Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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5.115. The purification prescribed for all (sorts of) liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass through them, for solid things by sprinkling (them with water), for (objects) made of wood by planing them.

majRn< y}paÇa[a< pai[na y}kmRi[, cmsana< ¢ha[a< c zuiÏ> à]alnen tu. 5£116

5.116. At sacrifices the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and Grahas, and of (other) sacrificial vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand, and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water).

cê[a< öuK£öuva[a< c zuiÏrœ %:[en vair[a, Sáy£zUpR£zkqana< c musl£%lUolSy c. 5£117

5.117. The Karu and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with hot water, likewise (the wooden sword, called) Sphya, the winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart (for bringing the grain), the pestle and the mortar.

AiÑs! tu àae][< zaEc< bøna< xaNy£vassam!, à]alnen Tv! ALpanam! AiÑ> zaEc< ivxIyte. 5£118

5.118. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them with water; but the purification of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by washing them.

cElvt! £ cmR[a< zuiÏrœ vEdlana< twa£@v c, zak£mUl£)lana< c xaNyvt! £ zuiÏrœ #:yte. 5£119

5.119. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes; vegetables, roots, and fruit like grain;

kaEzey£Aivkyaerœ ^;E> k…tpanam! AiròkE>, ïI)lErœ A. 5£120

5.120. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth; blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit); Amsupattas with Bel fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow mustard.

]aEmvt! £ zŒ£z&¼a[am! AiSw£dNtmySy c, zuiÏrœ ivjanta kayaR gae£mUÇe[£%dken va. 5£121

5.121. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch-shells, horn, bone and ivory, like linen cloth, or with a mixture of cow's urine and water.

àae][at! t&[£kaó< c plal< c£@v zuXyit, majRn£%paÃnErœ veZm pun>paken m&t! £ mym!. 5£122

5.122. Grass, wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water), a house by sweeping and smearing (it with cowdung or whitewash), an earthen (vessel) by a second burning.

m*Erœ mUÇE> purI;Erœ va óIvnEhœ pUyzaei[tE> m*Erœ mUÇE> purI;Erœ va óIvnEhœ pUyzaei[tE> 5£123

5.123. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, saliva, pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning.

s zuXyit pÂi->. 5£124

5.124. Land is purified by (the following) five (modes, viz.) by sweeping, by smearing (it with cowdung), by sprinkling (it with cows' urine or milk), by scraping, and by cows staying (on it during a day and night).

pi]£jGx< gva ºatm! AvxUtm! Av]utm!, Ëi;t< kez£kIqEz! c m&t! £ à]epe[ zuXyit. 5£125

5.125. (Food) which has been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched (with the foot), sneezed on, or defiled by hair or insects, becomes pure by scattering earth (over it).

yavt! £ n£ApETymeXya­adœ gNxae lepz! c tt! £ k«t>, tavn! m&dœ£vair c£Adey< svaRsu ÔVyzuiÏ;u. 5£126

5.126. As long as the (foul) smell does not leave an (object) defiled by impure substances, and the stain caused by them (does not disappear), so long must earth and water be applied in cleansing (inanimate) things.

ÇIi[ deva> pivÇai[ äaü[anam! AkLpyn!, A†òm! AiÑrœ ini[R­< yc! c vaca àzSyte. 5£127

5.127. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that (on which) no (taint is) visible, what has been washed with water, and what has been commended (as pure) by the word (of a Brahmana).

Aap> zuÏa -Uimgta vEt&:{y< yasu gaerœ -vet!, AVyaÝaz! cedœ AmeXyen gNx£v[R£rs£AiNvta>. 5£128

5.128. Water, sufficient (in quantity) in order to slake the thirst of a cow, possessing the (proper) smell, colour, and taste, and unmixed with impure substances, is pure, if it is collected on (pure) ground.

inTy< zuÏ> kaé£hSt> p{ye yc! c àsairtm!, äücairgt< -Eúy< inTy< meXym! #it iSwit>. 5£129

5.129. The hand of an artisan is always pure, so is (every vendible commodity) exposed for sale in the market, and food obtained by begging which a student holds (in his hand) is always fit for use; that is a settled rule.

inTym! AaSy< zuic ôI[a< zk…in> )lpatne, àöve c zuicrœ vTs> ña m&g¢h[e zuic>. 5£130

5.130. The mouth of a woman is always pure, likewise a bird when he causes a fruit to fall; a calf is pure on the flowing of the milk, and a dog when he catches a deer.

ñi-rœ htSy yn! ma. 5£131

5.131. Manu has declared that the flesh (of an animal) killed by dogs is pure, likewise (that) of a (beast) slain by carnivorous (animals) or by men of low caste (Dasyu), such as Kandalas.

^Xv¡ na-erœ yain oain tain meXyain svRz>, yaNyxs! taNymeXyain dehac! c£@v mlaz! Cyuta>. 5£132

5.132. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure, (but) those which are below the navel are impure, as well as excretions that fall from the body.

mi]ka ivàu;z! caya gaErœ Añ> sUyRrZmy>, rjae -Urœ vayurœ Ai¶z! c SpzeR meXyain inidRzet!. 5£133

5.133. Flies, drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of the sun, dust, earth, the wind, and fire one must know to be pure to the touch.

iv:£mUÇ£%TsgR£zuiÏ£Aw¡ m&t! £ vayaRdeym! AwRvt!, dEihkana< mlana< c zuiÏ;u ÖadzSv! Aip. 5£134

5.134. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected, earth and water must be used, as they may be required, likewise in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body.

vsa zu³m! As&J£m¾a mUÇ£iv:£ºa[£k[R£iv:£, ðeZm Aïu Ëi;ka Svedae Öadz£@te n&[a< mla>. 5£135

5.135. Oily exudations, semen, blood, (the fatty substance of the) brain, urine, faeces, the mucus of the nose, ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies).

@ka il¼e gude itös! twa£@kÇ kre dz, %-yae> sÝ datVya m&d> zuiÏm! A-IPsta. 5£136

5.136. He who desires to be pure, must clean the organ by one (application of) earth, the anus by (applying earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying it) seven (times).

@tt! £ zaEc< g&hSwana< iÖgu[< äücair[am!, iÇgu[< Syadœ vnSwana< ytIna< tu ctuguR[m!. 5£137

5.137. Such is the purification ordained for householders; (it shall be) double for students, treble for hermits, but quadruple for ascetics.

k«Tva mUÇ< purI;< va oaNyacaNt %pSp&zet!, vedm! AXye:yma[z! c AÚm! Aî

5.138. When he has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water, sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he is going to recite the Veda, and always before he takes food.

iÇrœ Aacamedœ Ap> pUv¡ iÖ> àm&Jyat! ttae muom!, zrIr< zaEcm! #½n! ih ôI zUÔs! tu sk«t! sk«t!. 5£139

5.139. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only).

zUÔa[a< maisk< kay¡ vpn< NyayvitRnam!, vEZyvt! £ zaEckLpz! c iÖj£%i½ò< c -aejnm!. 5£140

5.140. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their heads); their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an Aryan's meal.

n£%i½ò< k…vRte muOya ivàu;ae A¼< n yaiNt ya>, n ZmïUi[ gtaNyaSy< n dNtaNt£ARixiótm!. 5£141

5.141. Drops (of water) from the mouth which do not fall on a limb, do not make (a man) impure, nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth, nor what adheres to the teeth.

Sp&ziNt ibNdv> padaE y Aacamyt> pran!, -aEimkEs! te sma }eya n tErœ Aaàytae -vet!. 5£142

5.142. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to others, must be considered as equal to (water collected on the ground; they render him not impure.

