Architect/Builder: Elkanah Knowles Paine (homeowner/carpenter)
Wall/Trim: wood clapboard/wood
Roof: asphalt shingle
Outbuildings/SecondaryStructures: barn; shed
Major Alterations (with dates): rear ell (date unknown);
wood exterior stair and 2nd floor deck (2011)
Acreage: .9 acre
Setting: The subject property is located on the north side of the northern section of Governor Prence Road at its intersection with Fort Hill Road. The surrounding land uses are generally residential, with condominiums across Governor Prence Road. Wetlands wrap around the house on the north and east sides.
Recommended for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.
The two-story wood frame house has an upright and wing form with the projecting front gable portion being three-bays wide and featuring a pediment in the Greek Revival style which would support a reputed construction date of 1840; however, an inspection of interior finishes and construction details would be needed to more closely determine whether that date is feasible. The recessed cross-gabled section, which extends to the right (east) of the main section, is two bays wide and fronted with a shed-roofed porch. The porch has been enclosed. There are two brick chimneys, one on either side wall. The windows are nine-over-six and six-over-six sash and appear to be original. The door surround, with its attenuated pilasters and four-light transom, is in the Federal style, an earlier aesthetic mixed in with the incoming Greek Revival taste. A rear one-story cross-gabled ell on piers (evident from aerial views of the property and plans) is a later addition (a replacement of another earlier ell – compare footprints on 1988 and 1966 plans, below), along with an exterior wood stair and second floor deck on the right side of the house reconstructed in 2011.1 The house has been converted to rental use with three dwelling units.
A detached wood frame garage is sited to the rear and right (northeast) of the house. It has a front gable roof. The property has a number of mature trees; a split-rail wood fence borders its front (south) lot line.
Three properties on Governor Prence Road—numbers 30, 35, and 45—were all once part of the Elkanah Knowles Paine estate, inherited by his son Thomas Knowles Paine and referred to in deeds as the “Thomas K. Paine estate.” Because early maps are nonexistent, the language of early deeds so general, and street numbers not ascribed until relatively recent years, it is impossible to determine from them alone who might originally have built the house and who occupied it in its earliest years.
Town records state that the house at 30 Governor Prence Road was built about 1840, and judging from census and deed records it appears to have been the longtime, though probably not original, home of Elkanah and Mehitable Paine and their descendants. Elkanah Knowles Paine (1806-84), the son of Ebenezer (1765-1845) and Sarah Smith Paine (1767-1842), was descended from early Eastham settler Thomas Paine, who died in the town in 1640. The 1840 census shows Elkanah Paine among other known residents of this area with six in his household. He married Mehitable P. Knowles, daughter of Thomas and Alice Pepper Knowles, in 1832 and the couple had eight children between that year and 1854. It is likely that Elkanah, a carpenter by trade, built the house for his growing family.
The 1850 census shows Paine and his wife in a household with his son Thomas Knowles Paine (1833-1919), then fifteen and “at sea,” son Henry Knowles Paine, born in 1836, son Elkanah Dexter Paine, born in 1840, son Isaac, born in 1841, and daughter Mary, born in 1843. He is enumerated next to his brother Joshua Paine, and in 1857 Elkanah’s son Thomas K. married Joshua’s daughter Deborah Sherman Paine (1835-1913). The 1860 census lists the families of Elkanah and his son Thomas, both “master carpenters,” in consecutive households, though Thomas K. Knowles is also shown as a master carpenter born in Eastham and living in the Boston boardinghouse of a Henry Paine, probably a relative (twelve of Henry Paine’s fifteen boarders were natives of Cape Cod towns).
The 1870 census shows Thomas K, Paine as a fisherman and enumerates him next to his parents’ household; Elkanah Paine is here listed as a carpenter with $1307 in real property, while Thomas is shown with no real property. The 1880 census shows the two families again in consecutive households. By that year Thomas was the keeper of Billingsgate lighthouse, on Billingsgate Island in Cape Cod Bay in Wellfleet. He held that position for sixteen years, according to one 1890 county history, which added that since 1884 “has been a farmer, occupying the homestead of his father” and had been an Eastham selectman for five years.2 Elkanah Paine died in 1884 and after their father’s death the Paine children deeded their interest in his real property in Eastham to their mother, and in 1887 Mehitable Paine transferred ownership to that property to her son Thomas.3 By 1900 Mehitable had moved to Brookline, where she died at the age of ninety in 1900.
