Nigeria is endowed with enormous biodiversity that includes the freshwater swamp forest, mangrove forest and coastal vegetation, lowland forest, derived savannah, guinea savannah, Sudan/Sahel savannah, and montane ecosystems. Each of these ecosystems has its diverse species of fauna and flora with diverse genetic endowments.
Biodiversity plays vital and diverse roles in our economy, ecology and social lives. We use it as food, fibre, domestic and commercial products, medicine, and for aesthetics and culture, agriculture, knowledge, and industrial processes. We will therefore ensure that it is studied, valorized, conserved and developed in a way that it will bring sustainable benefits to all Nigerians.
However, there are serious environmental challenges that have led to the loss of biodiversity and threatened our existence. Their drivers include all forms of habitat change, over-exploitation, pollution, invasive alien species and climate change. To reverse this situation, we collaborated with the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to revise our National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and will implement it.
This revised NBSAP will guide the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity, access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their utilization. It is an important document that provides information on biodiversity and their threats and analyzes institutional and legal frameworks that govern biodiversity issues in our country.
It is my hope that this NBSAP will inspire and guide all stakeholders to play their parts towards conservation, and sustainable utilization of biodiversity and the sustainable development of our country.
Amina J. Mohammed (Mrs)
Honourable Minister of Environment
The preparation and revision of the NBSAPs were done in compliance with Article 6 of the CBD and COP Decision X/2 respectively. The revision process of the NBSAP started with the nomination of the National Project Coordinator and the identification of the NBSAP Revision Team. This was followed by identifying relevant experts and credible consultants who could play a role in the process. Relevant Stakeholders in biodiversity issues were also identified. A work plan was prepared and followed but was reviewed from time to time. Capacity of the members of the NBSAP Revision Team was built through trainings received at inside and outside the country. The Revision Team reviewed draft reports prepared by Consultants. They also organized validation workshops for draft reports. The draft revised National Biodiversity Strategy (NBSAP) was developed through synthesis of the various validated reports of NBSAP components and adopted both by stakeholders and Government. Consequently, Nigeria has adopted 14 SMART National Targets with 21 Impact Indicators and 67 Actions with 123 Performance Indicators and 20 Programmes.
Our revised NBSAP document for 2016–2020 has six chapters: the Introduction;Status of Biodiversity; Strategy: Principles, Priorities and Targets; Action Plan; Implementation plan; and Institutional, Monitoring and Reporting. In summary, the revised NBSAP outlines the situation of our biodiversity, the actions we have adopted at home in line with global requirements and our determination to address the threats to biodiversity through the implementation of the NBSAP for the sustainable benefit of our people.
Salisu M. Dahiru
Director of Forestry
The Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) of Nigeria remains extremely grateful to all the international organizations and their members of staff that contributed in one way or the other to the successful completion of the revision process of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). It is particularly grateful to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) for building the capacity of the project team and providing guidance; to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) for driving the process and providing technical support; to the UNEP-World Conservation and Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) for its technical support; and to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for its financial support. The contributions of George Saddimbah, Anthony Kamau, Jane Nimpamya, Philip Bubb, Abisha Mapendembe, Sarah Walker, Sarah Ivory and John Tayleur are very notable and highly appreciated. The Ministry is grateful to the World Bank and ECOWAS Commission for their encouragement.
At the national level, the Ministry commends the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Natures Copex Nigeria Limited, Bioresources Development and Conservation Programme (BDCP), Quavant Project Limited and PHR Management Consult for providing consultations at various stages of the revised NBSAP. The Ministry will also like to appreciate the efforts of the Multi-stakeholders including the various relevant Federal Ministries, Departments and Agencies; Non-Governmental Organizations; Civil Society Organizations; relevant State Ministries; the Media; and the Press and the Expert Review Team who have been part of the NBSAP revision process for their dedication.
The Ministry commends Professors Maurice Iwu, Elijah Sokomba and Patricia Ori Donli; and Mr Alade Adeleke for their invaluable contributions and patriotism.
