Gcse english Language 2015 Imaginative and Transactional Writing Scheme of Work Introduction



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GCSE English Language 2015
Imaginative and Transactional Writing
Scheme of Work


Introduction

This Scheme of Work covers the writing requirements for Papers 1 and 2, where the assessment objectives of AO5 and AO6 overlap.



  • For Paper 1, Fiction and Imaginative Writing, writing tasks are linked by a theme to the reading extract. Different aspects of the theme will be reflected in each task. One of the writing tasks will provide two images that students can use to help them generate ideas for their writing. Students can write a response in a variety of forms (e.g. monologue, narrative, description) that draws on just one or neither of the images.

  • For Paper 2, Non-fiction and Transactional Writing, writing tasks are linked by a theme to the reading extracts. It is possible for the same form (for example, a letter or an article) to be present on both tasks in the same paper but with a different focus and/or audience.

The initial learning sequence outlined in this Scheme of Work provides a generic framework which can be used to develop students’ understanding of how to communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively, selecting and adapting tone, style and register for different forms, purposes and audiences. The approach places the emphasis on the candidates’ developing their own understanding of how to communicate ideas through language, form and structure, enabling them to show their ability to create accurate and effective texts and thus meet the assessment objectives AO5 and AO6.

These schemes of work can be used alongside or to complement the Grammar for Writing and Let’s Think in English materials which are available on our website.

Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Week

Paper/theme

Learning outcomes

Content

Exemplar resources

1 and 2

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • identify and understand a range of purposes

  • understand how to write for different purposes.

Understanding purpose (AO5)

Write the term ‘purpose’ on the board and ask students to think of words that mean the same thing.

Using a table of words including ‘entertain’, ‘persuade’, ‘explain’, ‘instruct’, ‘advise’, etc ask students to pick out words that describe the purpose of a text and ask them to identify what language features they would expect to see in texts that fulfil these purposes.

Select a text from the Anthology and ask students to suggest the purpose and how they know what the purpose is.


This is an opportunity to build in AO7 – Demonstrate presentation skills in a formal setting or AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Select a text that is a review from the Anthology (for example, Tony Blair, the Independent, New Scientist) and one that tries to persuade (for example, Bill Bryson, the Sunday Times, the Tatler). List three differences between the two texts. Write two sentences of a review and two sentences of a persuasive argument using the differences they have selected.

Students are given the main purposes of writing, then given a range of texts to sort into different purposes on a purpose collage. They must be prepared to justify their choices. Students should read through the texts in groups and highlight features that they feel help the writer to achieve his/her purpose. Their findings are discussed and a composite table formed and displayed.

This is an opportunity to build in AO7 – Demonstrate presentation skills in a formal setting or AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.


All extracts from section A of the Anthology.

For reviews, Tony Blair text, the Independent and the New Scientist from section B of the anthology.

For texts which persuade, texts by Bill Bryson, the Sunday Times and the Tatler) from section B of the anthology.


3 and 4

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • identify and understand a range of audiences

  • understand how to write for different audiences.

Understanding audience (AO5)

Students are invited to think for a moment then write down all the different audiences they can think of in one minute. These are shared. Select a text from the Anthology and ask students to suggest the audience and how they know what the audience is.

Students are given different audiences on the basis of, for example: age, gender, educational background, social background, status then given a range of texts to sort into different audience on an audience collage. They must be prepared to justify their choices. Students should read through the texts in groups and highlight features that they feel help the writer to appeal to their audience. Their findings are discussed and a composite table formed and displayed.


This is an opportunity to build in AO7 – Demonstrate presentation skills in a formal setting or AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Students should consider a list of features they would include in a text written for two different audiences selected from a random card sample.



Selected extracts from section A and section B of the Anthology.

To compare audience and purpose, the texts from Guy Claxton, the Independent, the Sunday Times and New Scientist could be used from section B.

Extracts 2, 3, 8 and 9 could be used from section A of the anthology.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Audience cards


5 and 6

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • identify the audience of a text

  • identify the purpose of a text

  • understand how form can reveal how and what to write.

Understanding purpose, audience and form (AO5)

Put a pack of random texts on tables. In groups encourage students to investigate the audience and purpose of the texts in front of them. Encourage students to share what they have decided and start to record the results of the investigation on the board.

