Geography of Egypt The currency

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By Shane Rowan




Contents



  1. Some Facts

  2. Geography of Egypt

  3. The currency

  4. The Calendar

  5. The Sphinx

  6. Pyramids

  7. Hieroglyphics

  8. Cleopatra

  9. Tutankhamen

  10. The Great Egyptians

  11. The Gods

  12. Mummification

  13. Word Scramble

  14. The End!

The World of Ancient Egypt...



Population:
More than 76 million people live in Egypt. Life expectancy is around 70 years. Birth rate is on average 2.95 per woman. Literacy rate is 68% for men and only 47% for women.

Languages:
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes.

Capital
Cairo
the largest city in Africa and the Middle East.
Area
995,450 sq km (384,345 sq mi)
most of which are is desert and desert like area
Population
nearly 70 million
Currency:
Egyptian Pounds (EGP) is the local currency in Egypt.

Language
Main language: Egyptian Arabic
Second language: English
Third language: French
Religion

Muslim and Christian, an estimated 27% of the population are Christians and the rest mainly Muslims




Geography

The Nile

    The Nile is the longest river in the world stretching 6695 km (4184 miles). It was used for transportation and for people to live by the river for water supply. The river's current is very strong and deadly.  They made boats to bring supplies across the Nile and also to go up and down the river for trade across Africa.

     Once a year the Nile will overflow its banks causing the crop to get flooded. Instead of the farmers being angry, they were overjoyed, because they had water for their crops. Egypt is a desert and there's not much water to be spared. This is called inundation, it's a holiday for farmers and other people. They had irrigation so the crops wouldn't dry up in the unbearable desert heat. Back then, everyone didn't have to work on that day when inundation came, instead they would have a feast.

But, in the morning every one has to go back to work.

         "The Black Land" was on one side of the Nile and was used to grow crops. It was the only land you could grow crops on. "The Red Land" protected Egypt from armies with its desert sand. It also provided metals and semi-precious stones. The Egyptians melted and then molded the metals into spears and swords and many other weapons, sold them and make a lot of money. make them into sculptures, and there are many other ways that the egyptians used these materials.

        An Oasis is an area of land in the desert were there is water. Some oasis's where used to grow crops. One was made into a vineyard and provided wine for the Pharaoh. Some oasis's actually have plant life growing by it, even trees!



The main currency in Egypt is the Egyptian Pound




Egyptian pound
جنيه مصري (Arabic)










Reverse of 1 Egyptian pound

Obverse of 100 Egyptian pound



Symbol

£, LE, or ج.م


Coins

5, 10, 20, 25, 50 piasters, 1 pound


Banknotes

5, 10, 25, 50 piastres
1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 pounds


Central bank

Central Bank of Egypt


The Egyptian pound, known in Egyptian Arabic as the gineih.It is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or 1000 malleem.

The currency code is EGP. Locally, the abbreviation LE or L.E., which stands for livre égyptienne (French for Egyptian pound) is frequently used. and £E are also much less-frequently used.

The Egyptian Calendar


The Egyptian Calendar has only three seasons

These seasons are…


  1. Akhet



  1. Proyet



  1. Shomu

Akhet was the first season. It lasted from June 21st to October 21st on our calendar. Akhet consisted of four 30 day months.

Proyet was the second season. It lasted from October 21st to February 21st. It also contained four months.

Shomu was the third, and last, season. It lasted from February 21st to June 21st. Like the other seasons, it is four months. Shomu was the season that we call Summer.

The Sphynx

The job of the Sphynx was to guard the pyramids which contained the bodies of Pharaohs.









As you can see from the photographs the sphinx was always placed near the pyramids


Pyramids



The Pyramids of Giza:

These massive, 4,000 year old structures have intrigued people for ages. Each of them was constructed by crews of 20,000 to 30,000 men and could take up to 20 years to build! Each pyramid's construction began when a pharaoh took the throne because it had to be finished by the time that he died. These three pyramids were built for the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkuare.

