Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886



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. 7£66

7.66. For the ambassador alone makes (kings') allies and separates allies; the ambassador transacts that business by which (kings) are disunited or not.

s iv*adœ ASy k«Tye;u ingURF£#i¼t£ceiòtE>, Aakarm! #i¼t< ceòa< -&Tye;u c ickIi;Rtm!. 7£67

7.67. With respect to the affairs let the (ambassador) explore the expression of the countenance, the gestures and actions of the (foreign king) through the gestures and actions of his confidential (advisers), and (discover) his designs among his servants.

buωva c sv¡ tÅven prrajickIi;Rtm!, twa àyÆm! Aaitóedœ ywa£ATman< n pIfyet!. 7£68

7.68. Having learnt exactly (from his ambassador) the designs of the foreign king, let (the king) take such measures that he does not bring evil on himself.

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7.69. Let him settle in a country which is open and has a dry climate, where grain is abundant, which is chiefly (inhabited) by Aryans, not subject to epidemic diseases (or similar troubles), and pleasant, where the vassals are obedient and his own (people easily) find their livelihood.

xNv£Êg¡ mhI£ÊgRm! AB£Êg¡ va]Rm! @v va, n&Êg¡ igirÊg¡ va smaiïTy vset! purm!. 7£70

7.70. Let him build (there) a town, making for his safety a fortress, protected by a desert, or a fortress built of (stone and) earth, or one protected by water or trees, or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men or a hill-fort.

sveR[ tu àyÆen igirÊg¡ smaïyet!, @;a< ih ba÷gu{yen igirÊg¡ iviz:yte. 7£71

7.71. Let him make every effort to secure a hill-fort, for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned) a hill-fort is distinguished by many superior qualities.

iÇ{ya*aNyaiïtas! Tv! @;a< m&g£gtaRïy£APcra>, ÇI{yuÄrai[ ³mz> Plv. 7£72

7.72. The first three of those (various kinds of fortresses) are inhabited by wild beasts, animals living in holes and aquatic animals, the last three by monkeys, men, and gods respectively.

ywa ÊgaRiïtan! @tan! n£%pih, twa£Aryae n ih

7.73. As enemies do not hurt these (beings, when they are) sheltered by (their) fortresses, even so foes (can) not injure a king who has taken refuge in his fort.

@k> zt< yaexyit àakarSwae xnuxRr>, zt< dzshöai[ tSmadœ Êg¡ ivxIyte. 7£74

7.74. One bowman, placed on a rampart, is a match in battle for one hundred (foes), one hundred for ten thousand; hence it is prescribed (in the Sastras that a king will posses) a fortress.

tt! Syadœ Aayuxs
, äaü[E> iziLpi-rœ yÙErœ yvsen£%dken c. 7£75

7.75. Let that (fort) be well supplied with weapons, money, grain and beasts of burden, with Brahmanas, with artisans, with engines, with fodder, and with water.

tSy mXye supyaRÝ< karyedœ g&hm! AaTmn>, guÝ< svR£\tuk< zuæ< jl£v&]smiNvtm!. 7£76

7.76. Let him cause to be built for himself, in the centre of it, a spacious palace, (well) protected, habitable in every season, resplendent (with whitewash), supplied with water and trees.

tdœ AXyaSy£%Öhedœ -aya¡ s£v[a¡ l][aiNvtam!, k…le mhit s<-Uta< ù*a< êp£gu[aNvItam!. 7£77

7.77. Inhabiting that, let him wed a consort of equal caste (varna), who possesses auspicious marks (on her body), and is born in a great family, who is charming and possesses beauty and excellent qualities.

puraeiht< c k…vIRt v&[uyadœ @v c£\iTvj>, te ASy g&ýai[ kmaRi[ k…yuRrœ vEtainkain c. 7£78

7.78. Let him appoint a domestic priest (purohita) and choose officiating priests (ritvig); they shall perform his domestic rites and the (sacrifices) for which three fires are required.

yjet raja ³tui-rœ ivivxErœ AaÝ£di][E>, xmaRw¡ c£@v ivàe_yae d*adœ -aegan! xnain c. 7£79

7.79. A king shall offer various (Srauta) sacrifices at which liberal fees (are distributed), and in order to acquire merit, he shall give to Brahmanas enjoyments and wealth.