Project a series of quotations from different texts and explore the audience and purpose of the different examples. Consider the content, register and other language choices that have been made.

Project the different briefs that are given in the Sample Examination Material. Ask students to work in groups to make choices based on the audience and purpose they have been given in the task.


This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Look at a series of different forms that are given in the tasks from the Sample Assessment Material. Ask students to write a set of instructions for how to write these different texts. For instance: how to write a narrative; how to write a letter, etc.


Selected extracts from the Anthology from both section A and section B.

To compare audience and purpose the texts from Guy Claxton, the Independent, the Sunday Times and New Scientist from section B could be used.

From section A, extracts 1, 2, 8 and 9 could be used.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Sample Assessment Materials



7 and 8

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • generate appropriate and engaging ideas to include in writing.

Generating ideas (AO5)

Write the terms ‘subject’, audience’, ‘purpose’ and ‘form’ (SAPF) on the board. Use questioning to establish what each term means. Students should jot down a text they have read in the last 24 hours. They should identify subject, audience, purpose and form for the text.

Take two questions from the sample examination material (one week using Paper 1 and one week using Paper 2). Ask students to colour code using four colours the SAPF required from the question.

With students, consider ways to generate ideas:


  • Prior knowledge

  • Experience

  • Reading about a topic (e.g. from the reading tasks)

  • Reading done before the examination

Consider strategies for noting down ideas:

  • List

  • Spider diagram

  • Mind map

Ask students to select one sample examination task and use one strategy to jot down ideas to write about.



Sample Assessment Materials

9

Paper 1: Imaginative Writing

Students will be able to:

  • use stimuli to generate ideas to include in writing.

Using stimulus material to generate ideas (AO5)

Give students 5 minutes to describe a beach. No stimulus.

What is a good description? Individually, students look at range of ideas and feedback. Move into groups of four. As a group decide on the 10 most important features. Some feedback and discussion on board.

This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Show one picture of a beach. Students orally describe this picture. Write a basic example and show the students. They give feedback on how this paragraph could be improved. Model re-drafting process using ideas from the class of how to make the paragraph more interesting based on the picture. This is an opportunity to assess writing against the levels-based mark scheme for AO5.

With a critical response partner, set target for how their paragraphs could be improved and re-draft paragraph.

Students to reflect on how their paragraphs have developed since they wrote their first attempt.



Stimulus material – pictures from google images or magazines



10

Paper 1: Imaginative Writing

Students will be able to:

  • create interesting and imaginative narratives.

Writing narrative (AO5)

Students discuss what they expect to see in a narrative, e.g. exciting opening, an opening setting the scene, background information on characters and scenarios, developing plot, final conclusion/resolution.



This is an opportunity to build in AO7 – Demonstrate presentation skills in a formal setting or AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Give students a different sample task. They should make a list of all of the things they would have to write to make the story realistic and engaging for the reader, e.g. background, places, events, people. Each group reviews the notes made by a group and adds to them. The whole class decides on one narrative to develop and why.



This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Individually, students focus on a small event that has happened in their lives that relates to the stimulus material/question. They should make notes on:



  • background the reader would need

  • places they would need to describe

  • people they would need to introduce

  • events they would need to describe
  • reactions of characters to events.


These notes can then be used as part of a practice task and can be assessed against the AO5 levels-based mark scheme.

Sample Assessment Materials

11

Paper 1: Imaginative Writing

Students will be able to:

  • create interesting and imaginative descriptions.

Descriptive writing (AO5)

Pick one of the images from the Sample Assessment Materials on Imaginative Writing. Students list as many adjectives about the image they can in 60 seconds. Label the image with the adjectives.

Students should then list the five adjectives that are most important for capturing a sense of the whole picture, giving reasons for their choice.

Students should do the same with nouns and then should select a verb to create a descriptive sentence.

Focus on the importance of being specific when appealing to the senses as this evokes strong feelings in the reader. Use a sense table to get students to note down senses evoked by the images in the stimulus material: sight, smell, taste, sound and touch. Consider what a reader would have experienced that would be similar to what students are describing. Create a simile and a metaphor using the nouns and adjectives collected.


Sample Assessment Materials

12

Paper 1: Imaginative Writing

Students will be able to:

  • create interesting and imaginative monologues.

