Examining My Self from Home to Work Place: From a Leadership Perspective By Sharada Dhakal Poudel a thesis submitted to Tribhuvan University in partial fulfillment of requirement of Master of Philosophy in Education January, 2011


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Appendix 1:Hindu Scripture: Veda

Later Veda was further expanded into four Samhitas or parts: Rig-Veda, Samaveda, Atharba Veda, and Ayurveda and four Upavedas like Arthaveda, Gandharbabeda, Ayurveda and Dhanurveda. Shiksha, Kalpa, Byakaran, Nirukta, Chhanda and Jyotish are called Vedangas that elaborated the self with additive information. There are 1133 sections in Vedas. Later on various sages prepared 'Shaddadarshan' based on Vedas they are: Mimansa, Vedanta, Nyaya, Baisheshik, Shankya and Yoga. There are 100000 Mantras in Vedas under these 80000 Mantras are related towards Karma and 20000 Mantras are related towards Gyana. Mimansas were prepared on the basis of Karma and Gyana"(Brihadaranyak Upanishad, 1/4/6 Pratham Balliko chautho adhyayako chhaitau Mantra).

Mimamsa is categorized into two ways: Purba Mimansa and Uttar Mimamsa. Purba Mimansa is based on Karma and Uttar Mimansa is based on Gyana. For the description of Vedas, Brahman Granthas were prepared as Upanishads. Therefore, there I found that eastern philosophy is divided into two concepts: Karma and Gyana (Brihadaranyak Upanishad 1/4/6 Pratham Balliko chauto adhyayako chhaitau Mantra) with their own interpretation of the self.

Many Rishies had given the contribution to formulate the Vedas. Major contribution goes towards Maharshi Ved Vyas (Badarayan) and Maharshi Jaimini. In this connection Swetaswetar Upanishad 6/18 tells, æof] a|xdf0f+ ljb2fltk"j{+ of] j} j]bfZr k|lx0ff]tt:d}” meaning during the time of creation, God created Bramha at first and gave all spiritual knowledge to him. æ;f]ssfdot e"o;f o1]g e"of] oh]o]lt ;f]s >fEoT; tkf]stKot t:o >fGt:o ;Kt:o ozf] jLo{debt qmfdt k|f0ff j} ozf] jLo{+ tTk|f0f]if"TqmfGt]j' z/L/MF >lot'dl3|ot t:o z/L/+ Pj dg cf;Ltæ(Brihadaranyak Upanishad 1/4/6 Pratham Balliko chauto adhyayako chhaitau Mantra). Then the Brahma did Yajnas and Tapa for creation of Prana Vayu. Then it was produced Bala and Yasha. Then Brahma created many Rishies along with other creatures like Badarayan, Jaimini, Gautam, Bharadwaj, Vishwamitra, Jamdagni, Kasyap, Bashishtha, and Atri and so on. These Rishies produced the Mantras of the Vedas (Rig-Veda, 9th Mandal, 107 Shukta and 10th Mandal 137 Shukta). The Rishies who did more Tapa (meditation) became able to see more Mantras. For example, Badarayan could make more Mantras especially for sages and spiritual people, which are now known as Uttarmimamsa.

Like Badaryan Maharshi Jaimini prepared Mantras especially meant for Sansarik (worldly people). This collection is known as “Purba Mimamsa”. This collection analyzes the Karma or TheYagyas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manusm%E1%B9%9Bti)"Manusmriti is the code of conduct to keep people in social order. It tells”dxfo1}Zr o1}Zr a|fD≈Lo+ lqmot] tg'Æ meaning that the body is made up of Yagyas. Yagyas are those activities, which are performed to get heaven (Sworga). They are categorized into five: Brahma Yajna, Deva Yajna, Pitri Yajna, Bali Baishyadev Yajna and Atithi Yajna. Brahma Yajna is performed in the morning and evening by Mantras (Sandhya). ‘Hawan’ performs Deva Yajna. Pitri Yajna is performed for dead ancestors. Giving food to animals does Bali Baisyadeva Yajna and Atithi Yajna is for worshipping to guest as god and goddesses. Mahayajnas are performed for bringing balance in the environment and for peace and harmony in the society like Ashwamedh Yajna. Such Yagyas and Mahayagyas are known Istapusta Karmas also (Nirukta Daiwatkhanda 4/8/9).