 

The Earliest Pyramid:
The first pyramid constructed was built for king Snefru the first in the fourth dynasty. It was built at Dashur to be an indestructible tomb to protect Snefru all throughout the afterlife.

Construction:


Pyramids were built using huge blocks of quarried limestone. The earlier pyramids had the burial chambers under the pyramid, but when these tombs were easily robbed, the chambers were moved to the heart of the pyramid.


Hieroglyphics is a system of writing, that the ancient Egyptians used, in which picture symbols were used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound. Hieroglyphs literally mean “to carve into stone”, and dates back to 3100BC. To the ancient Egyptians writing and art were interconnected and can be seen on walls or stone tablets and monuments. Here are some examples …..

Have a look at the letters in your name… It would take a long time to write a story or even your name in HIEROGLYPHICS!!


Egypt was ruled by people called pharaohs.
Here is the story of Cleopatra, she was one of the most famous Pharohs…….

            In the spring of around 51 B.C., Ptolemy died leaving the throne to his eighteen year old daughter Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII . Cleopatra was born in Alexandria in 69 B.C. She had two older sisters, one younger sister, and two younger brothers. A according to the Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to take consort with either a brother or a son, whatever the age was, it didn't matter. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII, who was twelve years old. She soon fell in love with Caesar.

        The Alexandria wars caused death to her own flesh and blood. Ptomelys XIII soldiers surrounded Caesar's troops around November, 49 B.C. Ptomelys XIII drowned in the Nile trying to flee. Soon her sisters betrayed her. Cleopatra never forgave them and had them killed or some people believe.
        Because of her brothers death, Cleopatra was the ruler of Egypt. But now she had to marry her other brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. But Cleopatra was still in love with Caesar so they had a 2 month long trip together. Later Cleopatra and Caesar had a son named Caesarian. Caesar claimed Caesarian his son. Other people got upset because they thought that he was going to marry Cleopatra and brake the law. Caesar was killed by his senators is Rome.
        Cleopatra was planning on joining with Mark Anthony because the harvest was bad and inundation was low. The thing was that Anthony was married and so he divorced his wife for Cleopatra. After Anthony's death, Cleopatra committed suicide. Her death was the end of egyptian monarchs. Cleopatra was the last great Pharaoh.

Tutankhamun

In 1323 B.C., a very young Egyptian pharaoh died. Tutankhamun, or King Tut as people call him,,is the best known Pharaoh of ancient Egypt. He was most likely to be the son of Akhenaten, a king of the 18th dynasty. His mother was probably Queen Kiya, one of the two wives of Akhenaten. Ankhesenpeeten, his older half sister, became his queen. When he was nine, he sat at the throne in 1333 B.C. He reigned until his death at the age of 17 or 18 years old. Some think that he was murdered and others think that he was deliberately sent into battle and was killed. However his cause of death is unknown. People who believe that he was murdered point at the hole in his skull as evidence. His body was badly preserved so we may never know the true fate of this young, but famous pharaoh.

    Howard Carter found King Tut's tomb. He was in Egypt looking for anything that had not been discovered already. He had been in Egypt for many years and he and his crew of archaeologists had not even found a broken peice of pot; so they say. The crew was getting angry. Everyone gave up except for Howard Carter. Then he realized that there was one spot he hadn't looked. So they journeyed to that place expecting to find nothing. Howard Carter was digging, he found a step! He kept digging. Then he found another step, and then there was a whole flight of stair's descending to the tomb were Tutankhamun lie in his eternal slumber. When they opened the tomb they asked Howard Carter what he saw. He said:
"I see wondrous things"





The Curse
All the men who visited the tomb died. One man died exactly the same time of his pet dog. The weirdest case, was when all the lights in the hotel went off. People heard a shrill scream. Then the lights came back on. They rushed to the room where the scream originated. They found an archaeologist dead. Not a single puncture wound or any signs of being choked to death. Just a dead man. He is the only one who knows what happened. Howard Carter was the only one who lived to be about 74 years old. That is the the story of the Pharaohs Curse.