Finally, the Ministry is greatly indebted to its past and present High level management including the Honourable Minister of Environment, Amina J. Mohammed (Mrs), Honourable Minister of State for Environment, Alh. Ibrahim Usman Jibril and the Permanent Secretary, Dr Bukar Hassan for their support and encouragement; to the Directors of Forestry: Mr. Peter M. Papka, Mr. Simon Oye Adedoyin, Mr Philip O. Bankole and Mr Salisu M. Dahiru, for their guidance; and to all other relevant Ministry staff members for their immeasurable contributions.
John E. Onyekuru, PhD
NBSAP National Project Coordinator
Nigeria houses a cornucopia of both plants and animal species which makes it very rich in biodiversity. The considerable levels of endemism and species richness in the country are due to a complex topography, favourable climate and wide range of habitats. These include but are not limited to coastal creeks of the Niger Delta, the rainforests of the Cross River basin and the mountains along the Cameroun border. The Atlantic Ocean forms the southern border part of Nigeria, and with its highly diverse marine and freshwater ecosystems. There exists an inland layout of an array of other forest ecosystems including the Sahel Savannah in the extreme North, Sudan Savannah, Guinea Savannah and Derived Savannah woodland.
Species statistics showed that Nigeria has an endemic flora of 91 species belonging to 44 families with Rubiaceae accounting for the highest numbers. A list of faunal species was also outlined. According to the IUCN Red list 2013, Nigeria has a total of 309 threatened species in the following taxonomic categories: Mammals (26), Birds (19), Reptiles (8), Amphibians (13), Fishes (60), Molluscs (1), other Invertebrates (14) and Plants (168) (Sedghi, 2013). The categories of biodiversity related sites in Nigeria include: 7 National Parks of Old Oyo, Cross River, Gashaka-Gumti, Okomu, Chad Basin, Kainji Lake, and Kamuku; 27 Important Bird Areas including all National Parks and 60% the Ramsar sites; 11 Ramsar Sites; 2 World Heritage Sites of Sukur Kingdom and Osun Osogbo Grove; 994 Forest Reserves; 32 Game Reserves; 1 Biosphere Reserve; and many Sacred groves at varied level of protection.
This document gave information on the status of biodiversity and its contribution to varied sectors of Nigerian economy including tourism, agriculture, water resources, health, commerce and industrial development. It showed how biodiversity impacts on the lives and livelihoods of the people as well. The value of biodiversity to Nigerians and the linkages it has on various sectors of the Nigerian economy was vividly shown. The threats to biodiversity, causes and consequences of biodiversity loss in Nigeria were also identified and analysed. It outlined the Policy, Legal, and Institutional Frameworks on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity as an integral part of the national policy on environment. There was an elaboration of Stakeholders on Biodiversity management.
This revised NBSAP was developed within the framework of stakeholder’s participatory approach involving series of plenary of multi-stakeholders workshop and peer reviews with over 500 stakeholders ranging from international and national experts to officials of sub national entities and managers of natural resources at the grass root. The consultative process included a detailed review of Nigeria’s first NBSAP (2001-2010) which provided valuable lessons and guidance for the formulation of this second NBSAP (2016 – 2020).
Some of the key lessons learned from the first NBSAP include the lack of management structures for implementation of the NBSAP and the low level of awareness creation at Federal, State and Local governments during its preparation. Institutional linkages were not properly addressed in the implementation plan of action. Targets and Actions were not set to address identified major challenges although challenges were identified. Strategies for mainstreaming biodiversity into different sectors were weakly analysed in the first NBSAP. These shortcomings of the previous NBSAP form the bases of the lessons learned and the planning process of the current NBSAP has addressed them as critical in the implementation of the revised NBSAP.
Nigeria’s Long Term Vision for biodiversity management is: ‘A Nigeria with healthy living environment where people live in harmony with nature and sustain the gains and benefits of biodiversity, integrating biodiversity into National programme aimed at reducing poverty and developing a secure future in line with the principle of ecological sustainability and social equity.’ The major focus of this vision is the consideration of genetic materials as a strategic but fragile resource to be conserved, sustainably utilized and perhaps more importantly to be deployed as natural capital for socio -economic development of Nigeria.