%i½òen tu s kw< cn, Ainxay£@v tdœ ÔVym! AacaNt> zuictam! #yat!. 5£143

5.143. He who, while carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an impure (person or thing), shall become pure, if he performs an ablution, without putting down that object.

vaNtae ivir­> õaTva tu "&tàaznm! Aacret!, Aacamedœ @v -u®va£AÚ< õan< mEwuinn> Sm&tm!. 5£144

5.144. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards eat clarified butter; but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten, let him only sip water; bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman.

suÞva ]uTva c -u®va c inóIVy£%®va£An&tain c, pITva£Apae AXye:yma[z! c Aacamet! àytae Aip sn!. 5£145

5.145. Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water after sleeping, sneezing, eating, spitting, telling untruths, and drinking water, likewise when he is going to study the Veda.

@;a< zaEcivix> k«Tõae ÔVyzuiÏs! twa£@v c, %­ae v> svRv[aRna< ôI[a< xmaRn! inbaext. 5£146

5.146. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes, and those for cleaning (inanimate) things, have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of women.

balya va yuvTya va v&Ïya va£Aip yaei;ta, n SvatÙ!(e[ ktRVy< ik< icdœ kay¡ g&he:v! Aip. 5£147

5.147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.

baLye ipturœ vze itóet! pai[¢ahSy yaEvne, puÇa[a< -tRir àete n -jet! ôI SvtÙtam!. 5£148

5.148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.

ipÇa -ÇaR sutErœ va£Aip n£#½edœ ivrhm! AaTmn>, @;a< ih ivrhe[ ôI gýeR k…yaRdœ %-e k…le. 5£149

5.149. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons; by leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband's) families contemptible.

sda àùòya -aVy< g&hkayeR c d]ya, sus

5.150. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in expenditure.

ySmE d*at! ipta Tv! @na< æata va£Anumte iptu>, t< zuïU;et jIvNt< s

5.151. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory).

m¼law¡ SvSTyyn< y}z! c£Asa< àjapte>, àyuJyte ivvahe tu àdan< SvaMy£kar[m!. 5£152

5.152. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides), the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana), and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal (by the father or guardian) is the cause of (the husband's) dominion (over his wife).

An! £ \tav! \tukale c mÙ£s, suoSy inTy< data£#h prlaeke c yaei;t>. 5£153

5.153. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next.

iv£zIl> kam£v&Äae va gu[Erœ va pirvijRt>, %pcayR> iôya saXVya stt< devvt! pit>. 5£154

5.154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife.

n£AiSt ôI[a< p&wg! y}ae n ìt< n£APyupae;[m!, pit< zuïU;te yen ten SvgeR mhIyte. 5£155

5.155. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart (from their husbands); if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that (reason alone) be exalted in heaven.

pai[¢ahSy saXvI ôI jIvtae va m&tSy va, pitlaekm! A-IPsNtI n£Acret! ik< icdœ Aiàym!. 5£156

5.156. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or dead.

kam< tu Kspyedœ deh< pu:p£mUl£)lE> zu-E>, n tu nam£Aip g&ŸIyat! pTyaE àete prSy tu. 5£157

5.157. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) pure flowers, roots, and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man after her husband has died.

AasIt£A mr[at! KsaNta inyta äücair[I, yae xmR @kpÆIna< ka'œ]NtI tm! AnuÄmm!. 5£158

5.158. Until death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled, and chaste, and strive (to fulfil) that most excellent duty which (is prescribed) for wives who have one husband only.

Anekain shöai[ k…mar£äücair[am!, idv< gtain ivàa[am! Ak«Tva k…ls

5.159. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have gone to heaven without continuing their race.

m&te -tRir saFœvI ôI äücyeR VyviSwta, Svg¡ g½TypuÇa£Aip ywa te äücair[>. 5£160

5.160. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste men.

ApTylae-adœ ya tu ôI -taRrm! AitvtRte, sa£#h inNdam! Avaßaeit prlaekac! c hIyte. 5£161

5.161. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses her place with her husband (in heaven).

n£ANy£%TpÚa àja£AiSt£#h n c£APyNypir¢he, n iÖtIyz! c saXvIna< Kv icdœ -taR£%pidZyte. 5£162

5.162. Offspring begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful), nor (does offspring begotten) on another man's wife (belong to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women.

pit< ihTva£Apk«ò< Svm! %Tk«ò< ya in;evte, inN*a£@v sa -vel! laeke pr£pUvaR£#it c£%Cyte. 5£163

5.163. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world, and is called a remarried woman (parapurva).

Vyi-carat! tu -tuR> ôI laeke àaßaeit inN*tam!, z&gal£yaein< àaßaeit pap£raegEz! c pIf(te. 5£164

5.164. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this world, (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin.

pit< ya n£Ai-crit mnae£vaG£dehs saXvI£#it c£%Cyte. 5£165

5.165. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord, resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and is called a virtuous (wife).

Anen narI v&Äen mnae£vaG£dehs

5.166. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a place near her husband.

@v< v&Äa< s£v[a¡ ôI— iÖjait> pUvRmair[Im!, dahyedœ Ai¶haeÇe[ y}paÇEz! c xmRivt!. 5£167

5.167. A twice-born man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal caste who conducts herself thus and dies before him, with (the sacred fires used for) the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements.

-ayaRyE pUvRmair{yE dÅva£A¶In! ANTykmRi[, punrœ dari³ya< k…yaRt! punrœ Aaxanm! @v c. 5£168

5.168. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who dies before him, he may marry again, and again kindle (the fires).

Anen ivixna inTy< pÂy}an! n hapyet!, iÖtIym! Aayu;ae -ag< k«t£darae g&he vset!. 5£169

5.169. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules, he must never neglect the five (great) sacrifices, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own) house during the second period of his life.

Chapter 6
@v< g&haïme iSwTva ivixvt! õatkae iÖj>, vne vset! tu inytae ywavdœ ivijt£#iNÔy>. 6£01

6.1. A twice-born Snataka, who has thus lived according to the law in the order of householders, may, taking a firm resolution and keeping his organs in subjection, dwell in the forest, duly (observing the rules given below).

g&hSws! tu ywa pZyedœ vlI£piltm! AaTmn>, ApTySy£@v c£ApTy< tda£Ar{y< smaïyet!. 6£02

6.2. When a householder sees his (skin) wrinkled, and (his hair) white, and. the sons of his sons, then he may resort to the forest.


6.3. Abandoning all food raised by cultivation, and all his belongings, he may depart into the forest, either committing his wife to his sons, or accompanied by her.

Ai¶haeÇ< smaday g&ý< c£Ai¶pir½dm!, ¢amadœ Ar{y< in>s&Ty invsen! inyt£#iNÔy>. 6£04

6.4. Taking with him the sacred fire and the implements required for domestic (sacrifices), he may go forth from the village into the forest and reside there, duly controlling his senses.

muin£AÚErœ ivivxErœ meXyE> zak£mUl£)len va, @tan! @v mhay}an! invRpedœ ivixpUvRkm!. 6£05

6.5. Let him offer those five great sacrifices according to the rule, with various kinds of pure food fit for ascetics, or with herbs, roots, and fruit.

vsIt cmR cIr< va say< õayat! àge twa, jqaz! c ib-&yan! inTy< Zmïu£laem£noain c. 6£06

6.6. Let him wear a skin or a tattered garment; let him bathe in the evening or in the morning; and let him always wear (his hair in) braids, the hair on his body, his beard, and his nails (being unclipped).

ydœ£-úy< Syadœ ttae d*adœ bil< i-]a< c zi­t>, AP£mUl£)l£i-]ai-rœ AcRyedœ Aaïmagtan!. 6£07

6.7. Let him perform the Bali-offering with such food as he eats, and give alms according to his ability; let him honour those who come to his hermitage with alms consisting of water, roots, and fruit.

