From the Commanding General U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command


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From the Commanding General

U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
In August 2006, I directed a study to take a thoughtful and detailed look at what we are calling the Human Dimension. In looking to an uncertain future from 2015 to 2024, as we have in other concepts, we envision an increasingly complex future operating environment that will challenge individual Soldiers, their leaders, and their organizations in unprecedented ways. I wanted this study to serve as a point of departure for wide-ranging discussions, research, and investigations into the performance, reliability, flexibility, endurance, and adaptability of an Army made up of Soldiers, their families, civilians, and contractors.
The Army cannot afford to focus only on current operations as a predictor of the future. It must prepare people so that future commanders can sustain operations in a time of persistent conflict. Approved Army concepts describe the employment of Soldiers in the future. The United States Army Study for the Human Dimension goes further to explore human factors in war across the range of military operations. This study reaches beyond the issues of equipping Soldiers with hardware tools of war into the more subtle moral-ethical, intellectual, and physical components of Soldier development. We will follow this study with a formal approved concept in the near future.

The Army will always rely on an array of capabilities developed by other Services and the larger joint community in order to achieve its conceptual goals. Similarly, the entire joint force will regularly participate in multinational and interagency operations in the future. Thus, I strongly encourage the use of the Human Dimension study in our interactions with other Services and joint organizations, both to advance the intellectual dialogue regarding future operations and to strengthen the basis for defining future Army and joint requirements, in the spirit of joint interdependence. In the same vein, recognizing that the Army and the other services operate in support of the Nation, and that many of the required capabilities this study reveals are beyond the capability of the Department of Defense, I welcome and encourage comments from an even wider community.

As with all concepts, the Human Dimension concept, when published, will be in continuous evolution. I expect it to spur thought, motivate investigation and illuminate, through a structured approach, a strategy for the coordinated and holistic development of future capabilities. I think of it as an agent of change, change necessitated by an uncertain future in which the Army must be capable of responding to everything from humanitarian assistance to major combat. It will be refined and updated as new learning emerges from research, operational experience, and the results of continuing investigations into future operations.

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Executive Summary


The human dimension comprises the moral, cognitive, and physical components of Soldier and organizational development and performance essential to raise, prepare, and employ the Army in full spectrum operations. Army concepts acknowledge the Soldier as the centerpiece of the Army, but none, individually or collectively, adequately addresses the human dimension of future operations. This study is a precursor to a shorter concept that will join the formal family of Army concepts. It provides an integrating and forcing function that draws on other joint and Army concepts to describe those aspects of a highly nuanced human dimension interacting at all levels. Like all concepts, this study seeks to identify things that must change to meet future challenges. To do this, Army concepts project requirements from 2015 to 2024 and describe an operational or functional problem to be solved, and then express how the future Modular Force will best operate within that set of challenges and environments. Additionally, concepts identify required future capabilities necessary to operate in the manner described in each concept.

The Operational Problem
Current trends in the global and domestic operational environments will challenge the United States' ability to maintain a future responsive, professional, All-Volunteer Force. Soldiers will operate in an era of persistent conflict amongst populations with diverse religious, ethnic, and

societal values. Faced with continuous employment across the full range of military operations, the Army will require extraordinary strength in the moral, physical, and cognitive components of the human dimension. Existing accessions, personnel, and force training and education development efforts will not meet these future challenges, placing at grave risk the Army's ability to provide combatant commanders the forces and capabilities necessary to execute the National Security, National Defense, and National Military Strategies.

Solution Synopsis
The Army will need to increase its human dimension focus in both the operational Army and Generating Force in order to meet future challenges and operate in an era of persistent conflict. Improved capabilities must address the broad range of human dimension actions necessary to prepare, support, and sustain this force. The Army must maintain a proper balance of moral, physical, and cognitive development with contributions from science and technology that can enhance Soldier physical and mental performance. The Army must widen the community of practice in the human dimension to continue to explore how we can best recruit, train, and retain an all volunteer force that can operate across the entire range of military operations.

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Department of the Army TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-7-01

Headquarters, United States Army

Training and Doctrine Command

Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-1047
1 April 2008
Military Operations



Lieutenant General, U.S. Army

Deputy Commanding General/

Chief of Staff

History. This pamphlet is a new U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) study developed to inform the U.S. Army Human Dimension 2015-2024 concept, which is part of the Army Concept Strategy for the future Modular Force.
Summary. TRADOC Pamphlet (Pam) 525-3-7-01, The U.S. Army Study of the Human Dimension in the Future 2015-2024 is the first of two human dimension documents. It provides the background study and analysis for the follow-on concept, The U.S. Army Concept of the Human Dimension in the Future 2015-2024. This pamphlet is a comprehensive research document outlining the future operational environment and its impact on the triad of the moral, cognitive, and physical components of the human dimension. It addresses as well the impact and considerations of stress, human capital strategies, science and technology, and leadership on the human dimension. This pamphlet contains a series of questions for further study and required capabilities to support the human dimension across the DOTMLPF domains.