Seven principles governing the national biodiversity Strategy were outlined. These are linked to Nigeria’s commitment to the CBD that is a genuine appreciation of biodiversity in national development and socio-economic welfare of the Nigerian people. They include specific principles that support global best practices in biodiversity management and in general, the environment and natural resources.
Nigeria considers the five goals of the Global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 very appropriate and applicable to its situation and adopted them to form the basis of the current NBSAP. It has also adopted 14 SMART National Targets with 21 Impact Indicators and 67 Actions with 123 Performance Indicators and 20 Programmes. Consequently, Nigeria’s current NBSAP is closely aligned to both the CBD Strategic Plan for biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi biodiversity Targets and Nigeria’s unique Priorities and features.
The National Targets and related Global Strategic Goals of the NBSAP are as follows:
Target 1: By 2020, 30% of Nigeria’s population is aware of the importance of biodiversity to the ecology and economy of the country.
Target 2: By 2020, a comprehensive programme for the valuation of biodiversity is developed and implemented, and payments for ecosystem services (PES) and goods are mainstreamed into the national budget
Target 3: By 2020, adoption of a national ecosystem-based spatial planning process and plans, promoting the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services to sustain development
Target 4: By 2020, up to 15% of the areas of degraded ecosystems in Nigeria are under programmes for restoration and sustainable management
Target 5: By 2020, six (6) management plans are implemented for habitats of endemic and threatened plants and animals, including sites for migratory species
Target 6: By 2020, at least 10% of Nigeria’s national territory is sustainably managed in conservation areas at varied levels of authority, with representation of all ecosystem types
Target 7: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants, domesticated animals and their threatened wild relatives, including culturally valuable species, are documented, maintained and valorised in two key institutions in Nigeria
Target 8: By 2020, at least 60% of identified pollution sources, including those from extractive industries and agricultural inputs, are brought under control and guidelines are put in place to mitigate their effects on ecosystems
Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized and priority species controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways in the six ecological zones
Target 10: By 2015, the Nigerian NBSAP has been fully revised and adopted by government as a policy instrument, and its implementation commenced in a participatory manner
Target 11: By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the fair and equitable sharing of Benefits Arising from their utilization is acceded to and its implementation through a national regime on ABS commenced
Target 12: By 2020, community participation in project design and management of key ecosystems is enhanced in one (1) each of the six (6) ecological zones
Target 13: By 2020, national-based funding for biodiversity is increased by 25%, with effective international partnership support
Target 14: By 2020, the capacity of key actors is built and gender mainstreaming carried out for the achievement of Nigeria’s biodiversity targets
Supporting systems or components were developed in the revised NBSAP as implementation plans to ensure the development of necessary capacities and inclusive societal engagement in the development, updating and implementation of the country’s NBSAP. The plans developed include: plan for capacity development and technical capacity needs assessment; communication and outreach strategy including the development of the National Clearing House Mechanism CHM, www.chm-cbd.com.ng that has some translations in the three main Nigerian languages (Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba); and a plan for resource mobilization.
The responsibility for implementing the NBSAP is held by relevant multi-stakeholder institutions identified in the NBSAP document which constitute the Biodiversity Steering Committee (BSC). The Ministry of Environment, through the Department of Forestry which houses the key biodiversity National Focal Points, will be responsible for the direct monitoring of the implementation of this NBSAP.
The Biodiversity Steering Committee will oversee the process of NBSAP implementation and report to the Federal Executive Council (Council of Ministers) and the House Committee on Environment (Parliamentary Committee). The Committee will keep the implementation of the NBSAP under review based on regular reports from the National Biodiversity Monitoring, Evaluation and Coordinating Unit (NBMECU). It will ensure that the activities included in the Action Plan for the implementation of the Strategy are included in the activity plans of the institutions involved in implementing the Strategy.
Monitoring and evaluation will be conducted periodically to enable the tracking of progress during the implementation of the revised NBSAP. Consequently, a monitoring plan was developed in the plenary of multi-stakeholders workshop which has a matrix that is applicable to both the impact indicators and performance indicators. The Monitoring Matrix consists of the: Targets or Action; Impact Indicators or Performance Indicators; Responsibility for activity indicator; Data for indicator (Baseline and Target/Action Data); Data Gathering Methods; Means of Verification, and Collection Frequency for the data. This is to ensure that the national Targets and Actions contribute to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity targets and ultimately, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.
