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Tables


Table 1.1 Human Research Ethics Committees’ approvals 5

Table 3.1 Measures and questions received by sample groups 17

Table 3.2 Recruitment outcomes: partner and ADF member samples 20

Table 3.3 Characteristics of ADF member participants and non participants 21

Table 3.4 Characteristics of Timor-Leste ADF member and comparison ADF member participants 22

Table 3.5 Characteristics of Timor-Leste partner and comparison partner participants 23

Table 3.6 Characteristics of participating ADF member and partner couples 24

Table 3.7 Partner reports of the number of deployments since being together 25

Table 3.8 ADF member reports of the number of their deployments, 1997 to 2011 25

Table 4.1 General health categories for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 34

Table 4.2 Alcohol consumption patterns for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 35

Table 4.3 Smoking patterns for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 36

Table 4.4 Self-report mental health categories for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 36

Table 4.5 Psychological distress as measured by K10 for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 37

Table 4.6 PTSD screening for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners as measured by the PCL-C 37

Table 4.7 Timor-Leste partners’ and comparison partners’ perceptions of family communication as measured by FACES-IV 40

Table 4.8 Timor-Leste and comparison partners’ perceptions of family satisfaction as measured by FACES-IV 40

Table 4.9 Mean differences of Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners on the QRI subscales: social support, conflict and depth 41

Table 4.10 Mean scores for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners on the
Work–Family Conflict Scale 42

Table 4.11 Work–Family Conflict Scale item responses for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 43

Table 4.12 Timor-Leste and comparison partners’ combined IPV screening scores on the Woman Abuse Screening Tool 44

Table 4.13 Frequency scores for Timor-Leste and comparison partners who screened positively on the WAST 44

Table 5.1 Pregnancy outcomes for Timor-Leste partners and comparison partners 53

Table 5.2 Child demographics for Timor-Leste and comparison partners 54

Table 6.1 Number of deployments partners experienced while together with their ADF member 63

Table 6.2 Locations of deployments partners experienced while together with their ADF member 64

Table 6.3 Association between number of deployments and partners’ physical health as measured by the SF-12 65

Table 6.4 Association between number of deployments and partners’ mental health as measured by the SF-12 65

Table 6.5 Association between number of deployments and family functioning as reported by partners and measured by FACES IV 66

Table 6.6 Association between number of deployments and quality of relationship as reported by partners and measured by the QRI 67

Table 6.7 Association between number of deployments and positive screening scores on the Woman Abuse Screening Tool 68

Table 6.8 Association between number of deployments and children’s prosocial behaviour scores on the SDQ as reported by partners 69

Table 6.9 Association between number of deployments and children’s total difficulties scores on the SDQ as reported by partners 69

Table 6.10 Association between number of deployments and children’s peer problems subscale scores on the SDQ as reported by partners 70

Table 6.11 Association between number of deployments and children’s hyperactivity subscale scores on the SDQ as reported by partners 71

Table 6.12 Association between number of deployments and children’s impact of difficulties score on the SDQ as reported by partners 71

Table 6.13 Adjusted mean differences of partners’ SF-12 PCS scores by ADF member deployed at time of survey 74

Table 6.14 Adjusted mean differences of partners’ SF-12 MCS scores by ADF member deployed at time of survey 74

Table 6.15 Association between partners who reported the ADF member was deployed at the time of survey and family functioning as measured by FACES IV 75

Table 6.16 Association between partners who reported the ADF member was deployed at the time of survey and quality of relationship as measured by the QRI 75

Table 6.17 Overall strengths and difficulties experienced by children of ADF members deployed at the time of the survey as reported by partners and measured by the SDQ 76

Table 6.18 Association between partners’ experience of Timor-Leste deployment and physical health as measured by the SF-12 77

Table 6.19 Association between partners’ experience of Timor-Leste deployment and mental health as measured by the SF-12 78

Table 6.20 Association between partners’ experience of Timor-Leste deployments and quality of relationship as measured by the QRI 79

Table 6.21 Difficult aspects of deployment for partners and children as listed by Timor Leste partners 80

Table 6.22 Benefits of deployment for partners and children as listed by Timor-Leste partners 81

Table 7.1 Association between partners’ mental health and family functioning as measured by the SF-12 and FACES-IV 92

Table 7.2 Association between partners’ psychological distress and family functioning as measured by the K10 and FACES-IV 92

Table 7.3 Association between partners’ PTSD symptoms and family functioning as measured by the PCL-C and FACES-IV 93

Table 7.4 Association between child emotions and behaviours (impact supplement) and family functioning as measured by the SDQ and FACES-IV 93

Table 7.5 Coping strategies used by partners 94

Table 7.6 Association between partners’ emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies and physical health as measured by the SF-12 PCS and Brief COPE 95

Table 7.7 Association between partners’ mental health and emotion  and problem focused coping strategies as measured by the SF 12 MCS and Brief COPE 95

Table 7.8 Association between partners’ psychological distress and emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies as measured by the K10 and Brief COPE 96

Table 7.9 Association between partners’ PTSD symptoms and emotion  and problem focused coping strategies as measured by the PCL C and Brief COPE 96

Table 7.10 Association between psychological distress and partners’ quality of relationship as measured by the K10 and QRI 101

