No proper nouns as subjects; ALL subjects should be SPECIFIC NOUNS (see examples on page 2)
Instead of Camaro, use sport car
Instead of Sally, use catcher
No PRONOUNS as subjects (see pronoun list on page 2)
Use each subject noun only once per pattern.
Do not use the same subject nouns over and over, from pattern to pattern; stretch your mind and use new specific nouns. Pick a “theme” or “topic” and stick with it: TV show, novel characters, people from history, etc.
Use VIVID VERBS
Use vivid action verbs
Linking verbs should not be used (see list on page 2)
Bad Example: My headache was bad. [NO! NO!]
Good Example: My headache pounded severely.
Any of the verbs from the helping verb list used alone are not considered to be vivid verbs (see list on page 2)
**Prepositional Phrase: A group of words that begins with a preposition, ends with its object of the preposition, and includes adjectives, and possibly adverbs, in between. A prepositional phrase will not have a verb in it. (Preposition modifiers OP)
*Prepositional Phrases act like adjectives and adverbs. (see below)
ADJECTIVE: A word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun
Questions Answered: Which one?
Location of Jobs in a Sentence
Adjective: a word that tells which one,what kind, or how many about the subject, object of the preposition, direct object, appositive, predicate nominative, or indirect object (adj.); most of the time, an adjective will directly precede the noun or pronoun it describes or modifies
Predicate Adjective: an adjective following a linking verb that describes of modifies the subject (PA); follows a linking verb
ADVERB: A word that describes or modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb; many adverbs end in -ly (adv.)
Questions Answered: When? Where? Why? How?
To what extent? Under what condition?
Location: Adverbs can begin or end sentences, or they may be just before or after the word they are modifying or describing.
Test: If the word you believe to be an adverb is at the beginning of a sentence, move it to the end. If the meaning of the sentence stays the same, you have an adverb. (The same also works for moving it from the end to the beginning.)
CONJUNCTION: A word that connects words, phrases, and clauses
Coordinate Conjunctions: words that connect words, phrases, or clauses of the same type, grammatically
and, but, or, for, so, nor, yet Correlative Conjunctions: conjunctions that “travel” in pairs, connecting words, phrases, and clauses of the same type, grammatically
not only…but also both…and
Subordinate Conjunctions: words that begin dependent clauses, mostly adverb clauses
After Because In order that Than When
Although Before Now that That Whenever
As Even if Once Though Where
As if Even though Rather than* Till Whereas*
As long as If Since Unless Wherever
As though* If only So that Until While
*Words marked out are subordinate conjunctions, but the students tend to NOT use them as such.
PRONOUN: A word that takes to place of or refers back to a noun
(An antecedent is the noun that the pronoun refers to or replaces)
Personal Pronoun: a pronoun which is characterized by number, case, and person
he, she, it
him, her, it
his, her, hers, its
Relative Pronoun: a pronoun that begins an adjective clause
Interrogative Pronoun: a pronoun that asks a question
who, whose, whom, which, what
Demonstrative Pronoun: a pronoun that points out or identifies a noun without naming that noun
this, that, these, those
Indefinite Pronoun: a pronoun that does not specifically name its antecedent
INTERJECTION: A word that shows excitement or emotion
OTHER PARTS OF SENTENCES
PHRASE: a group of related words
CLAUSE: a group of related words containing a subject and verb
Independent Clause: a clause that contains a complete thought; can stand alone as a sentence
**Also called a main clause or sentence
Dependent Clause: a clause that does NOT contain a complete thought; can NOT stand alone as a complete sentence
**Also called subordinate clause
Dependent Clauses are used as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns
Adjective Clause—a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun and modifies a noun or pronoun
Adverb Clause—a dependent clause that begins with a subordinate conjunction and modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb
Noun Clause—a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun and acts like a noun (subject, direct object, object of a preposition, indirect object, or predicate nominative) in an independent clause.
VERBAL: a verb form that is not used as a verb
type of verbal
formed by. . .
used as. . .
verb + ed or +ing
“to” + verb
noun, adjective, adverb
verb + ing
**Verbal phrases include the verbal (verb form) and its modifiers (adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases) or completers (direct objects or predicate nominatives)
PATTERN 1 USE SPECIFIC NOUNS AND VIVID VERBS IN A SIMPLE SUBJECT—VERB SENTENCE
The radio blared over the loudspeaker.
The balloon burst.
Her grades slipped this semester.
His pet turtle disappeared.
My cake flopped.
Subjectof a Sentence—a noun or pronoun that tells _________ or_________ the sentence is about
*the subject is usually located near the beginning of the sentence
The more specific the noun used for the subject, the more a sentence will show instead of tell.
general more specific
person boy short stop
person man police officer
thing vehicle sport car
Verb (Predicate) of a Sentence
--a word that shows action or state of being of the subject in a sentence
*the verb usually closely _______________ the subject ----Three Types of VERBS----
ACTION VERBS—show ____________________
Linking Verbs—link a word in the predicate part (after the verb) of a sentence back to the subject