Table of Contents
Acronyms and Abbreviations
List of Figures
List of Tables
1.0. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Physico-Geographic and Climate Features 2
1.2. Administrative Tiers of Government and Population 3
1.3. Economy 5
CHAPTER TWO 2.0. STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY IN NIGERIA 6
2.1. Values of Biodiversity and Ecosystem in Nigeria and their
Contribution to Human Well-being 10
2.1.1 Value of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) 10
2.1.2. Biodiversity and Ecotourism 11
2.1.3. Wetlands and Marine Biodiversity 11
2.1.4. Cultural and Aesthetic Values of Biodiversity 12
2.2. Causes and Consequences of Biodiversity Loss 12
2.2.1. High Population Growth Rate 13
2.2.2. Poverty 13
2.2.3. Policy and Legislation Constraints 13
2.2.4. Poor Land Use Planning 14
2.2.5. Governance and Transparency 15
2.2.6. Socio-cultural Characteristics, Food and Trade Connections 15
2.2.7. Effect of Climate Change 16
2.2.8. Unsustainable Agricultural Practices 16
2.2.9. Unsustainable Harvesting of Bioresources 17
2.2.10. Extractive Industries and their Activities 18
2.2.11. Uncontrolled, Illegal and Harmful Mining Practices 19
2.2.12. Pollution 19
2.2.13. Gas Flaring 20
2.2.14. Invasive Species 20
2.2.15. Overgrazing 22
2.3. Constitutional, Legal and Institutional Framework 23
2.3.1. Policy Frame Work 23
2.3.2. Legal Framework 24
2.3.3. Institutional Framework 24
126.96.36.199. Institutions and their Responsibilities 25
2.4. Lessons Learned from the Earlier NBSAP and the Process of
Revising the Earlier NBSAP 30
3.0. STRATEGY PRINCIPLES, PRIORITIES AND TARGETS 33
3.1. Long Term Vision 33
3.2. Principles Governing the Strategy 34
3.3. Main Goals or Priority Areas 35
3.4. National Targets 36
4.0. NATIONAL ACTIONS TO ACHIEVE THE STRATEGY 39
4.1. Application of the NBSAP to Sub-National Entities 39
4.1.1. Relationship between NBSAP and Sub-National Entities 39
4.2. Sectoral Actions: Mainstreaming Biodiversity into National Development,
Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Plans 53
5.0. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 54
5.1. Plan for Capacity Development and Technology Needs Assessment
for NBSAP Implementation 55
5.1.1. Capacity Development Plan 57
5.1.2. Technology Needs Assessment and Plan for Increasing Technical Capacity 59
5.1.3. Identification and Evaluation of Current Technology Status 59
5.2. Communication and Outreach Strategy for the NBSAP 60
5.2.1. Required Communication Actions 61
5.2.2. Strategic Approach 63
5.2.3. Roles and Responsibilities 63
5.3. Plan for Resource Mobilization for the NBSAP Implementation 64
5.3.1. Finance Actors 64
5.3.2. Financing Mechanisms 64
5.3.3. Innovative Funding for the NBSAP 65
6.0. INSTITUTIONAL MONITORING AND REPORTING 67
6.1. National Coordinating Structures 67
6.1.1. Considerations for Establishment of NBSAP National Coordinating Structure 68
6.1.2. Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Structures 69
6.2. Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) 73
6.2.1. Website Design Process 74
6.2.2. Essence of the Clearing House Mechanism 74
6.2.3. Main Page Type Designs 75
6.3. Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Plan 78
6.3.1. Monitoring and Evaluation 78
6.3.2. Reporting Plan 78
6.3.3. Monitoring Plan 80
6.3.4. Evaluation Plan 119
6.3.5. Major NBSAP Challenges 120
List of Members of the Multi-Stakeholders Committee
List of Consultants and their profiles
The Peer Review Team
The NBSAP Revision Team
List of participants involved in the process of the revision of the NBSAP
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1.1: Ecological Zones of Nigeria 3
Fig. 1.2: Map of Nigeria 4
Fig 2.1: Map of Nigeria showing vegetation zones and some important
sites for Biodiversity 9
Fig. 2.2: Clearing Typha on Nguru channel 21
Fig. 2.3: Number of grazing livestock in Nigeria between 1981 and 2008 22
Fig. 6.1: Website Design Process 74
Fig. 6.2: Early prototype Home Page 75
Fig. 6.3: Close-Out Document Checklist 76
Fig. 6.4: NBSAP Reporting Structure 79
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Nigeria’s Geopolitical Zones 4
Table 2.1: List of Endemic Vertebrate species in Nigeria 6
Table 2.2: Categories of Biodiversity sites in Nigeria 8
Table 2.3: Stakeholders (Policy and Government Institutions) on Biodiversity in Nigeria 28
Table 3.1: National Targets and Related Global Strategic Goals 36
Table 4.1: Strategy and Action Plan for Nigeria’s Revised NBSAP 40
Table 5.1: Capacity Assessment Framework 56