SvaXyaye inTyyu­> Syadœ daNtae mEÇ> smaiht>, data inTym! Anadata svR-UtanukMpk>. 6£08

6.8. Let him be always industrious in privately reciting the Veda; let him be patient of hardships, friendly (towards all), of collected mind, ever liberal and never a receiver of gifts, and compassionate towards all living creatures.

vEtaink< c ju÷yadœ Ai¶haeÇ< ywaivix, dzRm! ASkNdyn! pvR paE[Rmas< c yaegt>. 6£09

6.9. Let him offer, according to the law, the Agnihotra with three sacred fires, never omitting the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices at the proper time.

\]eòœY£A¢y[< c£@v catumaRSyain c£Ahret!, turay[< c ³mzae d]Syaynm! @v c. 6£10

6.10. Let him also offer the Nakshatreshti, the Agrayana, and the Katurmasya (sacrifices), as well as the Turayana and likewise the Dakshayana, in due order.

vasNt£zardErœ meXyErœ muin£AÚE> Svym! AaùtE>, puraefaza

6.11. With pure grains, fit for ascetics, which grow in spring and in autumn, and which he himself has collected, let him severally prepare the sacrificial cakes (purodasa) and the boiled messes (karu), as the law directs.

devta_ys! tu tΉ ÷Tva vNy< meXytr< hiv>, ze;m! AaTmin yuÃIt lv[< c Svy< k«tm!. 6£12

6.12. Having offered those most pure sacrificial viands, consisting of the produce of the forest, he may use the remainder for himself, (mixed with) salt prepared by himself.

Swlj£Adkzakain pu:p£mUl£)lain c, meXyv&]£%ÑvaNy*at! õeha

6.13. Let him eat vegetables that grow on dry land or in water, flowers, roots, and fruits, the productions of pure trees, and oils extracted from forest-fruits.

vjRyen! mxu ma

6.14. Let him avoid honey, flesh, and mushrooms growing on the ground (or elsewhere, the vegetables called) Bhustrina, and Sigruka, and the Sleshmantaka fruit.

Tyjedœ Aañyuje mais muin£AÚ< pUvRs

6.15. Let him throw away in the month of Asvina the food of ascetics, which he formerly collected, likewise his worn-out clothes and his vegetables, roots, and fruit.

n )alk«òm! AîIyadœ %Ts&òm! Aip ken ict!, n ¢amjataNyataeR Aip mUlai[ c )lain c. 6£16

6.16. Let him not eat anything (grown on) ploughed (land), though it may have been thrown away by somebody, nor roots and fruit grown in a village, though (he may be) tormented (by hunger).

Ai¶pKv£Aznae va Syat! kalpKv-uJ£ @v va, AZm£k…”ae -vedœ va£Aip dNt£%lUoilkae Aip va. 6£17

6.17. He may eat either what has been cooked with fire, or what has been ripened by time; he either may use a stone for grinding, or his teeth may be his mortar.

s*> à]alkae va Syan! mas£s

6.18. He may either at once (after his daily meal) cleanse (his vessel for collecting food), or lay up a store sufficient for a month, or gather what suffices for six months or for a year.

n­< c£AÚ< smîIyadœ idva va£AùTy zi­t>, ctuwRkailkae va Syat! Syadœ va£APyòm£kailk>. 6£19

6.19. Having collected food according to his ability, he may either eat at night (only), or in the day-time (only), or at every fourth meal-time, or at every eighth.

caNÔay[ivxanErœ va zu¬£k«:[e c vtRyet!, p]aNtyaerœ va£APyîIyadœ yvagU< Kviwta< sk«t!. 6£20

6.20. Or he may live according to the rule of the lunar penance (Kandrayana, daily diminishing the quantity of his food) in the bright (half of the month) and (increasing it) in the dark (half); or he may eat on the last days of each fortnight, once (a day only), boiled barley-gruel.

pu:p£mUl£)lErœ va£Aip kevlErœ vtRyet! sda, kalpKvE> Svy< zI[ERrœ vEoansmte iSwt>. 6£21

6.21. Or he may constantly subsist on flowers, roots, and fruit alone, which have been ripened by time and have fallen spontaneously, following the rule of the (Institutes) of Vikhanas.

-UmaE ivpirvteRt itóedœ va àpdErœ idnm!, Swan£Asna_ya< ivhret! svne;u£%pyÚ! Ap>. 6£22

6.22. Let him either roll about on the ground, or stand during the day on tiptoe, (or) let him alternately stand and sit down; going at the Savanas (at sunrise, at midday, and at sunset) to water in the forest (in order to bathe).

¢I:me p£tpas! tu Syadœ v;aRSv! Aæ£Avkaizk>, AaÔR£vasas! tu hemNte ³mzae vxRy. 6£23

6.23. In summer let him expose himself to the heat of five fires, during the rainy season live under the open sky, and in winter be dressed in wet clothes, (thus) gradually increasing (the rigour of) his austerities.

%pSp&z. 6£24

6.24. When he bathes at the three Savanas (sunrise, midday, and sunset), let him offer libations of water to the manes and the gods, and practising harsher and harsher austerities, let him dry up his bodily frame.

A¶In! AaTmin vEtanan! smaraePy ywaivix, Ani¶rœ Ainket> Syan! muinrœ mUl£)l£Azn>. 6£25

6.25. Having reposited the three sacred fires in himself, according to the prescribed rule, let him live without a fire, without a house, wholly silent, subsisting on roots and fruit,

AàyÆ> suoaweR;u äücarI xra£Azy>, zr[e:v! Ammz! c£@v v&]mUl£inketn>. 6£26

6.26. Making no effort (to procure) things that give pleasure, chaste, sleeping on the bare ground, not caring for any shelter, dwelling at the roots of trees.

tapse:v! @v ivàe;u yaiÇk< -E]m! Aahret!, g&hmeix;u c£ANye;u iÖje;u vnvais;u. 6£27

6.27. From Brahmanas (who live as) ascetics, let him receive alms, (barely sufficient) to support life, or from other householders of the twice-born (castes) who reside in the forest.

¢amadœ AaùTy va£AîIyadœ AòaE ¢asan! vne vsn!, àitg&ý puqen£@v pai[na zklen va. 6£28

6.28. Or (the hermit) who dwells in the forest may bring (food) from a village, receiving it either in a hollow dish (of leaves), in (his naked) hand, or in a broken earthen dish, and may eat eight mouthfuls.

@taz! c£ANyaz! c sevet dI]a ivàae vne vsn!, ivivxaz! c£Apin;dIrœ AaTms. 6£29

6.29. These and other observances must a Brahmana who dwells in the forest diligently practise, and in order to attain complete (union with) the (supreme) Soul, (he must study) the various sacred texts contained in the Upanishads,

\i;i-rœ äaü[Ez! c£@v g&hSwErœ @v seivta>, iv*a£tpae£ivv&Ï(w¡ zrIrSy c zuÏye. 6£30

6.30. (As well as those rites and texts) which have been practised and studied by the sages (Rishis), and by Brahmana householders, in order to increase their knowledge (of Brahman), and their austerity, and in order to sanctify their bodies;

Apraijta< va£ASway ìjedœ idzm! Aijüg>, Aa inpatat! £ zrIrSy yu­ae vair£Ainl£Azn>. 6£31

6.31. Or let him walk, fully determined and going straight on, in a north-easterly direction, subsisting on water and air, until his body sinks to rest.