There are total 108 Upanishads according to the Muktika Upanishad. Of these, the following 12 are considered the principle Upanishads. They are: 1. Isa, 2. Kena, 3. Katha, 4.Taitiriya, 5. Aitareya, 6. Prashna, 7. Mundaka, 8.Mandukya, 9. Chandogya, 10. Svetasvatara, 11. Brihad-aranyaka, 12. Maha-Narayana. Another eight, called minor Upanishadas, are 1. Kaivalya, 2. Kaushitaki, 3.Atma, 4. Amritabindu, 5. Brahma, 6. Paramahamsa, 7. Sarva & 8. Aruni (Aruneyi). 

Appendix 2: Some open ended questionnaire towards the co researchers:

1. When did you know me?

2. How did you understand me?

3. Why did you know me? and

4. What are some of your observation and insights towards my the then leadership?

5. Do you remember any one important incident that happened in the way of my life?

I also used probing question when I was not sure why my research participants answered that way.

Appendix 3: Yoga and its practice

Usually questions found where we are curious about something, some social issues or human phenomenon. These can find around us, in our environment, community work place or even the society. This curiosity could then lead us to identify a famous of interest or problem that is important to us. My curiosity began with the three ways to self-actualization of the Hindus viz., Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga and three other ways called Shrawan, Manan and Nidhidhyasana. Shrawan refers to the action of listening Mantras from Guru and reciting them. Manan means the process of deeply thinking called Manthan or Vichar to the listen Mantras. Nidhidhysana refers the practice of meditation to be the situation of self-actualization where removed all the Chittabrittis. Yoga Darshan is the practical aspects of Sankhya Yoga. There are eight yogas viz yama (abstention), niyama (observance), aasan (posture), pranayam (regulation of the breath), pratyahar (withdrawal of sense), dhyana (fixed concentration), dharana (contemplation), and Samadhi (concentration).

Meditation and concentration are the major means of knowing. Contribution of Yoga is process of self-hypnotization. The main feature of yoga is that there is no dispute between the different Hindu cults. Yoga brings the truth and reality by empirical experience. The practice and experience of yoga makes free from chittabritties. When the chittabritties are increased, the degree of three gunas: satwa, raja and tama are increased.

Appendix 4: Perception about me

I derived the following perceptions from my co researchers which are tabulated as below:

Family’s perception

Teacher’s perception

Student’s perception

influencing power others easily, well known administrative power, best problem handling and solving capacity, commanding and polite voice, strict to follow the rules and regulations, good looking, outstanding and attractive personality, well known to treat the teachers and other personnel, never frightened with the problems, love to face the challenges, most positive mind so everyone can change the mind, smiling face and happy mood, never show the anger, well known to treat the anger, never shown the tension, fast and perfect performance, evergreen smart and energetic, well convincing power to the public, children and teachers; always want to up date the knowledge; well performance while the emergency case comes in front; well decision power and stand strongly on own decision to implement; performed the work on the basis of justice, truth and equality, lack of concentration towards the work, proudly, over ambitious, creative but restless, work without planning, not to be frightened with getting unsuccessful, not to have well performance on household works, not to have determination the goal of life, kindness, wise, service oriented, equal behaviors towards all people, having always energetic power, good behavior in the household works, scholarly, tactfulness, high leadership ability, do not believe on superstition, clear orator, obedient to the parents and elders, friendship ability, having intellectual thinking since the childhood, low capacity to estimate some thing, talk before thinking, influence to others very soon, no desire to be ruled by others, want to be freedom, having the feeling of the work is right to be done by me, sometimes more talkative, can not be seen the abilities where is necessary according to situation, more extrovert, attraction over western philosophy so that deprived from the self actualization, to be most positive or optimistic, to believe others immediately, to be soft, do not follow the decision strongly, to feel own works only good, to be friendly, to be more used by others, not to be anger, not to be weighty, to be more open, to be trusty, to treat everybody equally, to be most lovely, to be one-sided while working, not to be recognized individuals immediately, to look after equally towards everyone, not to be given proper time to own children, to do the work immediately to others, to involve every household works to the children, not to show own position towards other, to live happily during the time of misery, having many capacities never want to show to others, want to behave to whom who have the same characteristics towards me and do not care about others what others said, lack of concentration towards the work, proudly, over ambitious, creative but restless, work without planning, not to be frightened with getting unsuccessful, not to have well performance on household works, not to have determination the goal of life. He added that never looked the back and reviewed of the back events; followed the principle of learning by doing; lacking the power of prioritization of the work, couldn’t be given the proper attention and care towards children, husband and other family members at home; always wanted to go ahead on the own way and never listen the family’s suggestions, while earning money we have to think we never die, never been old and save the money properly but such quality cannot get towards me,