Table 5.2: Capacity Development Activities and Actions 57
Table 5.3: List of Identified Technologies 59
Table 5.4: Technology Needs and Required Actions 60
Table 5.5: NBSAP Stakeholders and Required Communication Actions 61
Table 5.6: NBSAP Implementation Team Roles and Responsibilities 63
Table 5.7: Checklist of Sample Financial Mechanisms for NBSAP 64
Table 6.1: NBSAP Stakeholders and Responsibilities 69
NASPA-CCN National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action for Climate Change in Nigeria
NBC Nigerian Broadcasting Commission
NBSAP National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
NBMA National Biosafety Management Agency
NBMECU National Biodiversity Monitoring and Evaluation Coordination Unit
NBWG National Biodiversity Working Group
NCC Nigerian Communication Commission
NCF Nigerian Conservation Foundation
NCGRAB National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
NESREA National Environmental Standards Regulation and Enforcement Agency
NEST Nigerian Environment Study/Action Team
NFP National Focal Point
NGOs Non-governmental Organizations
NIFFR Nigerian Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research
NIMASA Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency
NIOMR Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research
NIPRD National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development
NNPC Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation
NOA National Orientation Agency
NOSDRA National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency
NPC National Planning Commission
NPS National Parks Service
NTFPs Non Timber Forest Products
NUC National University Commission
OSGF Office of Surveyor General of the Federation
PC&EH Pollution Control and Environmental Health
PQD Plant Quarantine Department
SBSTTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
SPDC Shell Petroleum Development Company
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
WCS Wildlife Conservation Society
Nigeria and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Nigeria became a Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994 and thus committed itself to the convention’s three objectives: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are required in Article 6 to prepare and implement a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). According to the third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3) assessment, the pre- 2010 NBSAPs were, among other things, poorly implemented which resulted in continuing poor management and loss of biodiversity. Consequently, at the 2010 or tenth Conference of the Parties (COP-10) held at Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, more than 190 countries of the world reached an historic global agreement to take urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity and adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 with 5 goals and 20 Targets.
At that historic occasion, Nations affirmed their commitment to ensure that they achieved the adopted global agreement for biodiversity conservation. Parties were urged to revise/update their pre-2010 NBSAPs using this Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets as an overarching, flexible framework in accordance with national circumstances, priorities and capacities. The Strategic Plan is a ten-year framework for action by Parties to the CBD and stakeholders to save biodiversity and enhance its benefits for people. The plan recognizes the importance of biodiversity for sustaining a healthy planet and for delivering essential benefits to people.
The NBSAP is a national instrument for identifying, documenting and addressing the threats to biodiversity in order to prevent its loss. Its objectives are: to address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across governments, societies and economic sectors; to reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use; to improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity; to enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services; and to enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building.
Nigeria has an NBSAP, which was launched in 2006 but unfortunately, was not adequately implemented. This pre-2010 NBSAP is now revised in compliance with COP decision X/2 and the guidance adopted in decision IX/9. By this, Nigeria reaffirms its commitment to ensuring that it delivers on these obligations through positive action at home which will promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihoods.