Aasa< mhi;RcyaR[a< Ty®va£ANytmya tnum!, vIt£zaek£-yae ivàae äülaeke mhIyte. 6£32

6.32. A Brahmana, having got rid of his body by one of those modes practised by the great sages, is exalted in the world of Brahman, free from sorrow and fear.

vne;u c ivùTy£@v< t&tIy< -agm! Aayu;>, ctuwRm! Aayu;ae -ag< TyKva s¼an! pirìjet!. 6£33

6.33. But having thus passed the third part of (a man's natural term of) life in the forest, he may live as an ascetic during the fourth part of his existence, after abandoning all attachment to worldly objects.

Aaïmadœ Aaïm< gTva ÷t£haemae ijt£#iNÔy>, i-]a£bil£pirïaNt> àìjn! àeTy vxRte. 6£34

6.34. He who after passing from order to order, after offering sacrifices and subduing his senses, becomes, tired with (giving) alms and offerings of food, an ascetic, gains bliss after death.

\[ain ÇI{ypak«Ty mnae mae]e invezyet!, Anpak«Ty mae]< tu sevmanae ìjTyx>. 6£35

6.35. When he has paid the three debts, let him apply his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation; he who seeks it without having paid (his debts) sinks downwards.

AxITy ivixvdœ vedan! puÇa, #òœva c zi­tae y}Erœ mnae mae]e invezyet!. 6£36

6.36. Having studied the Vedas in accordance with the rule, having begat sons according to the sacred law, and having offered sacrifices according to his ability, he may direct his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation.

AnxITy iÖjae vedan! AnuTpa* twa sutan!, Ainòœva c£@v y}Ez! c mae]m! #½n! ìjTyx>. 6£37

6.37. A twice-born man who seeks final liberation, without having studied the Vedas, without having begotten sons, and without having offered sacrifices, sinks downwards.

àajapTy< inéPy£#iò< svRveds£di][am!, AaTmNy¶In! smaraePy äaü[> àìjedœ g&hat!. 6£38

6.38. Having performed the Ishti, sacred to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati), where (he gives) all his property as the sacrificial fee, having reposited the sacred fires in himself, a Brahmana may depart from his house (as an ascetic).

yae dÅva svR-Ute_y> àìjTy-y< g&hat!, tSy tejaemya laeka -viNt äüvaidn>. 6£39

6.39. Worlds, radiant in brilliancy, become (the portion) of him who recites (the texts regarding) Brahman and departs from his house (as an ascetic), after giving a promise of safety to all created beings.

ySmadœ A[u£Aip -Utana< iÖjan! n£%Tp*te -ym!, tSy dehadœ ivmu­Sy -y< n£AiSt k…tz! cn. 6£40

6.40. For that twice-born man, by whom not the smallest danger even is caused to created beings, there will be no danger from any (quarter), after he is freed from his body.

Agaradœ Ai-in:³aNt> pivÇ£%pictae muin>, smupaeFe;u kame;u in£ARpe]> pirìjet!. 6£41

6.41. Departing from his house fully provided with the means of purification (Pavitra), let him wander about absolutely silent, and caring nothing for enjoyments that may be offered (to him).

@k @v cren! inTy< isÏ(wRm! Ashayvan!, isiÏm! @kSy s

6.42. Let him always wander alone, without any companion, in order to attain (final liberation), fully understanding that the solitary (man, who) neither forsakes nor is forsaken, gains his end.

An! £ Ai¶rœ Ainket> Syadœ ¢amm! AÚawRm! Aaïyet!, %pe]kae A£s, 6£43

6.43. He shall neither possess a fire, nor a dwelling, he may go to a village for his food, (he shall be) indifferent to everything, firm of purpose, meditating (and) concentrating his mind on Brahman.

kpal< v&]mUlain k…celm! Ashayta, smta c£@v svRiSmÚ! @tt! £ mu­Sy l][m!. 6£44

6.44. A potsherd (instead of an alms-bowl), the roots of trees (for a dwelling), coarse worn-out garments, life in solitude and indifference towards everything, are the marks of one who has attained liberation.

n£Ai-nNdet mr[< n£Ai-nNdet jIivtm!, kalm! @v àtI]et inveRz< -&tkae ywa. 6£45

6.45. Let him not desire to die, let him not desire to live; let him wait for (his appointed) time, as a servant (waits) for the payment of his wages.

†iòpUt< Nyset! pad< vôpUt< jl< ipbet!, sTypUta< vdedœ vac< mn>pUt< smacret!. 6£46

6.46. Let him put down his foot purified by his sight, let him drink water purified by (straining with) a cloth, let him utter speech purified by truth, let him keep his heart pure.


6.47. Let him patiently bear hard words, let him not insult anybody, and let him not become anybody's enemy for the sake of this (perishable) body.

³…Ï(Nt< n àit³…Xyedœ Aa³…ò> k…zl< vdet!, sÝÖaravkI[a¡ c n vacm! An&ta< vdet!. 6£48

6.48. Against an angry man let him not in return show anger, let him bless when he is cursed, and let him not utter speech, devoid of truth, scattered at the seven gates.

AXyaTm£ritrœ AasInae in£ARpe]ae in£ARim;>, AaTmna£@v shayen suoawIR ivcredœ #h. 6£49

6.49. Delighting in what refers to the Soul, sitting (in the postures prescribed by the Yoga), independent (of external help), entirely abstaining from sensual enjoyments, with himself for his only companion, he shall live in this world, desiring the bliss (of final liberation).

n c£%Tpat£inimÄa_ya< n n]Ç£A¼iv*ya, n£Anuzasn£vada_ya< i-]a< ilPset kihR ict!. 6£50

6.50. Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens, nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by giving advice and by the exposition (of the Sastras), let him ever seek to obtain alms.

n tapsErœ äaü[Erœ va vyaei-rœ Aip va ñi->, AakI[¡ i-]ukErœ va£ANyErœ Agarm! %ps<ìjet!. 6£51

6.51. Let him not (in order to beg) go near a house filled with hermits, Brahmanas, birds, dogs, or other mendicants.

K¦œÝ£kez£no£Zmïu> paÇI d{fI k…suM-van!, ivcren! inytae inTy< svR-UtaNypIfyn!. 6£52

6.52. His hair, nails, and beard being clipped, carrying an alms-bowl, a staff, and a water-pot, let him continually wander about, controlling himself and not hurting any creature.

AtEjsain paÇai[ tSy Syurœ in£ìR[ain c, te;am! AiÑ> Sm&t< zaEc< cmsanam! #v£AXvre. 6£53

6.53. His vessels shall not be made of metal, they shall be free from fractures; it is ordained that they shall be cleansed with water, like (the cups, called) Kamasa, at a sacrifice.

Alabu< daépaÇ< c m&{my< vEdl< twa, @tai[ yitpaÇai[ mnu> Svay<-uvae AävIt!. 6£54

6.54. A gourd, a wooden bowl, an earthen (dish), or one made of split cane, Manu, the son of Svayambhu, has declared (to be) vessels (suitable) for an ascetic.

@kkal< credœ -E]< n às¾et ivStre, -E]e às­ae ih yitrœ iv;ye:v! Aip s¾it. 6£55

6.55. Let him go to beg once (a day), let him not be eager to obtain a large quantity (of alms); for an ascetic who eagerly seeks alms, attaches himself also to sensual enjoyments.

iv£xUme sÚ£musle VY£A¼are -u­vJ£jne, v&Äe zravs

6.56. When no smoke ascends from (the kitchen), when the pestle lies motionless, when the embers have been extinguished, when the people have finished their meal, when the remnants in the dishes have been removed, let the ascetic always go to beg.