Writing monologues (AO5)

Ask students to write a definition of a monologue. Share responses and clarify.


This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Students should answer the question 'What is the difference between a monologue and a narrative?’

Students should consider how to get inside the head of a character, as a monologue is a 'talking head'. Students should consider what the character is like, how they behave, what their likes and dislikes are, how they speak, what they want out of life, etc. Students should pick one image of a person and make notes on these features for their chosen picture.

Ask students to pick out words that they use that someone else doesn't, or words and phrases that certain groups of people use. Explain that choosing words and phrases that the character would use in their speech is the most important device for making a monologue sounds like the voice of a person rather than a narrative.

Write a paragraph from the point of view of the character in the chosen picture. The paragraphs can be assessed against the AO5 levels-based mark scheme.


Selected monologue, e.g. Talking Heads by Alan Bennett.

Images of people



13 and 14

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • select the best ideas to write about

  • consider how to organise these ideas into paragraphs.

Planning Writing (AO5)

Encourage students to mind map/ brainstorm/ list ideas onto a page. Encourage them to select the best ideas and list them in an order where it is easy to see how you would move between paragraphs.


This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Model to students how to use topic sentences/ questions at the end of paragraphs and key words repeated throughout the text to connect ideas. You may want to provide students with a piece of writing and ask them to colour in the different strategies that the writer uses to connect ideas in their text. You might also want to ask students to produce the plan for a professional piece of writing – to deconstruct a text to see how it might have been constructed.

Plan a piece of writing using the Sample Assessment Materials, coming up with the ideas as well. Use a different task to the one selected fro the previous session. Create a paragraph plan for the writing using a frame, leaving space for ideas. Write a short advice sheet telling other students how to plan. Include information on how to produce a planning frame and how to create the best structure for different purposes.


Sample Assessment Materials

15 and 16

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • organise ideas effectively

  • identify how to effectively open the writing.

Creating effective openings (AO5)

Select a text and consider the opening line. Consider if it is a line that would attract attention and why or why not.

Students should work in two groups, one to re-write the opening for a young audience, and one to re-write the opening for an older audience.

Students should consider three openings to texts on a particular them, and should evaluate the openings with reasons why they are or are not effective.

Students should then plan three openings to one of the tasks in the Sample Assessment materials. They should then evaluate how effective each opening is, then choose one to open the first paragraph of their text. Students could use the levels-based mark scheme for AO4 reading. Complete the paragraph and then write the opening line of each paragraph to follow.


Selected extracts from section A and section B of the Anthology.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Sample Assessment Materials


17 and 18

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • understand different types of evidence and how to use evidence to support their argument and improve their writing

  • plan a piece of effective writing

  • understand the importance of effective beginnings and endings

  • understand the importance of linking paragraphs into a coherent argument.

Effective planning, beginnings, endings and links (AO5)

Carry out a group discussion on the meaning of evidence and the different types of evidence that can be obtained, e.g. statistics, expert opinion, research information, examples of popular role models, personal anecdote.



This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

In groups, students look at examples of different forms and highlight the way in which evidence is used to persuade, inform, clarify, etc.

Students discuss the importance and purpose of opening and closing sentences. Students examine the opening and closing sentences of the texts they have examined and discuss their effectiveness. They note any differences in terms of form.

This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Students look through one text and highlight the ways in which paragraphs are linked. They map the ways in which the argument is structured.

Selected extracts from section A and section B of the Anthology.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Sample Assessment Materials



19 and 20

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • make appropriate and effective vocabulary choices.

Crafting and using vocabulary for effect (AO5 and AO6)

Select a text and examine the first sentence. Consider the audience for the text and decide whether the text sounds right for the audience, giving reasons. Identify specific words that are not appropriate for audience and suggest alternatives. Rewrite the text using words that are appropriate for the audience.

Students are given an extract of 500 words that contains a significant passage of direct speech and a passage where one of the characters is thinking. In pairs, students identify the vocabulary used by two individual speakers. This might include dialect, accent, words that are repeated, sophistication or simplicity of vocabulary. In groups of four, students discuss how the features they have identified help the writer to create character and preserve authenticity.

This is an opportunity to build in AO7 – Demonstrate presentation skills in a formal setting or AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

In pairs, students highlight vocabulary which might persuade the reader to adopt the same viewpoint as the author. These might include words spoken by a respected character, repetition, emotive vocabulary, opinion presented as fact.