This revised NBSAP will guide our efforts in the conservation and sustainable use of our rich biodiversity over the decade, including setting our target to halt its overall loss by 2020. In the longer term, our ambition is to move progressively from near biodiversity loss to sustainable use of biodiversity.
1.1. Physico-Geographic and Climate Features
Nigeria is situated in the West African region and lies between longitudes 30E and 150E and latitudes 40N and 140N. It has a land mass of 923,768 sq.km. It is bordered to the north by the Republics of Niger and Chad. It shares borders to the west with the Republic of Benin, while the Republic of Cameroun shares the eastern borders right down to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the southern limits of Nigerian Territory. The about 853km of coastline confers on the country the potentials of a maritime power. Land is in abundance in Nigeria for agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.
At her widest, Nigeria measures about 1,200 km from east to west and about 1,050 km from north to south. The country’s topography ranges from lowlands along the coast and in the lower Niger Valley to high plateaus in the north and mountains along the eastern border. Much of the country is laced with productive rivers. Nigeria’s ecology varies from tropical forest in the south to dry savannah in the far north, yielding a diverse mix of plants and animals.
The broad and mostly level troughs of the Niger and Benue rivers form Nigeria’s prominent physical features. The river Niger enters the country from the northwest, the river Benue from the northeast; the two rivers form a confluence in Lokoja in the North Central region and continue south, where they empty into the Atlantic at the Niger Delta. North of the Niger Valley are the high plains of the Country, an area of relatively level topography averaging about 800 m above sea level, with isolated granite out-cropping. The Jos Plateau, located close to Nigeria’s geographic centre, rises steeply above the surrounding plains to an average elevation of about 1,300 m.
Temperature across the country is relatively high with a very narrow variation in seasonal and diurnal ranges (22 - 360C). There are two basic seasons: wet season which lasts from April to October; and the dry season which lasts from November till March. The dry season commences with Harmattan, a dry chilly spell that lasts till February and is associated with lower temperatures, a dusty and hazy atmosphere brought about by the North-Easterly winds blowing from the Arabian Peninsula across the Sahara; the second half of the dry season, February – March, is the hottest period of the year when temperatures range from 33-400C.
The extremes of the wet season are felt on the south-eastern coast where annual rainfall might reach a height of 330cm; while the extremes of the dry season, in aridity and high temperatures, are felt in the north third of the country.
In line with the rainfall distribution, a wetter south and a drier northern half, there are two broad vegetation types: Forests and Savannah. There are three variants of each, running as near parallel bands east to west across the country. These include Sahel Savannah in the extreme North, Sudan Savannah, Guinea Savannah, Derived Savannah, Tropical evergreen rainforest, Fresh water swamp and Saline water swamp. There is also the unique vegetation of the Jos plateau, as well as the montane vegetation of the isolated highlands of Mambilla and Obudu.
The savannah, especially Guinea and Sudan, are the major grains, grasses, tubers, vegetable and cotton growing regions. Fig 1.1 shows the Ecological zones in Nigeria. The Tropical evergreen rain forest belt bears timber production and forest development, production of cassava; and plantation growing of fruit trees – citrus, oil palm, cocoa, and rubber, among others.
Fig. 1.1: Ecological Zones of Nigeria
1.2. Administrative Tiers of Government and Population
Nigeria operates a federal system of government. There is a central government with its headquarters in Abuja. There are 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), as shown in Fig. 2, with 774 Local Government Areas that constitute the third tier of government.
Fig. 1.2: Map of Nigeria
It is now common for reasons of coordination and for representation in national affairs to group the 36 states into six geopolitical zones as follows (indicated in Table 1.1):
Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross-River, Delta, Edo, Rivers
The Federal Capital Territory (FCT)
The current constitution was adopted in 1999 and amended in 2014. The executive arm is headed by a President, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms. The Federal Executive Council, an appointed body, functions as a cabinet within the executive arm. The legislature is bicameral consisting of the Senate elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms, and a House of Representatives, also elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms.
The judiciary constitutes the third arm of government and is made up of the Supreme Court and the Federal Courts of Appeal with judges appointed by the federal government on the advice of an Advisory Judicial Committee.