Ala-e n iv;dI Syat! £ la-e c£@v n h;Ryet!, àa[yaiÇk£maÇ> Syat! £ maÇas¼adœ ivingRt>. 6£57

6.57. Let him not be sorry when he obtains nothing, nor rejoice when he obtains (something), let him (accept) so much only as will sustain life, let him not care about the (quality of his) utensils.

Ai-pUijtla-a, Ai-pUijtla-Ez! c yitrœ mu­ae Aip bXyte. 6£58

6.58. Let him disdain all (food) obtained in consequence of humble salutations, (for) even an ascetic who has attained final liberation, is bound (with the fetters of the Samsara) by accepting (food given) in consequence of humble salutations.

ALpaÚa_yvhare[ rh>Swan£Asnen c, iÿyma[ain iv;yErœ #iNÔyai[ invtRyet!. 6£59

6.59. By eating little, and by standing and sitting in solitude, let him restrain his senses, if they are attracted by sensual objects.

#iNÔya[a< inraexen rag£Öez£]ye[ c, Aih

6.60. By the restraint of his senses, by the destruction of love and hatred, and by the abstention from injuring the creatures, he becomes fit for immortality.

Ave]et gtIrœ n¨[a< kmRdae;£smuÑva>, inrye c£@v ptn< yatnaz! c ym]ye. 6£61

6.61. Let him reflect on the transmigrations of men, caused by their sinful deeds, on their falling into hell, and on the torments in the world of Yama,

ivàyaeg< iàyEz! c£@v s, jrya c£Ai--vn< Vyaixi-z! c£%ppIfn<. 6£62

6.62. On the separation from their dear ones, on their union with hated men, on their being overpowered by age and being tormented with diseases,

dehadœ %T³m[< c£A:mat! punrœ g-eR c s<-vm!, yaeinkaeiqshöe;u s&tIz! c£ASy£ANtraTmn>. 6£63

6.63. On the departure of the individual soul from this body and its new birth in (another) womb, and on its wanderings through ten thousand millions of existences,

AxmR£à-v< c£@v Ê>oyaeg< zrIir[am!, xmaRwR£à-v< c£@v suos

6.64. On the infliction of pain on embodied (spirits), which is caused by demerit, and the gain of eternal bliss, which is caused by the attainment of their highest aim, (gained through) spiritual merit.

sUúmta< c£ANvve]et yaegen prmaTmn>, dehe;u c smuTpiÄm! %Äme:v! Axme;u c. 6£65

6.65. By deep meditation let him recognise the subtile nature of the supreme Soul, and its presence in all organisms, both the highest and the lowest.

Ëi;tae Aip credœ xm¡ yÇ tÇ£Aïme rt>, sm> sveR;u -Ute;u n il¼< xmRkar[m!. 6£66

6.66. To whatever order he may be attached, let him, though blemished (by a want of the external marks), fulfil his duty, equal-minded towards all creatures; (for) the external mark (of the order) is not the cause of (the acquisition of) merit.

)l< ktkv&]Sy y*PyMbuàsadkm!, n nam¢h[adœ @v tSy vair àsIdit. 6£67

6.67. Though the fruit of the Kataka tree (the clearing-nut) makes water clear, yet the (latter) does not become limpid in consequence of the mention of the (fruit's) name.


6.68. In order to preserve living creatures, let him always by day and by night, even with pain to his body, walk, carefully scanning the ground.

Aûa raÈya c ya|! jNtUn! ihnSTy}antae yit>, te;a< õaTva ivzuÏ(w¡ àa[ayaman! ;fœ Aacret!. 6£69

6.69. In order to expiate (the death) of those creatures which he unintentionally injures by day or by night, an ascetic shall bathe and perform six suppressions of the breath.

àa[ayama äaü[Sy Çyae Aip ivixvt! k«ta>, Vyaùit£à[vErœ yu­a iv}ey< prm< tp>. 6£70

6.70. Three suppressions of the breath even, performed according to the rule, and accompanied with the (recitation of the) Vyahritis and of the syllable Om, one must know to be the highest (form of) austerity for every Brahmana.

dýNte Xmaymanana< xatUna< ih ywa mla>, twa£#iNÔya[a< dýNte dae;a> àa[Sy in¢hat!. 6£71

6.71. For as the impurities of metallic ores, melted in the blast (of a furnace), are consumed, even so the taints of the organs are destroyed through the suppression of the breath.

àa[aymErœ dhedœ dae;an! xar[ai-z! c ikiLb;m!, àTyahare[ s

6.72. Let him destroy the taints through suppressions of the breath, (the production of) sin by fixed attention, all sensual attachments by restraining (his senses and organs), and all qualities that are not lordly by meditation.

%½avce;u -Ute;u Ê}eRyam! Ak«t£ATmi->, Xyanyaegen s
. 6£73

6.73. Let him recognise by the practice of meditation the progress of the individual soul through beings of various kinds, (a progress) hard to understand for unregenerate men.

kmRi-rœ n inbXyte, dzRnen ivhIns! tu s

6.74. He who possesses the true insight (into the nature of the world), is not fettered by his deeds; but he who is destitute of that insight, is drawn into the circle of births and deaths.

Aih, tpsz! cr[Ez! c£%¢E> saxyiNt£#h tTpdm!. 6£75

6.75. By not injuring any creatures, by detaching the senses (from objects of enjoyment), by the rites prescribed in the Veda, and by rigorously practising austerities, (men) gain that state (even) in this (world).

AiSw£SwU[< õayuyut< ma,6£76

6.76 Let him quit this dwelling, composed of the five elements, where the bones are the beams, which is held together by tendons (instead of cords), where the flesh and the blood are the mortar,

jra£zaeksmaivò< raegaytnm! Aaturm!, rjSvlm! AinTy< c -Utavasm! #m< Tyjet!. 6£77

6.77. which is thatched with the skin, which is foul-smelling, filled with urine and ordure, infested by old age and sorrow, the seat of disease, harassed by pain, gloomy with passion, and perishable.

ndIkªl< ywa v&]ae v&]< va zk…inrœ ywa, twa TyjÚ! #m< deh< k«½!radœ ¢ahadœ ivmuCyte. 6£78

6.78. He who leaves this body, (be it by necessity) as a tree (that is torn from) the river-bank, or (freely) like a bird (that) quits a tree, is freed from the misery (of this world, dreadful like) a shark.

iàye;u Sve;u suk«tm! Aiàye;u c Ê:k«tm!, ivs&Jy Xyanyaegen äü£A_yeit snatnm!. 6£79

6.79. Making over (the merit of his own) good actions to his friends and (the guilt of) his evil deeds to his enemies, he attains the eternal Brahman by the practice of meditation.

yda -aven -vit svR-ave;u in>Sp&h>, tda suom! Avaßaeit àeTy c£#h c zañtm!. 6£80

6.80. When by the disposition (of his heart) he becomes indifferent to all objects, he obtains eternal happiness both in this world and after death.

Anen ivixna sva¡s! Ty®va s¼an! £ znE> znE>, svRÖNÖivinmuR­ae äü{yev£Avitóte. 6£81

6.81. He who has in this manner gradually given up all attachments and is freed from all the pairs (of opposites), reposes in Brahman alone.

Xyaink< svRm! @v£@tdœ ydœ @tdœ Ai-ziBdtm!, n ýnXyaTmivt! kz! ict! i³ya)lm! %paîute. 6£82

6.82. All that has been declared (above) depends on meditation; for he who is not proficient in the knowledge of that which refers to the Soul reaps not the full reward of the performance of rites.

Aixy}< äü jpedœ AaixdEivkm! @v c, AaXyaiTmk< c stt< vedaNtai-iht< c yt!. 6£83

6.83. Let him constantly recite (those texts of) the Veda which refer to the sacrifice, (those) referring to the deities, and (those) which treat of the Soul and are contained in the concluding portions of the Veda (Vedanta).

