Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886



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7.106. Let him plan his undertakings (patiently meditating) like a heron; like a lion, let him put forth his strength; like a wolf, let him snatch (his prey); like a hare, let him double in retreat.

@vm! ivjymanSy ye ASy Syu> pirpiNwn>, tan! Aanyedœ vz< svaRn! samaidi-rœ %p³mE>. 7£107

7.107. When he is thus engaged in conquest, let him subdue all the opponents whom he may find, by the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest.

yid te tu n itóeyurœ %payE> àwmEs! iÇi->, d{fen£@v àsý£@tan! £ znkErœ vzm! Aanyet!. 7£108

7.108. If they cannot be stopped by the three first expedients, then let him, overcoming them by force alone, gradually bring them to subjection.

sam£AdInam! %payana< ctu[aRm! Aip pi{fta>, sam£d{faE àz

7.109. Among the four expedients, conciliation and the rest, the learned always recommend conciliation and (the employment of) force for the prosperity of kingdoms.

110 ywa£%Ïrit indaRta k]< xaNy< c r]it, twa r]en! n&pae raò+< hNyac! c pirpiNwn>. 7£110

7.110. As the weeder plucks up the weeds and preserves the corn, even so let the king protect his kingdom and destroy his opponents.

maehadœ raja Svraò+< y> k;RyTynve]ya, sae Aicradœ æZyte raJyat! £ jIivtat! £ c s£baNxv>. 7£111

7.111. That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will), together with his relatives, ere long be deprived of his life and of his kingdom.

zrIrk;R[at! àa[a> ]IyNte àai[na< ywa, twa ra}am! Aip àa[a> ]IyNte raò+k;R[at!. 7£112

7.112. As the lives of living creatures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies, even so the lives of kings are destroyed by their oppressing their kingdoms.

raò+Sy s<¢he inTy< ivxanm! #dm! Aacret!, sus suom! @xte. 7£113

7.113. In governing his kingdom let him always observe the (following) rules; for a king who governs his kingdom well, easily prospers.

Öyaes! Çya[a< pÂana< mXye guLmm! Aixiótm!, twa ¢amztana< c k…yaRdœ raò+Sy s<¢hm!. 7£114

7.114. Let him place a company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty officer), the midst of two, three, five or hundreds of villages, (to be) a protection of the kingdom.

¢amSy£Aixpit< k…yaRdœ dz¢ampit< twa, iv

7.115. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages, lords of twenty, lords of a hundred, and lords of a thousand.

¢amdae;an! smuTpÚan! ¢aimk> znkE> Svym!, z

7.116. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty.

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7.117. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand.

yain rajàdeyain àTyh< ¢amvaisi->, AÚ£pan£#NxnadIin ¢aimks! taNyvaßuyat!. 7£118

7.118. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink, and fuel, the lord of one village shall obtain.

dzI k…l< tu -uÃIt iv shöaixpit> purm!. 7£119

7.119. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family), the ruler of twenty five kulas, the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village, the lord of a thousand (the revenues of) a town.

te;a< ¢aMyai[ kayaRin p&wŠayaRi[ c£@v ih, ra}ae ANy> sicv> iõGxs! tain pZyedœ AtiNÔt>. 7£120

7.120. The affairs of these (officials), which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business, another minister of the king shall inspect, (who must be) loyal and never remiss;

ngre ngre c£@k< k…yaRt! svaRwRicNtkm!, %½E>Swan< "aerêp< n]Ça[am! #v ¢hm!. 7£121

7.121. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs, elevated in rank, formidable, (resembling) a planet among the stars.

s tan! Anupir³amet! svaRn! @v sda Svym!, te;a< v&Ä< pir[yet! sMyg! raò+e;u tt! £ crE>. 7£122

7.122. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each.

ra}ae ih r]aixk«ta> prSvadaiyn> zQa>, -&Tya -viNt àaye[ te_yae r]edœ #ma> àja>. 7£123

7.123. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men).

ye kaiyRke_yae AwRm! @v g&ŸIyu> papcets>, te;a< svRSvm! Aaday raja k…yaRt! àvasnm!. 7£124

7.124. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who, evil-minded, may take money from suitors, and banish them.

raja kmRsu yu­ana< ôI[a< àe:yjnSy c, àTyh< kLpyedœ v&iÄ< Swan< kmaRnuêpt>. 7£125

7.125. For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants, let him fix a daily maintenance, in proportion to their position and to their work.

p[ae deyae Avk«òSy ;fœ %Tk«òSy vetnm!, ;a{maisks! twa£A½adae xaNyÔae[s! tu maisk>. 7£126

7.126. One pana must be given (daily) as wages to the lowest, six to the highest, likewise clothing every six months and one drona of grain every month.

