Examining My Self from Home to Work Place: From a Leadership Perspective By Sharada Dhakal Poudel a thesis submitted to Tribhuvan University in partial fulfillment of requirement of Master of Philosophy in Education January, 2011

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Examining My Self from Home to Work Place: From a Leadership Perspective

By

Sharada Dhakal Poudel

A thesis submitted to Tribhuvan University in partial fulfillment of requirement of Master of Philosophy in Education

January, 2011

Table of Content

Table of Content II

Table 1: Nature of student centered school and successful leadership…………………………11 III

Figure 4: Situational leadership behavior……………………………………………………… 39 III

Abstract IV

Acknowledgements V

List of Acronyms / Abbreviations VI

CHAPTER I 1

Introduction 1

Research Questions 3

Need for Study 4

Theoretical Bases 9

Nature of student centered school and successful leadership 11

CHAPTER II 14

Reflecting the Literatures 14

Table 2 Vedas 15

Democratic leadership falls toward the right end of the continuum. Democratic leaders also involve members in decision making either by reaching consensus or by using parliamentary procedure. They pursue open, trusty, follower oriented relationships. In prior research, Stogdill (1974, cited in Vanlahriata 2009) finds stormy evidence in favor of followers- oriented leaders and the satisfaction of their followers as well as a positive relationship between follower –oriented leaders and productions. 27

M4 40

M3 40


M2 40

M1 40


Able &willing or confident 40

Able but unwilling or insecure 40

Unable but willing or confident 40

Unable and unwilling or insecure 40

Source :(Invancevich, Donnelly& Gibson. 2004 p.316 cited in Vanlalhriata, 2009) 40

According to given above figure tells: 40

Methodology 42

Journey of My Study 42

The Unit of Analysis 44

Co-researchers and Methods of Generating Information 45

Data Analysis and Interpretation System 46

Theoretical and Conceptual Map 47

Unveiling My Leadership Attributes 53

Me as Assertive Child 53

Me as Leader in Wilderness 55

Me as Determined Person 57

Moving Towards Teaching Profession 60

CHAPTER VI 73

Deconstructing the Field: the Findings, Discussion, and Implication 73

Deconstruction of My self and Leadership 73

Commonalities of My Leadership Attribute 76

Me as a Unique Leader 77

Me as a Situational Leader 78

Me as a Determined Leader 80

My Reflection over the Theories 81

Management Theories and Practice over the Field 83

Implication 86

Glossary 89

References 91

Table 1: Nature of student centered school and successful leadership…………………………11


Table 2: Vedas…………………………………………………………………………………...15

Table 3: Leadership Style and Traits …………………………………………………………...62



Figure 1. Leadership Style Continuum 26

Figure 2. Fielder’s Contingency Model 28

Figure 3. Leadership behavior quadrants 30

Figure 4: Situational leadership behavior……………………………………………………… 39


Appendix 1:Hindu Scripture: Veda 101

Appendix 2: Some open ended questionnaire towards the co researchers: 104

Appendix 3: Yoga and its practice 105

Appendix 4: Perception about me 106

Appendix 5: Dependent Co arising of Buddhism 112

Abstract

This study was done to examine self- leadership attributes and explore personal philosophical orientation. In order to find out the answers of these concerns, I applied self-reflective auto ethnographic qualitative research method. The open-ended questionnaires for ten co researchers and self- reflective diary were the major tools of this study. The data were triangulated, analyzed and interpreted on the basis of theories and literatures. Major theories were leadership theories: transformational and situational leadership theories, and two management theories: justice based management theory and human resource management theory and feminist theory. The literatures were based on eastern Hindu scriptures: Veda, Upanishad etc. As I found my ‘self’ was deeply attached to eastern Hindu philosophical orientations according to my research participants. They found me in different positions. For instance, some read me as a democratic leader and at the same time others found me as an autocratic leader. The next contradiction was that my family read me as "careless economist" while my school mates found me as an efficient economic manager.