#d< zr[m! A}anam! #dm! @v ivjantam!, #dm! AiNv½ta< SvgRm! #dm! AanNTym! #½tam!. 6£84

6.84. That is the refuge of the ignorant, and even that (the refuse) of those who know (the meaning of the Veda); that is (the protection) of those who seek (bliss in) heaven and of those who seek endless (beatitude).

Anen ³myaegen pirìjit yae iÖj>, s ivxUy£#h paPman< pr< äü£Aixg½it. 6£85

6.85. A twice-born man who becomes an ascetic, after the successive performance of the above-mentioned acts, shakes off sin here below and reaches the highest Brahman.

@; xmaeR Anuizòae vae ytIna< inyt£ATmnam!, veds

6.86. Thus the law (valid) for self-restrained ascetics has been explained to you; now listen to the (particular) duties of those who give up (the rites prescribed by) the Veda.

äücarI g&hSwz! c vanàSwae yits! twa, @te g&hSw£à-vaz! cTvar> p&wg! Aaïma>. 6£87

6.87. The student, the householder, the hermit, and the ascetic, these (constitute) four separate orders, which all spring from (the order of) householders.

sveR Aip ³mzs! Tv! @te ywazaô< in;eivta>, ywa£%­£kair[< ivà< nyiNt prma< gitm!. 6£88

6.88. But all (or) even (any of) these orders, assumed successively in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law), lead the Brahmana who acts by the preceding (rules) to the highest state.

sveR;am! Aip c£@te;a< ved£Sm&itivxant>, g&hSw %Cyte ïeó> s ÇIn! @tan! ib-itR ih. 6£89

6.89. And in accordance with the precepts of the Veda and of the Smriti, the housekeeper is declared to be superior to all of them; for he supports the other three.

ywa ndI£nda> sveR sagre yaiNt s sveR g&hSwe yaiNt s

6.90. As all rivers, both great and small, find a resting-place in the ocean, even so men of all orders find protection with householders

ctui-Rrœ Aip c£@v£@tErœ inTym! Aaïimi-rœ iÖjE>, dz£l][kae xmR> seivtVy> àyÆt>. 6£91

6.91. By twice-born men belonging to (any of) these four orders, the tenfold law must be ever carefully obeyed.

x&it> ]ma dmae AStey< zaEcm! #iNÔyin¢h>, xIrœ iv*a sTym! A³aexae dzk< xmRl][m!. 6£92

6.92. Contentment, forgiveness, self-control, abstention from unrighteously appropriating anything, (obedience to the rules of) purification, coercion of the organs, wisdom, knowledge (of the supreme Soul), truthfulness, and abstention from anger, (form) the tenfold law.

dz l][ain xmRSy ye ivàa> smxIyte, AxITy c£AnuvtRNte te yaiNt prma< gitm!. 6£93

6.93. Those Brahmanas who thoroughly study the tenfold law, and after studying obey it, enter the highest state.

dz£l][k< xmRm! Anuitón! smaiht>, vedaNt< ivixvt! £ ïuTva s. 6£94

6.94. A twice-born man who, with collected mind, follows the tenfold law and has paid his (three) debts, may, after learning the Vedanta according to the prescribed rule, become an ascetic.


6.95. Having given up (the performance of) all rites, throwing off the guilt of his (sinful) acts, subduing his organs and having studied the Veda, he may live at his ease under the protection of his son.

@v< s, s àaßaeit prm< gitm!. 6£96

6.96. He who has thus given up (the performance of) all rites, who is solely intent on his own (particular) object, (and) free from desires, destroys his guilt by his renunciation and obtains the highest state.

@; vae Ai-ihtae xmaeR äaü[Sy ctu£ivRx>, pu{yae A]y£)l> àeTy ra}a< xm¡ inbaext. 6£97

6.97. Thus the fourfold holy law of Brahmanas, which after death (yields) imperishable rewards, has been declared to you; now learn the duty of kings.

Chapter 7
rajxmaRn! àvúyaim ywav&Äae -ven! n&p>, s<-vz! c ywa tSy isiÏz! c prma ywa. 7£01

7.1. I will declare the duties of kings, (and) show how a king should conduct himself, how he was created, and how (he can obtain) highest success.

äaü< àaÝen s

7.2. A Kshatriya, who has received according to the rule the sacrament prescribed by the Veda, must duly protect this whole (world).

Arajke ih laeke AiSmn! svRtae ivÔ‚tae -yat!, r]awRm! ASy svRSy rajanm! As&jt! à-u>. 7£03

7.3. For, when these creatures, being without a king, through fear dispersed in all directions, the Lord created a king for the protection of this whole (creation),

#NÔ£Ainl£ym£AkaR[am! A¶ez! c vé[Sy c, cNÔ£ivÄezyaez! c£@v maÇa inùRTy zañtI>. 7£04

7.4. Taking (for that purpose) eternal particles of Indra, of the Wind, of Yama, of the Sun, of Fire, of Varuna, of the Moon, and of the Lord of wealth (Kubera).

ySmadœ @;a< sureNÔa[a< maÇa_yae inimRtae n&p>, tSmadœ Ai--vTye; svR-Utain tejsa. 7£05

7.5. Because a king has been formed of particles of those lords of the gods, he therefore surpasses all created beings in lustre;

tpTyaidTyvc! c£@; c]U

7.6. And, like the sun, he burns eyes and hearts; nor can anybody on earth even gaze on him.

sae Ai¶rœ -vit vayuz! c sae AkR> saem> s xmRraqœ, s k…ber> s vé[> s mheNÔ> à-avt>. . 7£07

7.7. Through his (supernatural) power he is Fire and Wind, he Sun and Moon, he the Lord of justice (Yama), he Kubera, he Varuna, he great Indra.

balae Aip n£AvmaNtVyae mnu:y #it -Uimp>, mhtI devta ýe;a nrêpe[ itóit. 7£08

7.8. Even an infant king must not be despised, (from an idea) that he is a (mere) mortal; for he is a great deity in human form.

@km! @v dhTyi¶rœ nr< ÊépsipR[m!, k…l< dhit raja£Ai¶> s£pzu£ÔVys

7.9. Fire burns one man only, if he carelessly approaches it, the fire of a king's (anger) consumes the (whole) family, together with its cattle and its hoard of property.

kay¡ sae Aveúy zi­< c dez£kalaE c tÅvt>, k…éte xmRisÏ(w¡ ivñêp< pun> pun>. 7£10

7.10. Having fully considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and the time, he assumes by turns many (different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice.

ySy àsade pÒa ïIrœ ivjyz! c pra³me, m&Tyuz! c vsit ³aexe svRtejaemyae ih s>. 7£11

7.11. He, in whose favour resides Padma, the goddess of fortune, in whose valour dwells victory, in whose anger abides death, is formed of the lustre of all (gods).

t< ys! tu Öeiò s. 7£12

7.12. The (man), who in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly perish; for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy such (a man).

tSmadœ xm¡ ym! #òe;u s VyvSyen! nraixp>, Ainò< c£APyinòe;u t< xm¡ n ivcalyet!. 7£13

7.13. Let no (man), therefore, transgress that law which favourites, nor (his orders) which inflict pain on those in disfavour.

tSyaweR svR-Utana< gaeÝar< xmRm! AaTmjm!, äütejaemy< d{fm! As&jt! pUvRm! $ñr>. 7£14

7.14. For the (king's) sake the Lord formerly created his own son, Punishment, the protector of all creatures, (an incarnation of) the law, formed of Brahman's glory.