Selected extracts from section A and section B of the Anthology. Extracts 1,3,5, 7 or 9 from section A are particularly useful here.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Sample Assessment Material



21 and 22

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • understand the range of sentence types and structures

  • use a variety of sentence types to create specific effects.

Crafting and using sentences for effect (AO5 and AO6)

Identify and label different types and structures of sentences:



  • Statement

  • Question

  • Exclamation

  • Command

  • Simple

  • Compound

  • Complex

Select a text and ask students to identify different sentence types in it. Ask students to suggest how different sentence types and structures are used by the writer.

Students should then edit a paragraph from the text to include a range of sentence types and structures not used in it.

Ask students to consider when it might be appropriate to use incomplete sentences ad what effect these might have. Consider the positives and negatives of using incomplete sentences in their work.

Sentence types.

Selected extracts from section A and section B of the Anthology.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Sample Assessment Materials


23 and 24

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • select a range of punctuation

  • select punctuation to create specific effects.

Crafting and using punctuation for effect (AO5 and AO6)

Give students a list of punctuation devices, e.g. question mark, exclamation mark, full stop, comma, speech marks, semicolon, colon, brackets, ellipsis, dash etc. Ask students to come up with a sentence using each of them.

Show students unpunctuated sentences and ask them to punctuate them correctly.

Using a paragraph of an extract from the Anthology ask students to amend the punctuation to change the purpose of the text. For example, if it is a text intended to persuade, try changing the punctuation to explain.

Revisit the text written for the 'effective openings' session and encourage students to use a range of punctuation devices for effect.

Selected extracts from section A and section B of the Anthology.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.

Sample Assessment Materials

Punctuation marks

Unpunctuated sentences



25 and 26

Paper 1 and 2 Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:
  • select the most appropriate language for audience and purpose


  • employ vocabulary effectively

  • choose sentences for effect

  • employ punctuation effectively.

Using language effectively (AO5 and AO6)

Provide students with a series of sentences. For each of these lessons on language you may want to use sentences that use a similar audience and purpose but different subject to that found in the Sample Assessment Material. Encourage students to change the vocabulary for different audience and purpose – they investigate the effect of including adjectives/ adverbs and the effect of changing the verb.

Introduce students to the different punctuation available to them. Ask students to write a series of sentences using the same words but using different punctuation. Ask them to think about the effect of the different choices that they have made.

Give students a paragraph that is written entirely in simple sentences. Encourage students to work in pairs to edit the sentences using different sentence types. Ask them to list the changes that they made to the text and ask them to consider the effect of the different choices. This is an opportunity to check work against the levels-based mark scheme for AO6.

Ask one student to write a paragraph. Ask them to swap paragraphs with a partner and issue an editing checklist. Encourage the partner to make as many changes to the paragraph as they can. Ask students to talk through the edited paragraph with their partner explaining the effect of the changes to the language. You may wish to ask students to feedback to the class and form a checklist of effective choices on the board. Link these to the success criteria in the mark scheme for AO6.

Any extract from the Anthology.

Extracts linked to the themes of the Sample Assessment materials.

Alternatively, use materials that are known to be enjoyed by the students and that they have used before in the classroom.


27 and 28

Paper 1 and 2: Imaginative and Transactional Writing

Students will be able to:

  • check that their work is accurate and effective.

Checking and editing (AO6)

Ask students to identify the difference between checking and editing. Editing means considering the choices made in language and structure, and checking mean looking over the work and correcting mistakes.



This is an opportunity to build in AO8 – Listen and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback to presentations.

Give students the paragraph with mistakes in and ask them to identify the errors and amend them. Point out that it is very easy to forget to check and edit an answer in an examination and remind them that marks are given for accuracy and quality of language and structure. Create a checklist of things to look out for in the examination from the tips given in previous sessions.

Students should edit and check two pieces of work they have produced in the course of this unit. Use the mark scheme for AO6 to self-assess the work produced.


Incorrect paragraph

Students' work



29

Paper 1 and 2

Students will be able to:

  • complete a timed response to Paper 1 or 2.

Practice examination in timed conditions

This is an opportunity to complete a full timed response to a Sample Assessment Materials paper.



Sample Assessment Materials



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