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7.80. Let him cause the annual revenue in his kingdom to be collected by trusty (officials), let him obey the sacred law in (his transactions with) the people, and behave like a father towards all men.

AXy]an! ivivxan! k…yaRt! tÇ tÇ ivpiít>, te ASy svaR{yve]ern! n&[a< kayaRi[ k…vRtam!. 7£81

7.81. For the various (branches of business) let him appoint intelligent supervisors; they shall inspect all (the acts) of those men who transact his business.

Aav&Äana< guék…ladœ ivàa[a< pUjkae -vet!, n&pa[am! A]yae ýe; inixrœ äaüae Ai-xIyte. 7£82

7.82. Let him honour those Brahmanas who have returned from their teacher's house (after studying the Veda); for that (money which is given) to Brahmanas is declared to be an imperishable treasure for kings.

n t< Stena n c£AimÇa hriNt n c nZyit, tSmadœ ra}a inxatVyae äaü[e:v! A]yae inix>. 7£83

7.83. Neither thieves nor foes can take it, nor can it be lost; hence an imperishable store must be deposited by kings with Brahmanas.

n SkNdte n Vywte n ivnZyit kihR ict!, viróm! Ai¶haeÇe_yae äaü[Sy muoe ÷tm!. 7£84

7.84. The offering made through the mouth of a Brahmana, which is neither spilt, nor falls (on the ground), nor ever perishes, is far more excellent than Agnihotras.

smm! Aäaü[e dan< iÖgu[< äaü[äuve, àaxIte ztsahöm! AnNt< vedparge. 7£85

7.85. A gift to one who is not a Brahmana (yields) the ordinary (reward; a gift) to one who calls himself a Brahmana, a double (reward); a gift to a well-read Brahmana, a hundred-thousandfold (reward); (a gift) to one who knows the Veda and the Angas (Vedaparaga, a reward) without end.

paÇSy ih ivze;e[ ïÎxantya£@v c, ALp< va b÷ va àeTy danSy )lm! Aîute. 7£86

7.86. For according to the particular qualities of the recipient and according to the faith (of the giver) a small or a great reward will be obtained for a gift in the next world.

sm£%Äm£AxmE raja Tv! Aaøt> palyn! àja>, n invteRt s<¢amat! ]aÇ< xmRm! AnuSmrn!. 7£87

7.87. A king who, while he protects his people, is defied by (foes), be they equal in strength, or stronger, or weaker, must not shrink from battle, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas.

s<¢ame:v! AinvitRTv< àjana< c£@v palnm!, zuïU;a äaü[ana< c ra}a< ïeySkr< prm!. 7£88

7.88. Not to turn back in battle, to protect the people, to honour the Brahmanas, is the best means for a king to secure happiness.

Aahve;u imwae ANyaeNy< ij"a, yuXymana> pr< z®ya Svg¡ yaNTypra'œmuoa>. 7£89

7.89. Those kings who, seeking to slay each other in battle, fight with the utmost exertion and do not turn back, go to heaven.

n kªqErœ AayuxErœ hNyadœ yuXymanae r[e irpUn!, n ki[Ri-rœ n£Aip idGxErœ n£Ai¶Jvilt£tejnE>. 7£90

7.90. When he fights with his foes in battle, let him not strike with weapons concealed (in wood), nor with (such as are) barbed, poisoned, or the points of which are blazing with fire.

n c hNyat! SwlaêF< n ¬Ib< n k«t£AÃilm!, n mu­£kez< n£AsIn< n tv£AiSm£#it vaidnm!. 7£91