The 1900 and 1910 censuses show Thomas K. Paine and his family in the same neighborhood; Paine is shown in both enumerations as a farmer, and the couple shared the house with their daughter Ruth Eleanor, born in 1858. Neither census lists street names. The couple’s other child, Edwin Clement Paine (1859-1933) had moved to Prescott, Arizona, by 1885, the year he married Marcia Anna Wing. Deborah Paine died in 1913, and her husband Thomas died in 1919. The 30 Governor Prence Road house then appears to have become a summer residence for parts of the Paine family. The 1929 Eastham directory shows Mrs. Isaac Paine as a summer resident on King’s Highway.4 She was Alice A. Krogman Paine, the third wife of Thomas K. Paine’s youngest brother Isaac, who had been a tinsmith and plumber in the Boston suburb of Brookline since the late 1880s.
Tax records for 1926 and 1931 show “Edward” Paine of Prescott, Arizona, as owner of a 1.5-acre homestead lot with a house valued at $1380, a barn at $300, a woodhouse and garage at $115, a poultry house at $45, and a water system at $100. He owned nearly 37 acres in other Eastham parcels as well. Edwin Clement Paine died in 1933, and in 1946 his heirs deeded all of their late father’s Eastham property to Morris F. Payne of Oakland, California, whose relation if any to the Eastham and Prescott Paines is unclear.5 According to the 1940 census Morris F. Payne was born in 1918 in Montana and had lived in or near Prescott in 1935; he worked as a factory electrician. Payne owned what was then a three-acre homestead property with its buildings for only two years. In 1948 he conveyed the three-acre homestead parcel and an adjacent 4.3-acre lot, together “known as the Thomas K. Paine estate and being ‘the Eastham homestead,’” to Clayton O. Horton, an Eastham native and builder.6 Tax records for 1954 show the 30 Governor Prence Road property as six acres, with the house valued at $3500 and a garage; no barn or poultry house are listed.
Born in 1901, Clayton Horton was the son of Osgood W. and Betsey Knowles Horton, both Eastham natives. His father died in 1912 and his mother probably about 1920. After he graduated from Orleans High School in 1918 Clayton joined the National Guard and served during the 1919 Boston police strike. Discharged for being underage, Horton returned to Eastham and began working as a surfman in the Coast Guard under Captain Abbott H. Walker; he soon became the cook at the Eastham life-saving station. Clayton Horton then turned to construction and began his own business about 1928, the year he married Eastham native Virginia Nickerson. He was a building contractor in Eastham for forty-five years, ran a grocery store and roadside stand in North Eastham, and built, owned, and operated what were once known as Crest Hill Cottages, possibly those at 45 Governor Prence Road across from this house.7 According to one 1962 deed, Horton was living on Governor Prence Road at the time, and public records show him at an unnumbered house there. It is not clear which house he principally occupied, but it seems likely to have been number 30. In a 1981 interview Horton described the Paine estate, though the account does not indicate which houses he specifically described. He stated that he bought the house he was then living in in 1948
so that we could live in it. An old house over there in ’49, and I built every house around here. And lived in four of them. . . . At first we fixed up that old house over there, what we call the old [undecipherable] place, and lived in that two or three years. Well, no, lived in that nineteen years. Built the other cottages and run the tourist business. We used to have cottages. And moved that house over there from Orleans. Built this one across the street. Built the last one eleven, ten years ago, where we are, where I am now—the last one I built.
In June 1966 Horton subdivided that part of the Paine estate north of Governor Prence Road and sold the parcel occupied by 30 Governor Prence Road to Vincent and Evelyn Van Norman, who sold it three years later to Elizabeth M. Nelson and Dixie N. Andrews of East Douglas, Massachusetts. They owned it for almost twenty years. Thirty Governor Prence Road became the property of current owner Robert A. Lambroschino in 1988.8
BIBLIOGRAPHY and/or REFERENCES
Barnstable County Registry of Deeds. Deeds and Subdivision Maps.
Deyo, Simeon L., ed. History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts, 1620-1890. New York: H. W. Blake, 1890.
Dudley, Dean (1823-1906). Historical Sketches of the Towns and Cities of Plymouth and Barnstable Counties, Mass. Wakefield, MA: Dean Dudley, 1873.
