Focus of the lesson: figurative language and analogies A. Figurative language click on each underlined term to find a definition and examples

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MIDDLE SCHOOL ENGLISH INSTRUCTION: Unit 1, Lesson 3


Focus of the lesson: figurative language and analogies
A. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
Click on each underlined term to find a definition and examples.
figures of speech This site contains simple definitions and examples of the figures of speech listed below.

Figurative speech is the opposite of literal Language.


Figures of speech for this lesson include:

hyperbole

metaphor

personification

simile


ACTIVITY 1-3-1
(1) Read the following poem.
Death by Hyperbole

By Daniel Evans


Let Tsunamis wash over me and volcanoes explode on me, order fire to consume, the cold earth to entomb.

Invent diseases to sicken me, plagues that just pick on me, bring on tornadoes and hurricanes, send floods from all origins.


But please don't leave me.
Find vipers to bite, African elephants to smite, Grizzly bears to unbowel me [sic], Great White sharks to devour me, bulls to gore, piranhas that gnaw, birds (they can peck), what the heck, stampede herds that will trample, grow plants that can strangle.
Pay robbers to shoot me, offer knives while they loot me, use sticks and throw stones, just aim at my bones.
Call on henchmen to hurt me, tell your friends all about me, clone me then kill me twice, you might find that nice.
But please don't leave me.

Call elections to topple, send thugs to throttle, politicians to oppose, journalists to expose, doctors to section, lawyers to threaten, ask boffins to baffle me, perhaps the Merched could raffle me?

The Ancient Greeks should hear of me, they could record my vile history, get my name in the bible (snake) come, there's no time to be idle.

Buddha and Mohammed? They'll want to hear the things I did, Hindus too should be put in the frame, all religions be alert to my name.


But please don't leave me

because if you do, I will surely o.d.

on far too much hy-per'-bo-lee.
(2) Complete the following activity:
HYPERBOLE ACTIVITY
DIRECTIONS: In the poem “Death by Hyperbole,” the poet uses hyperbole to try to convince his lover not to leave him. Your assignment is to write a list of five hyperboles to convince someone either to DO something or NOT to do something.
SAMPLE SITUATIONS:


  • Convince a friend not to marry someone you believe to be unsuitable

  • Convince your boss not to require you to do a particular task

  • Convince someone in your family not to do something that especially irritates you

  • Convince a wealthy person to leave you his/her fortune

  • Convince your family that your idea for the family vacation is the best one, even though everyone else has a different idea

  • Convince someone from the opposing political party to vote for your party’s candidate



1.



2.



3.



4.



5.




ACTIVITY 1-3-2

METAPHOR ACTIVITY
(1) Read the statements that contain metaphors in italics. Then complete the statements that explain the metaphors by filling in the letter of the correct response.

1. Brian was a wall, bouncing every tennis ball back over the net.



This metaphor compares Brian to a wall because __________.

a. He was very strong.
 b. He was very tall.


c. He kept returning the balls.
 d. His body was made of cells.

2. We would have had more pizza to eat if Tammy hadn’t been such a hog.



Tammy was being compared to a hog because she __________.

a. looked like a hog b. ate like a hog
 c. smelled like a hog


d. was as smart as a hog

 3. Cindy was such a mule. We couldn’t get her to change her mind.



The metaphor compares Cindy to a mule because she was ________.

a. always eating oats
 b. able to do hard work


c. raised on a farm
 d. very stubborn

4. The poor rat didn’t have a chance. Our old cat, a bolt of lightning, caught his prey.



The cat was compared to a bolt of lightning because he was ______.

a. very fast
 b. very bright
 c. not fond of fleas
 d. very old

5. Even a child could carry my dog, Dogface, around for hours. He’s such a feather.

This metaphor implies that Dogface __________.

a. is not cute
 b. looks like a bird
 c. is not heavy
 d. can fly

 

ACTIVITY 1-3-3


SIMILE ACTIVITY

A. DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below to complete the similes. Remember that a simile uses like or as to compare two things that in reality have no resemblance to one another.

For example:

“John is a large man who looks like his father,” is a literal statement.

“John is a large man who looks like an angry walrus,” is a figurative statement containing a simile.

The cat was as _________________as a __________________________.

The old car is like a(n) _________________________________________.

The crowded hotel was like a ____________________________________.

My classroom is like a(n) _______________________________________.