Applicability. This pamphlet applies to all DOD, DA, and TRADOC activities that identify and develop doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities solutions to human dimension initiatives. All active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve operating forces, and the Army Materiel Command may use this pamphlet to identify future human dimension trends in the Army. This pamphlet may also serve as a reference document to agencies within the joint community that are planning or are concerned with the human dimension.

Proponent and exception authority. The proponent of this pamphlet is the TRADOC Headquarters, Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC). The proponent has the authority to approve exceptions or waivers to this pamphlet that are consistent with controlling law and regulations. Do not supplement this pamphlet without prior approval from Director, ARCIC (ATFC-ED) 33 Ingalls Road, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-1061.
Suggested improvements. Users are invited to send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Director, ARCIC (ATFC-ED), 33 Ingalls Road, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-1061. Suggested improvements may also be submitted using DA Form 1045 (Army Ideas for Excellence Program Proposal).
Distribution. This publication is only available on the TRADOC Homepage at



Foreword i

Executive Summary iii

Chapter 1 9

The Human Dimension and the American Soldier 9

1-1. Introduction 9

1-2. The Operational Problem 10

1-3. Solution Synopsis 10

1-4. Organization of the Study 10

1-5. The Future Environment and Unchanging Nature of Conflict 12

1-6. Essence of Army Service and Being a Professional Soldier 15

1-7. Challenges to the Future Soldier 19

1-8. Summary 20

Human Dimension Vignette 21

Chapter 2 30

Operational Environment (OE)—Global and Domestic 30

2-1. Introduction 30

2-2. The Joint Operational Environment (JOE) 30

2-3. International Trends 31

2-4. The Domestic Environment 40

2-5. Conclusion 45

Vignette 47

Required Capabilities 50

Questions for Further Examination 51

Chapter 3 54

The Moral Component—Developing Soldiers of Character for the Army and Nation 54

3-1. Introduction 54

3-2. Developing the Warrior Spirit 56

3-3. Moral and Ethical Development 68

3-4. Developing Socio-cultural Awareness 72

3-5. Conclusion 77

Vignette 77

Required Capabilities 80

Questions for Further Examination 83

Chapter 4 88

The Physical Component—Developing Soldier Physical Performance 88

4-1. Introduction: Holistic Fitness 88

4-2. Challenges to Adapting to the Future OE 89

4-3. Why Change is Necessary 89

4-4. Army Model for Physical Fitness Education and Training 91

4-5. Fitness Training While Deployed 94

4-6. Conclusion 95

Vignette 96

Required Capabilities 98

Chapter 5 102

The Cognitive Component—Training and Educating Soldiers 102

5-1. Introduction 102

5-2. Implications of Future Changes for Training and Leader Education (TLE) 102

5-3. Units as Learning Organizations 111

5-4. Future Training and Education Approach 113

5-5. Conclusion 127

Vignette 128

Required Capabilities 131

Questions for Further Exploration 132

Chapter 6 136

Combat and Operational Stress—A Continuing Challenge 136

6-1. Introduction and Historical Background 136

6-2. Combat and Operational Stress 137

6-3. Burnout 143

6-4. Conclusion 143

Vignette 144

Required Capabilities 146

Questions for Further Exploration 147

Chapter 7 152

Manning the Army—Developing a Human Capital Strategy 152

7-1. Introduction 152

7-2. Background 152

7-3. Recruiting the Force 153

7-4. Retaining the Force 157

7-5. The Army Family 159

7-6 The Tempo of Army Service 163

7-7. Conclusion 164

Vignette 164

Required Capabilities 166

Questions for Further Examination 167

Chapter 8 172

Science, Technology, and the Human Dimension 172

8-1. Introduction 172

8-2. Science and Technology (S&T) Trends 173

8-3. Integration of S&T 175

8-4. Conclusion 178

Vignette 178

Required Capabilities 180

Questions for Further Exploration 181

Chapter 9 186

Leadership 186

9-1. Introduction 186

9-2. Changes That Challenge Leadership 186

9-3. Leadership and Battle Command 193

9-4. Conclusion 196

Vignette 197

Required Capabilities 201

Questions for Further Examination 201

Chapter 10 206

Boots on the Ground: The Human Dimension in Future Modular Force Operations 206

10-1. Summary 206

10-2. Conclusion 208

Vignette 209

Appendix A 214

References 214

Glossary 228

Endnotes 234

Figure List

Figure 1-1. The Sumatra Caliphate 22

Figure 1-1. The Sumatra Caliphate 22

Figure 2-1. Demographic Stress Factors 37

Figure 2-2. Obesity Rates 44

Figure 3-1. Determinants of Morale 63

Figure 4-1. Stage-sequence Adapted for Army Physical Education and Training 92

Figure 5-1. Growing Army Leaders 107

Figure 5-2. Evolving Model for Future Leader Development and Education 115

Figure 6-1. Combat and Operational Stressors 139

Figure 6-2. Stress Behaviors in Combat and Other Operations 140

Figure 7-1. The Army Family Covenant 160

Figure 8-1. Military Operational Medicine Research Program 176

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Man is the first weapon of battle. Let us study the Soldier, for it is he who brings reality to it.

Ardant du Picq

Battle Studies

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