Tutenkamun

Tutenkamuns mask


His tomb

His feet

The Great Egyptians

The Great Egyptians were very complex and built the Legendary…

1. Pyramids Of Giza


2. The Great Sphinx



3. Canopic Jars



The Egyptians Worshiped Many Gods Such As…




  1. Ra






  1. Hathor


God of

Name

Appearance

Sun

Ra

head of falcon and sun disk

Music

Hathor

horns of cow and sun disk

Destruction

Sekhmet

head of lion

Sky

Nut

blue with golden stars

Earth

Geb

colour of plants and Nile mud

Dead

Osiris

dressed in white with crook and flail

Desert


Seth

animal head with long curved snout

Pharoah

Horus

head of hawk and crown of Egypt

Magic

Isis

throne on head or holding baby

Wisdom

Thoth

head of ibis

Embalming

Anubis

head of jackal

Justice

Ma'at

feather in her hair

Creation

Amun

crowned with feathers

Cats

Bastet

head of cat
E gyptian gods



Mummification



The mummification process has two stages. The first one is called embalming. The embalming process cleans the body for the wrapping, the second stage. The wrapping has a number of special steps that must be followed with great care, for if you were being mummified, you must be an extremely important person.

Embalming

Step 1: The body is washed with palm wine.
Step 2: The body is rinsed with water from the Nile River.
Step 3: A small cut is made in the left side of the body.
Step 4: The internal organs which are the liver, lungs, small intestines, and large intestines, are removed.
Step 5: The brains are removed. A long hook inserted through the nose will pull the brains out. (The Egyptians did not know what the brain was for, so they removed it.)
Step 6: The body is covered and stuffed with natron. This is known as the drying stage.
Step 7: Wait forty days for the body to dry.
Step 8: The body will be washed with water from the Nile River.
Step 9: The body is covered with sweet smelling oils.
Step 10: The body is stuffed with dry things, such as sawdust, leaves, and linen.
Step 11: The body is covered with more oils.
Step 12: The internal organs are put into the canopic jars.
Now the body is ready for the next stage, wrapping.








Wrapping

Step 1: The head and neck are wrapped.

Step 2: The fingers and toes are wrapped.

Step 3: The arms and legs are wrapped.
Step 4: The sacred amulets are placed. The Isis knot, and the Plummet.
Step 5: The spells from the book of the dead are read.
Step 6: The arms and legs are tied together.
Step 7: A scroll is placed between the hands of the deceased. 
Step 8: The full body is wrapped.
Step 9: The body is painted with liquid resin as glue.
Step 10: A cloth with Osiris painted on it is wrapped around the body.
Step 11: A large cloth is wrapped around the body.
Step 12: Linen stripes are wrapped around the body to hold the cloth in place.
Step 13: The mummy is put in the first coffin.
Step 14: The mummy is put in the second coffin.
Step 15: The funeral is held.
Step 16: The opening of the mouth ceremony is performed.
Step 17: The mummy is put in the sarcophagus.
Step 18: The mummy is put in its final resting place, the tomb.






Anubis

Anubis was the god of embalming and the dead. He was believed to watch over the process of mummification.


Word Scramble Word Scramble
1.   The King who built the pyramids of giza - HUKUF

2. A tomb of most early Kings - YRMDIPA

3. First woman Pharaoh - SEHPTUATS

4. Most famous Pharaoh - NMHNTTEAKAU

5. Discverer of King Tut's tomb - DAORWH RTAERC

6. The longest river in the world - ETH EILN

7. The plant that Egyptians use in many cosmetics - NEHAN

8. Cats, bulls, and ______ were enbalmed and buried - SEBIIS


9. Egypt was ruled by kings called __________ - HSRAOAHP
10. The topic of this project - CTNAEIN GPYTE

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The End!

Signed : _____________________

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