General Guidelines for Writing Pattern Sentences Use specific nouns for subjects



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Sentence Patterns

7th Grade

Mrs. Wright



General Guidelines for Writing Pattern Sentences


  • Use SPECIFIC NOUNS for subjects

    • No proper nouns as subjects; ALL subjects should be SPECIFIC NOUNS (see examples on page 2)

      • Instead of Camaro, use sport car

      • Instead of Sally, use catcher

    • No PRONOUNS as subjects (see pronoun list on page 2)

    • Use each subject noun only once per pattern.

    • Do not use the same subject nouns over and over, from pattern to pattern; stretch your mind and use new specific nouns. Pick a “theme” or “topic” and stick with it: TV show, novel characters, people from history, etc.



  • Use VIVID VERBS

    • Use vivid action verbs

    • Linking verbs should not be used (see list on page 2)

      • Bad Example: My headache was bad. [NO! NO!]

      • Good Example: My headache pounded severely.

    • Any of the verbs from the helping verb list used alone are not considered to be vivid verbs (see list on page 2)

      • Bad Example: The police officer had a car. [NO! NO!]


      • Good Example: The police officer maneuvered his car through the streets.

    • Stay away from the “weasel word” verbs: go, went, gone, said, say, got, get, and put.

  • Sentences should follow the pattern correctly, including punctuation.

  • All words in the sentences should be spelled correctly.





  • Sentence Pattern Scoring

Each individual sentence (written on your own) is worth 3 points. (Assignment=15 pts.)

  • Using any verb not allowed= -3 points

  • Using a pronoun for a subject= -3 points

  • Incomplete sentence or not following the pattern= -3 points

  • Incorrect or missing punctuation= -1 points per error

  • Misspelled words= -1 point per misspelling

  • Specific Noun Examples

Common Noun

woman


car
Specific Noun

mother, teacher

sport car, police car
Proper Noun

Mrs. Rubach

Camaro





  • Pronouns







Nominative Case

Objective Case

Possessive Case

1st Person

Singular

I

me

my, mine

Plural

we

us

our, ours

2nd Person

Singular

you

you

your, yours

Plural

you

you

your, yours

3rd Person

Singular

he, she, it

him, her, it

his, her, hers, its

Plural

they

them

their, theirs



  • Linking Verbs

am is are was were

be being been

appear become feel grow

look remain seem smell

sound stand taste turn



  • Helping Verbs

am is are was were

be being been

have has had

do does did

may might must

can could

shall should

will would





  • Weasel Words

go, went, gone, said, say, got, get, and put



NOUN: A word that names a person, place, thing or idea.

  • Question answered: Who(m)? or What?

  • Location of Jobs in a Sentence:

-Subject: tells who or what the sentence is about (underlined once); usually at the beginning of the sentence

-Object of a Preposition: tells who or what after the preposition (OP); follows a preposition

-Direct Object: tells who or what after an action verb (DO); follows an action verb

-Appositive: tells who or what directly after another noun, renaming that noun (App.); follows another noun

-Predicate Nominative: tells who or what after a linking verb and renames the subject (PN); follows a linking verb

-Indirect Object:





VERB: A word that shows action or existence, or links a word in the predicate part of the sentence back to the subject

Action Verbs: show action (AV)

Helping Verbs: help another verb, either an action verb or a linking verb (HV)

am, is, are, was, were,

be, being, been,

have, has, had,

do, does, did,

may, might, must,

can, could,

shall, should,

will, would

Linking Verbs: link a word (Predicate Nominative or Predicate Adjective) after itself back to the subject (LV)

am, is, are, was, were,

be, being, been,

appear, become, feel, grow,

look, remain, seem, smell,

sound, stand, taste, turn

**ALL tenses (past, present, and future) of these verbs count as linking verbs.

PREPOSITION: A word that shows a relationship between its object and the rest of the sentence

[A preposition MUST have an object (OP)—a noun or pronoun that tells who or what after it—in order to actually be a preposition.]



aboard because of concerning in of since under

about before down inside off through underneath

above behind during instead of on to until

across below except into onto toward up

after beneath for like out towards with

against beside from near outside within

along besides over without

among between past

around beyond

as by

at

**Prepositional Phrase: A group of words that begins with a preposition, ends with its object of the preposition, and includes adjectives, and possibly adverbs, in between. A prepositional phrase will not have a verb in it. (Preposition modifiers OP)

*Prepositional Phrases act like adjectives and adverbs. (see below)



ADJECTIVE: A word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun


  • Questions Answered: Which one?

What kind?

How many?



  • Location of Jobs in a Sentence

Adjective: a word that tells which one, what kind, or how many about the subject, object of the preposition, direct object, appositive, predicate nominative, or indirect object (adj.); most of the time, an adjective will directly precede the noun or pronoun it describes or modifies

Predicate Adjective: an adjective following a linking verb that describes of modifies the subject (PA); follows a linking verb

ADVERB: A word that describes or modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb; many adverbs end in -ly (adv.)

  • Questions Answered: When? Where? Why? How?

To what extent? Under what condition?

  • Location: Adverbs can begin or end sentences, or they may be just before or after the word they are modifying or describing.