Town of Eastham Tax Commitment Books. 1902-57.
Freeman, Frederick (1799-1883). The History of Cape Cod: The Annals of Barnstable County and of its Several Towns, Including the District of Mashpee. 2 vols. Boston : Printed for the author by Geo C. Rand & Avery, 1860-1862.
Kittredge, Henry C. Cape Cod: Its People and Their History. 1930. Reprint. Orleans, MA: Parnassus Imprints, 1968.
Lowe, Alice Albert. Nauset on Cape Cod: A History of Eastham. Falmouth, MA: Eastham Historical Society. 1968.
Massachusetts Department of Conservation, Cape Cod Commission, and Boston University. Heritage Landscape Inventory Report: Eastham, Massachusetts. Massachusetts Heritage Landscape Inventory Program, December 2010.
McKenzie, Matthew. Clearing the Coastline: The Nineteenth-Century Ecological and Cultural Transformation of Cape Cod. Hanover, NH, and London: University Press of New England, 2010.
Pratt, Enoch. A Comprehensive History, Eccelesiastical and Civil of Eastham, Wellfleet and Orleans, County of Barnstable, Mass., from 1644-1844. Yarmouth, MA: W. S. Fisher and Company, 1844.
Thompson, Elroy Sherman. History of Plymouth, Norfolk and Barnstable Counties,
Massachusetts. 3 vols. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1928.
Trayser, Donald G. Eastham, Massachusetts, 1651-1951: Eastham’s Three Centuries. Lexington, MA: Hancock Press for Eastham Tercentenary Committee, 1951.
Walling, Henry F. Map of the Counties of Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket Massachusetts Based upon the Trigonometrical Survey of the State. New York: D. R. Smith and Co.,1858.
Official Topographical Atlas of Massachusetts Compiled and Corrected by H. F. Walling and O. W. Gray. Boston: Stedman, Brown and Lyon, 1871.
Atlas of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Boston: George H. Walker and Co., 1880.
Atlas of Massachusetts from Topographical Surveys Made in Co-operation by the United States Geological Survey and the Commissioners of the Commonwealth 1884-1888. Boston: Commissioners of the Commonwealth, 1890.
Atlas of Barnstable County, Massachusetts . . . from Official Plans and Actual Surveys. Boston: Walker Lithograph and Publishing Co., 1905, 1910.
1988 Plan showing footprint with added rear ell.
Horton subdivision of 1966: 30 Governor Prence Road is Parcel 3.
1 Town of Eastham building records, building permit dated March 4, 2011.
2 Simeon L. Deyo, ed., History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts, 1620-1890 (New York: H. W. Blake, 1890), 742.
3 Thomas K. Paine and Mary K. Paine, Eastham; Isaac Paine and Henry K. Paine, Brookline; E. Dexter Payne, Yarmouth, to Mehitable P. Paine, 18 September 1884, BCD 161:75; : Mehitable P. Paine to Thomas K. Paine, 2 May 1887, BCD 163:378.
4 The Old King’s Highway, Rt. 6A, merges with State Highway, Rt. 6, at the southern border of Eastham.
5 Marcia M. Payne Fitch, Dora P. Payne, Doris L. Payne, Sherman R. Payne, and Douglas P. Todd, Prescott AZ, to Morris F. Payne, Oakland CA, 19 March 1946, BCD 673:495.
6 Morris F. Payne, Oakland CA, to Clayton O. Horton, 30 June 1948, BCP 699:460.
7 Clayton Horton, interview with Vivian Andrist, 28 September 1981, Eastham Historical Society; “Clayton O. Horton, 94,” Cape Cod Times, 21 March 1996.
8 Clayton O. Horton to Vincent R. and Evelyn S. Van Norman, 18 July 1966, BCD 1341:880; Vincent R. and Evelyn S. Van Norman to Elizabeth M. Nelson and Dixie N. Andrews, East Douglas, 23 June 1969, BCD 1442:348; Dixie N. Andrews to Robert A. Lambroschino, 19 February 1988, BCD 6155:109; Robert A. Lambroschino, Falmouth, to Justine M. and Robert A. Lambroschino, 17 September 2004, BCD 19182:106. See also “Plan of Land in Eastham, MA, Made for Clayton O. Horton,” June 1966, BCP 204:69.
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