B. DIRECTIONS: Write a simile for each word below. Compare it to something that creates a picture in the reader's mind.

1. your hair __________________________________________________

2. clouds _____________________________________________________

3. a cell phone_________________________________________________



4. rain _______________________________________________________

ACTIVITY 1-3-4
METAPHORS AND SIMILES ACTIVITY
Read the following passage from Ray Bradbury’s story “A Sound of Thunder.” The passage contains quite a few similes and metaphors. See how many you can find. Circle each simile and underline each metaphor. On a separate sheet of paper, tell what the implied comparison is in each metaphor.

In this passage the hunters, who have returned in a time machine to the prehistoric jungle of the past, are positioned to shoot a Tyrannosaurus rex. In this scene, the animal is coming through the tangle of trees and ferns and underbrush toward the terrified hunters.

Maybe this passage will tempt you to read the entire story! It can be found in a collection of Bradbury’s short stories. The THEME of the story is the web of life. Bradbury, through the genre of science fiction, explores what can happen when a species is destroyed.
It came on great, oiled, resilient, striding legs. It towered thirty feet above

half of the trees, a great evil god, folding its delicate watchmaker’s claws

close to its oily reptilian chest. Each lower leg was a piston, a thousand

pounds of white bone, sunk in thick ropes of muscle, sheathed over in a

gleam of pebbled skin like the mail of a terrible warrior. Each thigh was a

ton of meat, ivory, and steel mesh, and from the great breathing cage of the

upper body those two delicate arms dangled out front, arms with hands

which might pick up and examine men like toys, while the snake neck coiled.

And the head itself, a ton of sculptured stone, lifted easily upon the sky. Its

mouth gaped exposing a fence of teeth like daggers. Its eyes rolled, ostrich

eggs, empty of all expression save hunger. It closed its mouth in a death grin.
It ran, its pelvic bones crushing aside trees and bushes, its taloned feet

clawing the damp earth, leaving prints six inches deep wherever it settled its

weight. It ran with a gliding ballet step, far too poised and balanced for its

ten tons. It moved into a sunlit arena warily, its beautifully reptilian hands

feeling the air.”

ACTIVITY 1-3-5


PERSONIFICATION ACTIVITY

DIRECTIONS: In the chart below, fill in the name of the object that is personified and the human qualities that are given to the object.


 

Sentence

 

Object

 

Human Quality

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Rows of corn stood at attention in the stifling heat of late August.


 




 




 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

The floor groaned piteously under the weight of the machinery.

 



 




 

 

 

 

 

 

3.


After it caromed off the front of the rim, the basketball bounced several times before merrily leaping out of bounds.

 




 




 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

The sun peeked from behind the cloud to light up our dreary day.

 




 




 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

The stars winked at us from the night sky.

 




 





B. ANALOGIES
An explanation and several examples of analogies, can be found at the following link: Analogies
NOTE: There are many other types of analogy relationships. Those listed in the Enhanced Scope and Sequence for English 6-8 include:

  • antonyms (up:down, dark:bright, hate:love, tall:short)


  • object/action (ear:hear; oven:bake; pen:write; knife:cut)

  • source/product (tree:lumber; wheat:flour; wood pulp:paper)

  • animal/habitat (bee:hive; dog:kennel; bird:nest; rabbit:burrow)

  • cause-effect (sun:burn; unfaithfulness:divorce; allergy:rash)

  • part/whole (day:week; slice:loaf; card:deck)

  • characteristic (snow:cold; ice:slick; sand:gritty; molasses:sweet)

  • degree (warm:hot; chilly:frigid; irritated:furious)

  • type or example (cinnamon:spice; collie:dog; Acura:automobile)

  • operator (car:driver; plane:pilot; train:engineer)

  • number – singular to plural or vice versa (louse:lice; child:children)


ACTIVITY 1-3-6
ANALOGIES PRACTICE #1
Complete each analogy by writing the best word in the blank.

1. Heat is to hot as honesty is to _______________.



truthfulness

trust

honest

policy

2. Sail is to sailor as pick is to _______________.



choose

tool

nose

picker

3. Quick is to quickly as fast is to _______________.


starve

fastly

rapid

fast

4. Size is to sighs as bode is to _______________.



bowed

bid

boat

bad

5. Leaves_is_to_leaf_as_wolves'>Leaves is to leaf as wolves is to _______________.



dogs

wolve

wolf

pages

6. Leaves is to leave as starts is to _______________.



start

stop

stove

ends

7. Great is to greatest as good is to _______________.



goodest

huge

nice

best

ANALOGIES PRACTICE #2
Complete the analogy activities found at the following links:
Analogies: Quiz #1
Analogies: Quiz #2


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