a democratic leader according to the dealings towards children, teachers and parents, simple, calm, helpful, dutiful, cannot work in the root level, devoted in service, city oriented, interested to remove to overcome to the superstition in the villages but cannot work in the root level, Knowledgeable, analytical, having future vision, honest, disciplined, self-confident, self-aware, having sense of dignity, independent, responsible, assertive, having strong negotiation, skills, high self-esteem, involved with public life, good mother, good wife, good manager, and always active, visionary, integrated, dedicated, magnaminated, having humility, open, creative, fair, assertive, leadership seems developed based on beliefs, values, preferences and culture, both autocratic and democratic leadership style as per need and situation, efficient in economic management, ability to create of well, warm and homey working environment inside the organization, the ability of a trained and efficient principal to motivate the teachers, don’t frightened to take the alone decisions, self-disciplined, energetic, punctual and most participative, adopting and implementing in the practice to the comments of parents, teachers and students immediately, great female leader who has been able to fight with the traditional society and to make separate own identity rather than husband’s identity, sometimes a strict boss who is keeping eye on everything, tactfulness, responsible for every duty, handling problems wisely, politeness in speaking, helpful behavior, self doing first and asking others to do, disciplined, honest, creative, supportive, participative, helpful, open-minded, competent, trustworthy, and perceptive, never misguides the class but always convince the class to keep quiet and attention to teacher, talent and had a capacity to lead the group, mass dealing capacity, high morale, confidences, good expression power, convincing power, very clear vision and strong determination, good understandings with friends or with company help to go ahead, honest, helpful, open-minded can share ideas and views with followers or friends then they can make common program, some times, she became disappointed when someone challenge, however, she never discouraged, being from moderate economic family, having broad economic approach, having the remarkable reputation in society, educated family background, well known importance of education, experienced happy life and measurable life Some of the colleagues were from poor family and she loved them, care them, protect and keep away from bad company. She did behave like parents and genuine gentle man. Very neat and clean, her dress as well as her books and notebooks attract teacher. In most of the event of extracurricular activities like quiz contest, debate she looks in leading role. As a mother is caring and guiding behavior to the teacher and children by showing right path of life, sometimes more liberal to the employees than a boss should be or is expected to be, given this liberty to employee causes the creation of pleasant and joyful environment, obtained good learning of imitable behaviors like tackling the several problems, Integrate work and people, having the capacity of setting the clear goals, communicating with a vision, setting a good example, expecting the best from the team, encouraging team supporting the team, recognizing good work and people, providing and stimulating work, helping people see beyond their self-interests and focus more on team interests and needs, Inspiring people all the time, managing conflict and difficulties.

hardworking and laborious woman, good school handling skill or capacity, keeping good relationship between parents students and teachers, tactfulness, wonderful and curious teaching learning styles, empowering, motivating capacity, never stay constant, never wait for anything; knowing the value of each second and moving with the time, not old fashioned or neither do carry old concept, knowing about the competition and competitors, always taking the school towards them dealing with new curriculums, necessity of the students in extra-curricular activities, making participation with different organizations by involving the students there, not only the teacher or principal inspired to student by given appropriate support, good counselor and guide, treat to the children analyzing by the individual efficiency, a leader having the principle of simple living and high thinking, caring capacity as parents, equal behavior to everyone no effect of kinship, dutiful that performing as a mother, as a teacher, as a homemaker and as a principal, good dealing capacity with others, pulling satisfaction from the activities, tactfulness, school handling skill or capacity, keeping good relationship between parents, students and teachers, hardworking and laborious woman, seems everything every times positively, however, it may not fulfill or hard to get but you never quit it, having guts to fight with every moment of struggle alone, more believe the people before understanding well, sometimes uncontrolling anger brings dissatisfaction, sometimes lacks of politeness in speaking shows dissatisfaction,

Appendix 5: Dependent Co arising of Buddhism

(1) ignorance, which leads to (2) faulty perceptions of reality, which provide the structure of (3) knowledge, which addresses (4) name and form, or the principle of individual identity and the sensory perception of an object, experienced through (5) the six domains (the five senses and their object, along with the mind), whose presence leads to (6) contact (between objects and the senses), followed by (7) sensation, which, being pleasant, leads to (8) thirst and then (9) grasping (as of sex partners), which leads to (10) the process of becoming, culminating in (11) birth, and at last (12) old age and death.

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