7.91. Let him not strike one who (in flight) has climbed on an eminence, nor a eunuch, nor one who joins the palms of his hands (in supplication), nor one who (flees) with flying hair, nor one who sits down, nor one who says 'I am thine;'

n suÝ< n iv£s

7.92. Nor one who sleeps, nor one who has lost his coat of mail, nor one who is naked, nor one who is disarmed, nor one who looks on without taking part in the fight, nor one who is fighting with another (foe);

n£AyuxVysnàaÝ< n£At¡ n£Aitpir]t<, n -It< n prav&Ä< sta< xmRm! AnuSmrn!. 7£93

7.93. Nor one whose weapons are broken, nor one afflicted (with sorrow), nor one who has been grievously wounded, nor one who is in fear, nor one who has turned to flight; (but in all these cases let him) remember the duty (of honourable warriors).

ys! tu -It> prav&Ä> s<¢ame hNyte prE>, -tuRrœ ydœ Ê:k«t< ik< ict! tt! sv¡ àitp*te. 7£94

7.94. But the (Kshatriya) who is slain in battle, while he turns back in fear, takes upon himself all the sin of his master, whatever (it may be);

yt! £ c£ASy suk«t< ik< icdœ AmuÇawRm! %paijRtm!, -taR tt! svRm! AadÄe prav&ÄhtSy tu. 7£95

7.95. And whatever merit (a man) who is slain in flight may have gained for the next (world), all that his master takes.

rw£Añ< hiStn< cÇ< xn< xaNy< pzUn! iôy>, svRÔVyai[ k…Py< c yae yj! jyit tSy tt!. 7£96

7.96. Chariots and horses, elephants, parasols, money, grain, cattle, women, all sorts of (marketable) goods and valueless metals belong to him who takes them (singly) conquering (the possessor).

ra}z! c d*urœ %Ïarm! #Tye;a vEidkI ïuit>, ra}a c svRyaexe_yae datVym! Ap&wiGjtm!. 7£97

7.97. A text of the Veda (declares) that (the soldiers) shall present a choice portion (of the booty) to the king; what has not been taken singly, must be distributed by the king among all the soldiers.

@;ae AnupSk«t> àae­ae yaexxmR> snatn>, ASmadœ xmaRn! n Cyvet ]iÇyae ¹n! r[e irpUn!. 7£98

7.98. Thus has been declared the blameless, primeval law for warriors; from this law a Kshatriya must not depart, when he strikes his foes in battle.

AlBx< c£@v ilPset lBx< r]et! àyÆt>, ri]t< vxRyec! c£@v v&Ï< paÇe;u ini]pet!. 7£99

7.99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained; what he has gained let him carefully preserve; let him augment what he preserves, and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men.

@tc! ctuivRx< iv*at! pué;awRàyaejnm!, ASy inTym! Anuóan< sMykœ k…yaRdœ AtiNÔt>. 7£100

7.100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ them.

AlBxm! #½edœ d{fen lBx< r]edœ Ave]ya, ri]t< vxRyedœ v&Ï(a v&Ï< paÇe;u ini]pet!. 7£101

7.101. What he has not (yet) gained, let him seek (to gain) by (his) army; what he has gained, let him protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by (various modes of) increasing it; and what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow (on worthy men).

inTym! %*t£d{f> Syan! inTy< ivv&t£paEé;>, inTy< s. 7£102

7.102. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.

inTym! %*t£d{fSy k«Tõm! %iÖjte jgt!, tSmat! svaRi[ -Utain d{fen£@v àsaxyet!. 7£103

7.103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.

Amayya£@v vteRt n kw< cn mayya, buXyet£Airàyu­a< c maya< inTy< sus. 7£104

7.104. Let him ever act without guile, and on no account treacherously; carefully guarding himself, let him always fathom the treachery which his foes employ.

n£ASy icÔ< prae iv*adœ iv*at! £ icÔ< prSy c, gUhet! kªmR #v£A¼ain r]edœ ivvrm! AaTmn>. 7£105

7.105. His enemy must not know his weaknesses, but he must know the weaknesses of his enemy; as the tortoise (hides its limbs), even so let him secure the members (of his government against treachery), let him protect his own weak points.

bkvt! £ icNtyedœ AwaRn! is



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