From the gender perspective, I was accepted as the liberal feminist who advocated woman as the generator, controller, and the distributor of the knowledge. From the eyes of leadership perspective, I was a unique charismatic, a situational, a transformational and a determined leader. This study can be implied for career development, classroom situation, teacher management, and educational restructuring by encouraging teachers to be self-reflective, enabling them to put them in others' shoes, and asking them to listen to others again.

Acknowledgements

List of Acronyms / Abbreviations


CESJ Center for Economic and Social Justice
JBM Justice Based Management
EI Emotional Intelligence
MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
FP's Feeling Perceiving Preferences
TP's Thinking Perceiving Preferences
HR Human Resource
OCQ Originally Commitment Questionnaire
RBV Resource Based View
HRM Human Resource Management

SHRM Strategic Human Resource Management


HRT Human Relations Theory

ICCC Indo Canadian Chamber of Commerce


BoT Bank of Thailand
SLs Situational Leadership style
SSRF Spritual Science Research Foundation

CHAPTER I

Introduction

“The unexamined life is not worth living.” Plato

The above quotation inspired me to examine my ‘self’ from childhood to till now where I played different roles of leadership throughout my life. In this analogy, I recalled the noteworthy events of my life, starting at the age of three. I also reflected the questions like who I am. What is my identity? Where am I going? In addition, I analyzed how my actions can impact my family, my community, my nation and in a wider sense, the world will make an attempt to link these deep -rooted questions with the existing eastern and the western philosophies and theories, I also analyzed how my life experiences, knowledge and practices fit into these theories. In this process, I knew that philosophy is the collection of different questions about the way of life. Who am I? Where did I come from? Where am I going? What is the aim of my life? What is soul (self I)? What is materialism? What is Paramatma or Brahma (Cosmic I)? This means many questions were unveiled along with these physical questions.

As I knew, philosophy is also the collection of knowledge, experience and practices based on truth and reality Darshan(ND). Generally, it tries to search about the sadness and its causes and happiness and how we get it. It gives more focus on how to get relief from sadness and how to be able to obtain consciousness (Atma and Brahma). Philosophy is also one of the influencing factors of leadership (Ibid). It is with this knowledge I examined how my philosophical orientation do shaped my leadership style.

Leadership is an “Interpersonal influence directed through the communication process toward the attainment of some goal or goals” (Wechsler & Massark, 1961 cited in McEwan 2001 Page: 45, Knootz & Weihrich, 1986; Hytten, 1995; Robbins, Judge & Sanghi, 2008; Heresy & Blanchard, 2002). In my understanding, in order to be a leader, a person must believe in the capabilities of own and must be able to communicate this belief to others. S/he must be able to recognize the need of the situation based on the circumstances that come up. S/he must be able to create a trust relationship, explain his/her vision/goal, make a difference and empower others. In addition to s/he must be willing to plan, prioritize and recognize the time demanding character to be a leader. This means, “Nurture is for more important than in determining who becomes a successful leader…Learning to be a leader is somewhat like learning to be a parent or a lover; your childhood and adolescence provide you with basic values and role models” (Bennis & Nanus, 1985 cited in McEwan, 2001).

The leadership attributes are reported as genuine, perceptive, open-minded, enabling, kind, predictable, trustworthy, fair, mentoring, accessible, caring, honest, collaborative, friendly, visionary, consistent, dedicated, collegial, observant, supportive, compassionate, competent, and facilitation (Bennis & Nanus, 1985 cited in McEwan 2001). Among these attributes, some come from nature and others from nurture. I also found out which characteristics are natural and which nurtured leadership to me is. In this process, I reviewed the Great Man theory (Ibid), which says a leader is born and cannot be made. This theory believes that leaders are people who have inborn exceptional qualities and are destined to lead.. Here the use of term man is ambiguous. It is not clear whether ‘man’ refers to males or the entire humankind (consisting both males and females). Great leaders would arise only when there is an urgent need of it. It also suggests that leadership qualities are inherent. The latest leadership theories do not accept the Great man theory (Wechsler & Massark, 2001; Knootz, O'Donnell Weihrich, 1986; Kathy Hytten, 1995; Robbins S.P., Judge T.A. Sanghi S.L. 2008, Heresy & Blanchard, 2002,). With this changed understanding, I framed the following research questions for this study.



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