³y£iv³ym! AXvan< -­< c s£pirVyym!, yaeg]em< c s<àeúy vi[jae dapyet! kran!. 7£127

7.127. Having well considered (the rates of) purchase and (of) sale, (the length of) the road, (the expense for) food and condiments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king make the traders pay duty.

ywa )len yuJyet raja ktaR c kmR[am!, twa£Aveúy n&pae raò+e kLpyet! stt< kran!. 7£128

7.128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.



, twa£ALpaLpae ¢hItVyae raò+adœ ra}aiBdk> kr>. 7£129

7.129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes.

pÂazÑag Aadeyae ra}a pzu£ihr{yyae>, xaNyanam! Aòmae -ag> ;óae Öadz @v va. 7£130

7.130. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops.

AaddIt£Aw ;fœ-ag< Ô‚£ma

7.131. He may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clarified butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, substances used for flavouring food, flowers, roots, and fruit;

pÇ£zak£t&[ana< c cmR[a< vEdlSy c, m&Nmyana< c -a{fana< svRSy£AZmmySy c. 7£132

7.132. Of leaves, pot-herbs, grass, (objects) made of cane, skins, of earthen vessels, and all (articles) made of stone.

ièyma[ae APyaddIt n raja ïaeiÇyat! krm!, n c ]uxa£ASy s

7.133. Though dying (with want), a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas, and no Srotriya, residing in his kingdom, must perish from hunger.

ySy ra}s! tu iv;ye ïaeiÇy> sIdit ]uxa, tSy£Aip tt! ]uxa raò+m! Aicren£@v sIdit. 7£134

7.134. The kingdom of that king, in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger, will even, ere long, be afflicted by famine.

ïut£v&Äe ividTva£ASy v&iÄ< xMya¡ àkLpyet!, s

7.135. Having ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity of) his conduct, the king shall provide for him means of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law, and shall protect him in every way, as a father (protects) the lawful son of his body.

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7.136. Whatever meritorious acts (such a Brahmana) performs under the full protection of the king, thereby the king's length of life, wealth, and kingdom increase.

yt! ik< icdœ Aip v;RSy dapyet! krs

7.137. Let the king make the common inhabitants of his realm who live by traffic, pay annually some trifle, which is called a tax.

kaékan! £ iziLpnz! c£@v zUÔa, @kEk< karyet! kmR mais mais mhIpit>. 7£138

7.138. Mechanics and artisans, as well as Sudras who subsist by manual labour, he may cause to work (for himself) one (day) in each month.

n£%i½N*adœ AaTmnae mUl< pre;a< c£Aitt&:[ya, %i½Ndn! ýaTmnae mUlm! Aaqœman< ta

7.139. Let him not cut up his own root (by levying no taxes), nor the root of other (men) by excessive greed; for by cutting up his own root (or theirs), he makes himself or them wretched.

tIú[z! c£@v m&Êz! c Syat! kay¡ vIúy mhIpit>, tIú[z! c£@v m&Êz! c£@v raj -vit sMmt>. 7£140

7.140. Let the king, having carefully considered (each) affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected.

AmaTymuOy< xmR}< àa}< daNt< k…l£%Ìtm!, Swapyedœ Aasne tiSmn! ioÚ> kayR£$][e n&[am!. 7£141

7.141. When he is tired with the inspection of the business of men, let him place on that seat (of justice) his chief minister, (who must be) acquainted with the law, wise, self-controlled, and descended from a (noble) family.

@v< sv¡ ivxay£#dm! #itktRVym! AaTmn>, yu­z! c£@v£AàmÄz! c pirr]edœ #ma> àja>. 7£142

7.142. Having thus arranged all the affairs (of) his (government), he shall zealously and carefully protect his subjects.

iv³aezNTyae ySy raò+adœ iÿyNte dSyui-> àja>, s
s£-&TySy m&t> s n tu jIvit. 7£143

7.143. That (monarch) whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom, while they loudly call (for help), and he and his servants are (quietly) looking on, is a dead and not a living (king).

]iÇySy prae xmR> àajanam! @v palnm!, inidRò)l-ae­a ih raja xmeR[ yuJyte. 7£144

7.144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards, just mentioned, is bound to (discharge that) duty.