A Governor who appoints Commissioners to oversee various state ministries heads the state. It is noteworthy that state ministry structure varies between states and does not necessarily follow the federal model. Local government administrations (LGA’s) function as the main supporting bodies for activities within each state and are administered by elected Chairperson.
The population of Nigeria is estimated at 183, 523, 434 people as at July 2015, which is equivalent to 2.51% of the total world population and makes Nigeria number 7 in the list of the total world population (Source: Worldometers). Nigeria is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups: the most populous and politically influential are Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%.
Nigeria is a middle income, mixed economy and emerging market, with expanding financial, service, communications, technology and entertainment sectors. It is ranked as the 21st largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and the 20th largest in terms of Purchasing Power Parity. It is the largest economy in Africa; its re-emergent, though currently underperforming, manufacturing sector is the third-largest on the continent, and produces a large proportion of goods and services for the West African sub-region.
Nigeria's economy is struggling to leverage the country's vast wealth in fossil fuels in order to displace the poverty that affects about 33% of its population. Like most developing countries there is the coexistence of vast wealth in natural resources and extreme personal poverty in Nigeria. The economy has enjoyed sustained economic growth for a decade, with annual real GDP increasing by around 7%; it was 6.3% in 2014. The non-oil sector has been the main driver of growth, with services contributing about 57%, while manufacturing and agriculture, respectively contributed about 9% and 21%.
The economy is thus diversifying and is becoming more services-oriented, in particular through retail and wholesale trade, real estate, information, communication and entertainment. The 2015 outlook is for moderate growth of 5%, due to vulnerability to slow global economic recovery, oil-price volatility and global financial developments. The low oil price will lead to a sharp decline in fiscal revenues. Though agriculture has suffered from years of mismanagement, inconsistent and poorly conceived government policies, neglect and the lack of basic infrastructure. Still, the sector accounts for over 26.8% of GDP and two-thirds of employment.
2.0. Status of Biodiversity in Nigeria
Nigeria is rich in biodiversity and among the regions of the world, houses comparable levels of endemism and species richness due to a complex topography and wide variety of habitats. These include but are not limited to coastal creeks of the Niger Delta, the rainforests of the Cross River basin and the mountains along the Cameroun border with Nigeria (WCS, 2015). Along with the Atlantic Ocean which forms the southern border part of Nigeria, and with its highly diverse marine and freshwater ecosystems, there exists an inland layout of an array of other forest and woodland ecosystems which end up in Sudan Savannah and Sahel/semi-desert belt in the northern part of Nigeria. With very extensive and broad based river systems that emerge out of the two largest Rivers – Niger and Benue, Nigeria has a huge watershed resource which supports agriculture, navigation and commerce. The three major plateaux landscapes in the central part – Jos, the south eastern end – Obudu and the north east – Adamawa and Mambilla contains the topmost peaks of Nigeria where altitude approaches about 1800 m asl. Each of these ecosystems has its own unique characteristics of wild fauna, higher and lower floral species and a huge collection of marine and freshwater aquatic species. In species diversity and endemism, Nigeria is highly endowed. Borokini (2014) reports that Nigerian endemic flora amount to 91 species belonging to 44 families with Rubiaceae accounting for the highest numbers. A breakdown of faunal species is presented in the Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: List of Endemic Vertebrate species in Nigeria
Source: Wilson & Reeder (2005) for mammals, Dickinson (2003) for birds, the EMBL Reptile Database (2005) for reptiles, Frost (2004) for amphibians, and FishBase 2004 (2004) for fishes
However, overall, biodiversity in Nigeria is highly threatened due to land use changes from agriculture and overgrazing, over exploitation of natural resources through extractive actors, invasive species and environmental pollution. According to the IUCN Red list 2013, Nigeria has a total of 309 threatened species in the following taxonomic categories: Mammals (26), Birds (19), Reptiles (8), Amphibians (13), Fishes (60), Molluscs (1), other Invertebrates (14) and Plants (168) (Sedghi, 2013).
Conservation scientists observe that immediate attention should be focused on saving what remains of the priority areas for biodiversity in the country. There is also general consensus on where the remaining nexus of biodiversity lies in Nigeria and the first level action is expected to be focused on those areas as shown in Table 2.2.