February 2011 Teacher's Guide Table of Contents



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Anticipation Guides

Anticipation guides help engage students by activating prior knowledge and stimulating student interest before reading. If class time permits, discuss students’ responses to each statement before reading each article. As they read, students should look for evidence supporting or refuting their initial responses.
Directions for all Anticipation Guides: Before reading, in the first column, write “A” or “D,” indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. As you read, compare your opinions with information from the article. In the space under each statement, cite information from the article that supports or refutes your original ideas.

Recycling to Survive
Directions: Before reading, in the first column, write “A” or “D” indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. As you read, compare your opinions with information from the article. In the space under each statement, cite information from the article that supports or refutes your original ideas.



Me

Text

Statement







  1. Plastics are synthetic polymers with different types of structures.





  1. Many plastics are made from petrochemicals such as oil or natural gas.








  1. Most plastics are easily biodegradable.







  1. The recycling code on plastics refers to thermoplastics, the easiest kind of plastic to recycle.







  1. All methods of plastic recycling require similar input of energy and equipment.







  1. Recycled plastic can never be used for food containers.







  1. Physical recycling involves shredding plastic into plastic flakes.







  1. Recycling provides income for poor people in developing countries.


Is this Water Recycled Sewage?
Directions: Before reading, in the first column, write “A” or “D” indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. As you read, compare your opinions with information from the article. In the space under each statement, cite information from the article that supports or refutes your original ideas.


Me

Text

Statement







  1. Wastewater treatment plants remove bacteria and viruses.







  1. The first stage of wastewater treatment is based on physical properties of waste material, including solubility and density of the waste material.







  1. Bacteria are detrimental in all stages of the wastewater treatment process.







  1. The denitrification process removes only nitrogen compounds from the wastewater.







  1. Salts can be removed from wastewater by reverse osmosis.







  1. Red pipes are used internationally to identify recycled water.







  1. Recycled water has been used to re-supply dried-up geysers.







  1. There are some drawbacks to using chlorine to disinfect water.







  1. We have been able to keep recycled wastewater out of all major bodies of water in the United States.


Drugs Down the Drain: The Drugs You Swallow, the Water You Drink
Directions: Before reading, in the first column, write “A” or “D” indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. As you read, compare your opinions with information from the article. In the space under each statement, cite information from the article that supports or refutes your original ideas.


Me

Text

Statement







  1. Pharmaceuticals have been found in U.S. drinking water at doses up to one-tenth of the therapeutic dose.







  1. There is no evidence that dissolved pharmaceuticals harm fish.






  1. Wastewater treatment plants effectively remove pharmaceuticals from water.








  1. Detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, and fire retardants are found in less than 50% of U. S. waterways.







  1. Chlorine can react with pharmaceuticals to form toxic compounds such as chloroform.







  1. Changing the pH level of water has no effect on the effectiveness of chlorine to remove some drugs.







  1. Activated charcoal filters and ozone remove many unwanted chemicals from drinking water.







  1. Ozone treatment continues to work even after water is treated with ozone.


Cleaning Up the Air
Directions: Before reading, in the first column, write “A” or “D” indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. As you read, compare your opinions with information from the article. In the space under each statement, cite information from the article that supports or refutes your original ideas.


Me

Text


Statement







  1. The temperature of Earth’s atmosphere has increased for the past 40 years.







  1. Plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere during the day and release CO2 at night.







  1. Photosynthesis adds CO2 to the atmosphere and respiration removes CO2 from the atmosphere.







  1. Human activities are not responsible for the increased atmospheric levels of CO2.







  1. Water vapor and methane are greenhouse gases.







  1. The greenhouse effect is harmful to life on Earth.







  1. Carbon dioxide could be stored underground or in rocks with no additional energy costs.

Kilimanjaro: Peering through Disappearing Ice

Directions: Before reading, in the first column, write “A” or “D” indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. As you read, compare your opinions with information from the article. In the space under each statement, cite information from the article that supports or refutes your original ideas.


Me

Text

Statement







  1. Ice samples contain dust and bubbles of air that can provide information about past climate changes.







  1. All tropical glaciers are shrinking.







  1. The amount of methane and carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere is lower today than it was 25 000 years ago.







  1. Scientists who study ice cores work in room temperature rooms with their hands in freezers containing the ice cores.







  1. Water evaporates at the same rate from sea water, regardless of the isotope of oxygen in the water.







  1. Sublimation can cause ice to disappear.







  1. Water from Kilimanjaro is used for drinking and irrigation.


Reading Strategies
These matrices and organizers are provided to help students locate and analyze information from the articles. Student understanding will be enhanced when they explore and evaluate the information themselves, with input from the teacher if students are struggling. Encourage students to use their own words and avoid copying entire sentences from the articles. The use of bullets helps them do this. If you use these reading strategies to evaluate student performance, you may want to develop a grading rubric such as the one below.


Description__Evidence'>Score

Description

Evidence

4

Excellent

Complete; details provided; demonstrates deep understanding.

3

Good

Complete; few details provided; demonstrates some understanding.

2

Fair

Incomplete; few details provided; some misconceptions evident.

1


Poor

Very incomplete; no details provided; many misconceptions evident.

0

Not acceptable

So incomplete that no judgment can be made about student understanding


Recycling to Survive
Directions: As you read, please complete the charts below comparing the different types of plastic and how they are recycled.





Thermoplastic

Thermosetting

Percent produced







Examples







How they are recycled






In the table below, compare the different methods of recycling plastic



Method


Process description

Advantages

Physical Recycling







Chemical Recycling







Thermal Recycling








Is this Water Recycled Sewage?
Directions: As you read, please complete the chart below describing the steps for recycling wastewater.


Step & Name

Description

Chemical Explanation

1.







2.







3.







4.







Drugs Down the Drain: The Drugs You Swallow, the Water You Drink

Directions: As you read, please complete the chart below describing why we should be concerned about drugs in our water, how drugs get into our water, and possible solutions to the problem of drugs in our water. Use bullets for each new idea.


Questions

Provide at least two answers for each question.

Use bullets or numbers.

Why should we care about drugs in our water?




How do drugs get into our water?




How can we remove drugs from our water?




How can we prevent drugs from getting into our water in the first place?





Cleaning Up the Air
Directions: As you read, please complete the chart below describing the role of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere.





Description

Advantages and Disadvantages

Recycling carbon in nature







The greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide







Removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere








Kilimanjaro: Peering through Disappearing Ice
Directions: As you read, please complete the chart below describing how ice samples help us understand climate change. Use bullets for each new idea.


Ice core sample location

Challenges of obtaining samples

Climate change claims

Evidence for claims

Greenland and Antarctica










Mount Kilimanjaro










Recycling to Survive


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