tSy svaRi[ -Utain Swavrai[ crai[ c, -yadœ -aegay kLpNte SvxmaRt! £ n cliNt c. 7£15

7.15. Through fear of him all created beings, both the immovable and the movable, allow themselves to be enjoyed and swerve not from their duties.

t< dez£kalaE zi­< c iv*a< c£Aveúy tÅvt>, ywahRt> s<à[yen! nre:v! ANyay£vitR;u. 7£16

7.16. Having fully considered the time and the place (of the offence), the strength and the knowledge (of the offender), let him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly.

s raja pué;ae d{f> s neta zaista c s>, ctu[aRm! Aaïma[a< c xmRSy àit-U> Sm&t>. 7£17

7.17. Punishment is (in reality) the king (and) the male, that the manager of affairs, that the ruler, and that is called the surety for the four orders' obedience to the law.

d{f> zaiSt àja> svaR d{f @v£Ai-r]it, d{f> suÝe;u jagitR d{f< xm¡ ivÊrœ buxa>. 7£18

7.18. Punishment alone governs all created beings, punishment alone protects them, punishment watches over them while they sleep; the wise declare punishment (to be identical with) the law.

smIúy s x&t> sMykœ svaR rÃyit àja>, AsmIúy à[Its! tu ivnazyit svRt>. 7£19

7.19. If (punishment) is properly inflicted after (due) consideration, it makes all people happy; but inflicted without consideration, it destroys everything.

yid n à[yedœ raja d{f< d{f(e:v! AtiNÔt>, zUle mTSyan! #v£Apúyn! ÊbRlan! blvÄra>. 7£20

7.20. If the king did not, without tiring, inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished, the stronger would roast the weaker, like fish on a spit;

A*at! kak> puraefaz< ña c ilýaΉ hivs! twa, SvaMy< c n Syat! kiSm

7.21. The crow would eat the sacrificial cake and the dog would lick the sacrificial viands, and ownership would not remain with any one, the lower ones would (usurp the place of) the higher ones.

svaeR d{fijtae laekae ÊlR-ae ih zuicrœ nr>, d{fSy ih -yat! sv¡ jgdœ -aegay kLpte. 7£22

7.22. The whole world is kept in order by punishment, for a guiltless man is hard to find; through fear of punishment the whole world yields the enjoyments (which it owes).

dev£danv£gNxvaR r]a, te Aip -aegay kLpNte d{fen£@v inpIifta>. 7£23

7.23. The gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the Rakshasas, the bird and snake deities even give the enjoyments (due from them) only, if they are tormented by (the fear of) punishment.

Ê:yeyu> svRv[aRz! c i-*ern! svRsetv>, svRlaekàkaepz! c -vedœ d{fSy ivæmat!. 7£24

7.24. All castes (varna) would be corrupted (by intermixture), all barriers would be broken through, and all men would rage (against each other) in consequence of mistakes with respect to punishment.

yÇ Zyamae laeiht£A]ae d{fz! crit papha, àjas! tÇ n muýiNt neta cet! saxu pZyit. 7£25

7.25. But where Punishment with a black hue and red eyes stalks about, destroying sinners, there the subjects are not disturbed, provided that he who inflicts it discerns well.

tSy£A÷> s<à[etar< rajan< sTyvaidnm!, smIúykair[< àa}< xmR£kam£AwR£kaeivdm!. 7£26

7.26. They declare that king to be a just inflicter of punishment, who is truthful, who acts after due consideration, who is wise, and who knows (the respective value of) virtue, pleasure, and wealth.

t< raja à[yn! sMykœ iÇvgeR[£Ai-vxRte, kam£ATma iv;m> ]uÔae d{fen£@v inhNyte. 7£27

7.27. A king who properly inflicts (punishment), prospers with respect to (those) three (means of happiness); but he who is voluptuous, partial, and deceitful will be destroyed, even through the (unjust) punishment (which he inflicts).

d{fae ih sumht! £ tejae ÊxRrz! c£Ak«t£ATmi->, xmaRdœ ivcilt< hiNt n&pm! @v s£baNxvm!. 7£28

7.28. Punishment (possesses) a very bright lustre, and is hard to be administered by men with unimproved minds; it strikes down the king who swerves from his duty, together with his relatives.

ttae Êg¡ c raò+< c laek< c s£cr£Acrm!, ANtir]gta

7.29. Next it will afflict his castles, his territories, the whole world together with the movable and immovable (creation), likewise the sages and the gods, who (on the failure of offerings) ascend to the sky.

sae Ashayen mUFen luBxen£Ak«t£buiÏna, n zKyae Nyaytae netu< s­en iv;ye;u c. 7£30

7.30. (Punishment) cannot be inflicted justly by one who has no assistant, (nor) by a fool, (nor) by a covetous man, (nor) by one whose mind is unimproved, (nor) by one addicted to sensual pleasures.

zuicna sTys sushayen xImta. 7£31

7.31. By him who is pure (and) faithful to his promise, who acts according to the Institutes (of the sacred law), who has good assistants and is wise, punishment can be (justly) inflicted.

Svraò+e Nyayv&Ä> Syadœ -&z£d{fz! c zÇu;u, suùTSv! Aijü> iõGxe;u äaü[e;u ]maiNvt>. 7£32

7.32. Let him act with justice in his own domain, with rigour chastise his enemies, behave without duplicity towards his friends, and be lenient towards Brahmanas.

@v izla£%Âen£Aip jIvt>, ivStIyRte yzae laeke tElibNÊrœ #v£AM-is. 7£33

7.33. The fame of a king who behaves thus, even though he subsist by gleaning, is spread in the world, like a drop of oil on water.

Ats! tu ivprItSy n&pterœ Aijt£ATmn>, s

7.34. But the fame of a king who acts in a contrary manner and who does not subdue himself, diminishes in extent among men like a drop of clarified butter in water.

Sve Sve xmeR inivòana< sveR;am! AnupUvRz>, v[aRnam! Aaïma[a< c raja s&òae Ai-ri]ta. 7£35

7.35. The king has been created (to be) the protector of the castes (varna) and orders, who, all according to their rank, discharge their several duties.

ten ydœ yt! s£-&Tyen ktRVy< r]ta àja>, tt! tdœ vae Ah< àvúyaim ywavdœ AnupUvRz>. 7£36

7.36. Whatever must be done by him and by his servants for the protection of his people, that I will fully declare to you in due order.

äaü[an! pyuRpasIt àatrœ %Tway paiwRv>, ÇEiv*v&Ïan! ivÊ;s! itóet! te;a< c zasne. 7£37

7.37. Let the king, after rising early in the morning, worship Brahmanas who are well versed in the threefold sacred science and learned (in polity), and follow their advice.

v&Ïa zucIn!, v&ÏsevI ih stt< r]aei-rœ Aip pUJyte. 7£38

7.38. Let him daily worship aged Brahmanas who know the Veda and are pure; for he who always worships aged men, is honoured even by Rakshasas.

te_yae Aixg½edœ ivny< ivnIt£ATma£Aip inTyz>, ivnIt£ATma ih n&pitrœ n ivnZyit kihR ict!. 7£39

7.39. Let him, though he may already be modest, constantly learn modesty from them; for a king who is modest never perishes.

bhvae Aivnyat! £ nòa rajan> s£pir½da>, vnSwa Aip raJyain ivnyat! àitpeidre. 7£40

7.40. Through a want of modesty many kings have perished, together with their belongings; through modesty even hermits in the forest have gained kingdoms.

venae ivnòae Aivnyat! £ n÷;z! c£@v paiwRv>, suda> pEjvnz! c£@v sumuoae inimrœ @v c. 7£41

7.41. Through a want of humility Vena perished, likewise king Nahusha, Sudas, the son of Pigavana, Sumukha, and Nemi.

p&wus! tu ivnyadœ raJy< àaÝvan! mnurœ @v c, k…berz! c xnEñy¡ äaü{y< c£@v gaixj>. 7£42

7.42. But by humility Prithu and Manu gained sovereignty, Kubera the position of the Lord of wealth, and the son of Gadhi the rank of a Brahmana.

