduction 4

Being Neighbours
Diverse we may be, but the lesson of Europe's cultural history is that ours is a shared identity
(Gérard Mortier, Belgium) 5


Culture in Europe
(Jens Smærup Sørensen, Denmark) 10


Powerlessness and adaptation
On the material and social situation of the author today
(Norbert Niemann, Germany) 11


Public interest ranges from enormous in the case of Type 4, via moderate, to almost nil in the case of Type 1 14

European Culture in the 21st Century
(Vassilis Vassilikos, Greece) 15


Tales of the End of the Millennium
(Mihály Dés, Spain) 17


Mihály Dés 19

Culture in Europe in the 21st Century
(Rémi Gousseau, France) 20


A Note from Ireland
(Theo Dorgan, Ireland) 21

A Programme of culture for Europe. A Contribution

(Corrado Augias, Italy) 24

European Culture in the 21st Century
(Léon Krier, Luxembourg) 25


"Bottoms up"!
(Rob Moonen, The Netherlands) 31

Rob Moonen 33



Deracinating
(Sabine Scholl, Austria) 35


Cultural policy for the next century
(Nuno Júdice, Portugal) 36


Athens-Jerusalem-Helsinki
(Anja Snellman, Finland) 37

Anja Snellman 39



Europe is a difficult concept, although it may seem simple in reference books
(Lars Gustafsson, Sweden) 41

Lars Gustafsson 44



European Culture in the 21st Century
(Steve Bowden, United Kingdom) 46


Steve Bowden 47

OUTLOOK FOR the 21st century

Introduction

In January 2000, the Committee on Culture, Youth, Education, the Media and Sports of the European Parliament requested the Directorate General for Research (DG IV) to draft a study on cultural policies in the EU Member States as part of the Annual Research Programme. This study would facilitate a better understanding of the various EU Member States' cultural policies. To complement the picture it was also decided to invite one artist or cultural personality from each EU Member State to write an essay on her/his personal reflections on "European Culture in the 21st Century".

The report, therefore, consists of two volumes:



  1. Information on the cultural policies of the Member States of the European Union


and

  1. Reflections of artists from EU Member States on "European Culture in the 21st Century".

Abridged versions of the complete texts are provided in English, French, Italian and German in separate volumes.

Artists from such cultural fields, as literature, poetry, architecture, music, film, theatre and plastic arts contributed to the collection on "European Culture in the 21st Century". Texts were received between July 2000 and January 2001.

The essays reflect the artist's position in a rapidly changing economic and social environment in Europe, and develop ideas and proposals for cultural policies. Some authors regret that artistic production seems to be more and more affected by the market economy. The importance of artistic freedom and independence is underlined.

Several contributions emphasise the richness and diversity of European culture as an important basis for a European identity. In order to develop such diversity, it is proposed that the EU should support, to a greater extent, translations of European literature. It is suggested that access to financial support be made easier for intercultural artistic cooperation and projects.

While many authors see strong similarities in Europe's cultural panorama, they agree that diversity dominates. Unison of certain artistic styles in certain historical eras and multiple identities and cultures are the result of migration and intercultural dialogue. The strengthening of such a dialogue is important for any future cultural policy. The basis for such a dialogue should be for "minority", or marginal, and "stronger" cultures to be equally heard and respected.




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