  • Test: If the word you believe to be an adverb is at the beginning of a sentence, move it to the end. If the meaning of the sentence stays the same, you have an adverb. (The same also works for moving it from the end to the beginning.)



CONJUNCTION: A word that connects words, phrases, and clauses

Coordinate Conjunctions: words that connect words, phrases, or clauses of the same type, grammatically

and, but, or, for, so, nor, yet

Correlative Conjunctions: conjunctions that “travel” in pairs, connecting words, phrases, and clauses of the same type, grammatically


either…or neither…nor

not only…but also both…and



Subordinate Conjunctions: words that begin dependent clauses, mostly adverb clauses

After Because In order that Than When

Although Before Now that That Whenever

As Even if Once Though Where

As if Even though Rather than* Till Whereas*

As long as If Since Unless Wherever

As though* If only So that Until While

*Words marked out are subordinate conjunctions, but the students tend to NOT use them as such.



PRONOUN: A word that takes to place of or refers back to a noun

(An antecedent is the noun that the pronoun refers to or replaces)



Personal Pronoun: a pronoun which is characterized by number, case, and person








Nominative Case

Objective Case

Possessive Case

1st Person

Singular

I

me

my, mine

Plural

we

us

our, ours

2nd Person

Singular


you

you

your, yours

Plural

you

you

your, yours

3rd Person

Singular

he, she, it

him, her, it

his, her, hers, its

Plural

they

them

their, theirs


Relative Pronoun: a pronoun that begins an adjective clause

who, whose, whom, which, that,

whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever



Interrogative Pronoun: a pronoun that asks a question

who, whose, whom, which, what



Demonstrative Pronoun: a pronoun that points out or identifies a noun without naming that noun

this, that, these, those



Indefinite Pronoun: a pronoun that does not specifically name its antecedent



all

both

everything

nobody

several

another

each

few

none

some


any

each one

many

no one

somebody

anybody

either

most

nothing

someone

anyone

everybody

much

one

something

anything

everyone

neither

other

such



INTERJECTION: A word that shows excitement or emotion


aha

gee

ha

hooray

oops

well

alas

great

hey

oh

ouch

wow


OTHER PARTS OF SENTENCES

PHRASE: a group of related words

CLAUSE: a group of related words containing a subject and verb

Independent Clause: a clause that contains a complete thought; can stand alone as a sentence

**Also called a main clause or sentence


Dependent Clause: a clause that does NOT contain a complete thought; can NOT stand alone as a complete sentence

**Also called subordinate clause



Dependent Clauses are used as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns

Adjective Clause—a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun and modifies a noun or pronoun

Adverb Clause—a dependent clause that begins with a subordinate conjunction and modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb

Noun Clause—a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun and acts like a noun (subject, direct object, object of a preposition, indirect object, or predicate nominative) in an independent clause.

VERBAL: a verb form that is not used as a verb

type of verbal

formed by. . .

used as. . .

participle

verb + ed or +ing

adjective

infinitive

“to” + verb

noun, adjective, adverb

gerund

verb + ing

noun

**Verbal phrases include the verbal (verb form) and its modifiers (adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases) or completers (direct objects or predicate nominatives)

PATTERN 1 USE SPECIFIC NOUNS AND VIVID VERBS IN A

SIMPLE SUBJECT—VERB SENTENCE




  1. The radio blared over the loudspeaker.

  2. The balloon burst.

  3. Her grades slipped this semester.

  4. His pet turtle disappeared.

  5. My cake flopped.






  • Subject of a Sentence—a noun or pronoun that tells _________ or_________ the sentence is about

*the subject is usually located near the beginning of the sentence

  • The more specific the noun used for the subject, the more a sentence will show instead of tell.

Common Noun

general more specific

Proper Noun

person boy short stop

Tony

person man police officer

Officer Jon

thing vehicle sport car

Mustang

place village

Aviston





















Verb (Predicate) of a Sentence


--a word that shows action or state of being of the subject in a sentence

*the verb usually closely _______________ the subject
----Three Types of VERBS----

  1. ACTION VERBS—show ____________________

GOOD VERBS!!!!!


  1. Linking Verbs—link a word in the predicate part (after the verb) of a sentence back to the subject

    1. The infection was gross.

    2. The bloom is pretty.

    3. The sponge is wet.

    4. My headache was bad.

    5. Our car was out of control.





  1. H
    am, is, are, was, were,

    be, being, been,

    have, has, had,

    do, does, did,

    may, might, must,

    can, aould,

    shall, should,

    will, would


    ELPING VERBS—help another verb

*may have more than one helping verb per main verb

  1. The infection had spread.

  2. The bloom will be opening.
  3. The sponge might have dripped.


  4. My headache has been pounding.

  5. Our car could have swerved.


Name ______________________________

Homeroom _____ Due Date ____________
Pattern #1

Subject – Verb

  1. The radio blared over the loudspeaker.

  2. The balloon burst.

  3. Her grades slipped this semester.

  4. His pet turtle disappeared.

  5. My cake flopped.


Practice (Refer to the Guidelines for Writing Pattern Sentences)

Please write 5 sentences with your peer group.
























Please write 5 sentences on your own.

























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