ÇEiv*e_ys! ÇyI— iv*a< d{fnIit< c zañtIm!, AaNvIi]kI— c£ATmiv*a< vataRrM-a. 7£43

7.43. From those versed in the three Vedas let him learn the threefold (sacred science), the primeval science of government, the science of dialectics, and the knowledge of the (supreme) Soul; from the people (the theory of) the (various) trades and professions.

#iNÔya[a< jye yaeg< smaitóedœ idva£inzm!, ijt£#iNÔyae ih z²aeit vze Swapiytu< àja>. 7£44

7.44. Day and night he must strenuously exert himself to conquer his senses; for he (alone) who has conquered his own senses, can keep his subjects in obedience.

dz kam£smuTwain twa£AòaE ³aexjain c, Vysnain Ê£ARNtain àyÆen ivvjRyet!. 7£45

7.45. Let him carefully shun the ten vices, springing from love of pleasure, and the eight, proceeding from wrath, which (all) end in misery.

kamje;u às­ae ih Vysne;u mhIpit>, ivyuJyte AwR£xmaR_ya< ³aexje:v! AaTmna£@v tu. 7£46

7.46. For a king who is attached to the vices springing from love of pleasure, loses his wealth and his virtue, but (he who is given) to those arising from anger, (loses) even his life.

m&gya£A]ae idvaSvß> pirvad> iôyae md>, taEyRiÇk< v&waq(a c kamjae dzkae g[>. 7£47

7.47. Hunting, gambling, sleeping by day, censoriousness, (excess with) women, drunkenness, (an inordinate love for) dancing, singing, and music, and useless travel are the tenfold set (of vices) springing from love of pleasure.

pEzuNy< sahs< Ôaeh $:yaR£AsUya£AwRË;[m!, vaGd{fj< c paé:y< ³aexjae Aip g[ae Aòk>. 7£48

7.48. Tale-bearing, violence, treachery, envy, slandering, (unjust) seizure of property, reviling, and assault are the eightfold set (of vices) produced by wrath.

Öyaerœ APyetyaerœ mUl< y< sveR kvyae ivÊ>, t< yÆen jyet! £ lae-< t¾av! @tav! %-aE g[aE. 7£49

7.49. That greediness which all wise men declare to be the root even of both these (sets), let him carefully conquer; both sets (of vices) are produced by that.

panm! A]a> iôyz! c£@v m&gya c ywa³mm!, @tt! kòtm< iv*at! £ ctu:k< kamje g[e. 7£50

7.50. Drinking, dice, women, and hunting, these four (which have been enumerated) in succession, he must know to be the most pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure.

d{fSy patn< c£@v vaKpaé:y£AwRË;[e, ³aexje Aip g[e iv*at! kòm! @tt! iÇk< sda. 7£51

7.51. Doing bodily injury, reviling, and the seizure of property, these three he must know to be the most pernicious in the set produced by wrath.

sÝkSy£ASy vgRSy svRÇ£@v£Anu;i¼[>, pUv¡ pUv¡ guétr< iv*adœ Vysnm! AaTmvan!,7£52

7.52. A self-controlled (king) should know that in this set of seven, which prevails everywhere, each earlier-named vice is more abominable (than those named later).

VysnSy c m&Tyaez! c Vysn< kòm! %Cyte, VysNyxae Axae ìjit Svrœ yaTyVysnI m&t>. 7£53

7.53. (On a comparison) between vice and death, vice is declared to be more pernicious; a vicious man sinks to the nethermost (hell), he who dies, free from vice, ascends to heaven.

maElan! £ zaôivd> zUran! £ lBx£l]an! k…l£%Ñvan!, sicvan! sÝ c£AòaE va àk…vIRt prIi]tan!. 7£54

7.54. Let him appoint seven or eight ministers whose ancestors have been royal servants, who are versed in the sciences, heroes skilled in the use of weapons and descended from (noble) families and who have been tried.

Aip yt! sukr< kmR tdœ APyeken Ê:krm!, ivze;tae Ashayen ik< tu raJy< mha£%dym!. 7£55

7.55. Even an undertaking easy (in itself) is (sometimes) hard to be accomplished by a single man; how much (harder is it for a king), especially (if he has) no assistant, (to govern) a kingdom which yields great revenues.

tE> sax¡ icNtyen! inTy< samaNy< s

7.56. Let him daily consider with them the ordinary (business, referring to) peace and war, (the four subjects called) sthana, the revenue, the (manner of) protecting (himself and his kingdom), and the sanctification of his gains (by pious gifts).

te;a< Sv< Svm! Ai-àaym! %pl_y p&wkœ p&wkœ, smStana< c kayeR;u ivdXyaΉ ihtm! AaTmn>. 7£57

7.57. Having (first) ascertained the opinion of each (minister) separately and (then the views) of all together, let him do what is (most) beneficial for him in his affairs.

sveR;a< tu ivizòen äaü[en ivpiíta, mÙyet! prm< mÙ< raja ;afœgu{ys

7.58. But with the most distinguished among them all, a learned Brahmana, let the king deliberate on the most important affairs which relate to the six measures of royal policy.

inTy< tiSmn! smañSt> svRkayaRi[ in>i]pet! , ten sax¡ iviniíTy tt> kmR smar-et!. 7£59

7.59. Let him, full of confidence, always entrust to that (official) all business; having taken his final resolution with him, let him afterwards begin to act.

ANyan! Aip àk…vIRt zucIn! àa}an! AviSwtan!, sMyg! AwRsmaht¨Rn! AmaTyan! suprIi]tan!. 7£60

7.60. He must also appoint other officials, (men) of integrity, (who are) wise, firm, well able to collect money, and well tried.

invRteRt£ASy yaviÑrœ #itktRVyta n&i->, tavtae AtiNÔtan! d]an! àk…vIRt ivc][an!. 7£61

7.61. As many persons as the due performance of his business requires, so many skilful and clever (men), free from sloth, let him appoint.

te;am! AweR inyuÃIt zUran! d]an! k…l£%Ìtan!, zucIn! Aakr£kmaRNte -Iên! ANtinRvezne. 7£62

7.62. Among them let him employ the brave, the skilful, the high-born, and the honest in (offices for the collection of) revenue, (e.g.) in mines, manufactures, and storehouses, (but) the timid in the interior of his palace.

Ët< c£@v àk…vIRt svRzaô£ivzardm!, #i¼t£Akar£ceò}< zuic< d]< k…l£%Ìtm!. 7£63

7.63. Let him also appoint an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who understands hints, expressions of the face and gestures, who is honest, skilful, and of (noble) family.

Anur­> zuicrœ d]> Sm&itman! dez£kalivt!, vpu:man! vIt-Irœ vaGmI Ëtae ra}> àzSyte. 7£64

7.64. (Such) an ambassador is commended to a king (who is) loyal, honest, skilful, possessing a good memory, who knows the (proper) place and time (for action, who is) handsome, fearless, and eloquent.

AmaTye d{f AayÄae d{fe vEniykI i³ya, n&ptaE kaez£raò+e c Ëte s

7.65. The army depends on the official (placed in charge of it), the due control (of the subjects) on the army, the treasury and the (government of) the realm on the king, peace and its opposite (war) on the ambassador.

Ët @v ih s

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