Table 7.11 Association between symptoms of PTSD and partners’ quality of relationship as measured by the PCL-C and QRI 101

Table 7.12 Association between child emotions and behaviour and partners’ quality of relationship as measured by the SDQ (total difficulties scale) and QRI 102

Table 7.13 Association between child emotions and behaviour and partners’ quality of relationship as measured by the SDQ (prosocial scale) and QRI 103

Table 7.14 Association between child emotions and behaviour and partners’ quality of relationship as measured by the SDQ (impact scale) and QRI 103

Table 7.15 Association between physical health and social support as measured by the SF-12 and DUSOCS 104

Table 7.16 Association between mental health and social support as measured by the SF 12 and DUSOCS 105

Table 7.17 Association between psychological distress and social support as measured by the K10 and DUSOCS 106

Table 7.18 Association between PTSD symptoms and social support as measured by the PCL-C and DUSOCS 106

Table 7.19 Association between partners’ experience of Timor-Leste deployment and family support as measured by the DUSOCS 107

Table 7.20 Association between partners’ experience of Timor-Leste deployment and non-family support as measured by the DUSOCS 107

Table 7.21 Association between child emotions and behaviour and social support as measured by the SDQ (total difficulties subscale) and DUSOCS 108

Table 7.22 Association between child emotions and behaviours and social support as measured by the SDQ (prosocial subscale) and DUSOCS 108

Table 7.23 Association between child emotions and behaviours and social support as measured by the SDQ (impact subscale) and DUSOCS 109

Table 7.24 Rates of diagnosis and treatment received by partners for specified disorders or conditions in the preceding five years 111

Table 7.25 WAST means for partners who screened positively on the WAST and category scores on the K10 115

Table 7.26 WAST means for partners who screened positively on the WAST and on the PCL-C 116

Table 7.27 Association between child emotions and behaviour and partners’ mean scores on the WAST if they screened positively 116

Table 8.1 Characteristics of respondent ADF members and their current partners 125

Table 8.2 Means and standard deviations for ADF members and partners on physical and mental health measures 126

Table 8.3 ADF members’ and partners’ matched scores on the PCS 126

Table 8.4 ADF members’ and partners’ matched scores on the AUDIT for partners scoring ≥16 on the AUDIT 127

Table 8.5 ADF members’ and partners’ matched scores on the K10 for partners who score ≥30 K10 127

Table 8.6 ADF members’ and partners’ matched scores on the PCL-C for partners scoring ≥50 on PCL-C 127

Table 8.7 ADF members’ and partners’ matched scores on the PCL-C for partners scoring ≥30 on PCL-C 128

Table 8.8 ADF member and partner relationship satisfaction ratings 128

Table 8.9 ADF members’ scores on the AUDIT matched with partners scoring ≥30 on K10 129

Table 8.10 ADF members’ scores on the K10 matched with partners scoring ≥16 on AUDIT 130

Table 8.11 ADF members’ scores on the PCL-C matched with partners scoring ≥16 on AUDIT 130

Table 8.12 ADF members’ scores on the PCL-C matched with partners scoring ≥30 on K10 131

Table 8.13 Partner and ADF member AUDIT scores examined in relation to total difficulties subscale of the SDQ 132

Table 8.14 Partner and ADF member AUDIT scores examined by prosocial scale of the SDQ 133

Table 8.15 Parent and ADF member AUDIT scores examined by impact scale of the SDQ 133

Table 8.16 Partner and ADF member K10 scores examined in relation to total difficulties subscale of the SDQ 134

Table 8.17 Partner and ADF member K10 scores examined in relation to prosocial subscale of the SDQ 134

Table 8.18 Partner and ADF member K10 scores examined in relation to the impact supplement scores on the SDQ 135

Table 8.19 Partner and ADF member PCL-C scores examined in relation to the child’s total difficulties subscale of the SDQ 136

Table 8.20 Partner and ADF member PCL-C scores examined in relation to the prosocial subscale of the SDQ 137

Table 8.21 Partner and ADF member PCL-C scores examined in relation to the impact scale of the SDQ 137

Table B.1 Effect of wartime deployment on military children—new studies 180

Table B.2 Effect of intimate partner violence on children 188

Table B.3 Transfer of stress and effects of parent PTSD on children wellbeing 190

Table B.4 Effects of peacetime deployment on military children—earlier studies 191

Table B.5 Effect of deployment on child maltreatment 192

Table B.6 Comparison of child maltreatment in military and civilian populations 193

Table B.7 Child abuse by active duty soldier compared with those committed by any member of the family 194

Table B.8 Child abuse in civilian populations of developed countries 195

Table B.9 Effects of wartime deployment on spouses 196

Table B.10 Secondary traumatisation of spouses of veterans with PTSD 202

Table B.11 Intimate partner violence in military 208

Table B.12 Effect of military mobility on spouse employment 213

Table B.13 Peacetime deployment/military separation 216

Table B.14 Effects of military service on family functioning and wellbeing of spouses 217

Table D.1 Recruitment outcomes for the partner, ADF member and volunteer samples 236

Table D.2 Recruitment outcomes for Timor-Leste and comparison partner and ADF member samples 237







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