%Tway piíme yame k«t£zaEc> smaiht>, ÷tai¶rœ äaü[a

7.145. Having risen in the last watch of the night, having performed (the rite of) personal purification, having, with a collected mind, offered oblations in the fire, and having worshipped Brahmanas, he shall enter the hall of audience which must possess the marks (considered) auspicious (for a dwelling).

tÇ iSwt> àja> svaR> àitnN* ivsjRyet!, ivs&Jy c àja> svaR mÙyet! sh miÙi->. 7£146

7.146. Tarrying there, he shall gratify all subjects (who come to see him by a kind reception) and afterwards dismiss them; having dismissed his subjects, he shall take counsel with his ministers.

igirp&ó< smaéý àsad< va rhaegt>, Ar{ye in>£zlake va mÙyedœ Aiv-aivt>. 7£147

7.147. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace, (and) retiring (there) in a lonely place, or in a solitary forest, let him consult with them unobserved.

ySy mÙ< n janiNt smagMy p&wGjna>, s k«Tõa< p&iwvI— -u“e kaezhInae Aip paiwRv>. 7£148

7.148. That king whose secret plans other people, (though) assembled (for the purpose), do not discover, (will) enjoy the whole earth, though he be poor in treasure.

jf£mUk£ANx£bixra

7.149. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots, the dumb, the blind, and the deaf, animals, very aged men, women, barbarians, the sick, and those deficient in limbs.

i-NdNTyvmta mÙ< tEyRGyaenas! twa£@v c, iôyz! c£@v ivze;e[ tSmat! tÇa†tae -vet!. 7£150

7.150. (Such) despicable (persons), likewise animals, and particularly women betray secret council; for that reason he must be careful with respect to them.

mXy, icNtyedœ xmR£kam£AwaRn! sax¡ tErœ @k @v va. 7£151

7.151. At midday or at midnight, when his mental and bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate, either with himself alone or with his (ministers), on virtue, pleasure, and wealth,

prSprivéÏana< te;a< c smupajRnm!, kNyana< s<àdan< c k…mara[a< c r][<. 7£152

7.152. On (reconciling) the attainment of these (aims) which are opposed to each other, on bestowing his daughters in marriage, and on keeping his sons (from harm),

Ëts<àe;[< c£@v kayRze;< twa£@v c, ANt>puràcar< c ài[xIna< c ceiòtm!. 7£153

7.153. On sending ambassadors, on the completion of undertakings (already begun), on the behaviour of (the women in) his harem, and on the doings of his spies.

k«Tõ< c£Aòivx< kmR pÂvg¡ c tÅvt>, Anurag£ApragaE c àcar< m{flSy c. 7£154

7.154. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes (of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) carefully (reflect).

mXymSy àcar< c ivjIig;aez! c ceiòtm!, %dasInàcar< c zÇaez! c£@v àyÆt>. 7£155

7.155. On the conduct of the middlemost (prince), on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the behaviour of the neutral (king), and (on that) of the foe (let him) sedulously (meditate).

@ta> àk«tyae mUl< m{flSy smast>, AòaE c£ANya> smaOyata Öadz£@v tu ta> Sm&ta>. 7£156

7.156. These (four) constituents (prakriti, form), briefly (speaking), the foundation of the circle (of neighbours); besides, eight others are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve.

AmaTy£raò+£ÊgR£AwR£d{faOya> p c£Apra>, àTyek< kiwta ýeta> s<]epe[ iÖsÝit>. 7£157

7.157. The minister, the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army are five other (constituent elements of the circle); for, these are mentioned in connexion with each (of the first twelve; thus the whole circle consists), briefly (speaking, of) seventy-two (constituent parts).

AnNtrm! Air< iv*adœ Airseivnm! @v c, Arerœ AnNtr< imÇm! %dasIn< tyae> prm!. 7£158

7.158. Let (the king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly the immediate neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond those two.

tan! svaRn! Ai-s, VyStEz! c£@v smStEz! c paEé;e[ nyen c. 7£159

7.159. Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest, (employed) either singly or conjointly, (or) by bravery and policy (alone).

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7.160. Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war, marching, halting, dividing the army, and seeking protection.

Aasn< c£@v yan< c s

7.161. Having carefully considered the business (in hand), let him resort to sitting quiet or marching, alliance or war, dividing his forces or seeking protection (as the case may require).

s s<ïy> Sm&t>. 7£162

7.162. But the king must know that there are two kinds of alliances and of wars, (likewise two) of both marching and sitting quiet, and two (occasions for) seeking protection.)

sman£yankmaR c ivprIts! twa£@v c, tda Tv! Aayits s. 7£163

7.163. An alliance which yields present and future advantages, one must know to be of two descriptions, (viz.) that when one marches together (with an ally) and the contrary (when the allies act separately).

Svy Sm&t>. 7£164

7.164. War is declared to be of two kinds, (viz.) that which is undertaken in season or out of season, by oneself and for one's own purposes, and (that waged to avenge) an injury done to a friend.

@kaiknz! c£ATyiyke kayeR àaÝe y†½ya, s



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