Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886

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7.165. Marching (to attack) is said to be twofold, (viz. that undertaken) by one alone when an urgent matter has suddenly arisen, and (that undertaken) by one allied with a friend.

]I[Sy c£@v ³mzae dEvat! pUvRk«ten va, imÇSy c£Anuraexen iÖivx< Sm&tm! Aasnm!. 7£166

7.166. Sitting quiet is stated to be of two kinds, (viz. that incumbent) on one who has gradually been weakened by fate or in consequence of former acts, and (that) in favour of a friend.

blSy Svaimnz! c£@v iSwit> kayaRwRisÏye, iÖivx< kITyRte ÖEx< ;afœgu{ygu[veidi->. 7£167

7.167. If the army stops (in one place) and its master (in another) in order to effect some purpose, that is called by those acquainted with the virtues of the measures of royal policy, the twofold division of the forces.

, saxu;u Vypdezz! c iÖivx> s<ïy> Sm&t>. 7£168

7.168. Seeking refuge is declared to be of two kinds, (first) for the purpose of attaining an advantage when one is harassed by enemies, (secondly) in order to become known among the virtuous (as the protege of a powerful king).

yda£Avg½edœ AayTyam! AaixKy< Øuvm! AaTmn>, tdaTve c£AiLpka< pIfa< tda s

7.169. When (the king) knows (that) at some future time his superiority (is) certain, and (that) at the time present (he will suffer) little injury, then let him have recourse to peaceful measures.

yda àùòa mNyet svaRs! tu àk«tIrœ -&zm!, ATyu½!irt< twaTman< tda k…vIRt iv¢hm!. 7£170

7.170. But when he thinks all his subjects to be exceedingly contented, and (that he) himself (is) most exalted (in power), then let him make war.

yda mNyet -aven ùò< può< bl< Svkm!, prSy ivprIt< c tda yayadœ irpu< àit. 7£171

7.171. When he knows his own army to be cheerful in disposition and strong, and (that) of his enemy the reverse, then let him march against his foe.

yda tu Syat! pir]I[ae vahnen blen c, tdasIt àyÆen znkE> saNTvyÚ! ArIn!. 7£172

7.172. But if he is very weak in chariots and beasts of burden and in troops, then let him carefully sit quiet, gradually conciliating his foes.

mNyet£Air< yda raja svRwa blvÄrm!, tda iÖxa bl< k«Tva saxyet! kayRm! AaTmn>. 7£173

7.173. When the king knows the enemy to be stronger in every respect, then let him divide his army and thus achieve his purpose.

yda prblana< tu gmnIytmae -vet!, tda tu s<ïyet! i]à< xaimRk< biln< n&pm!. 7£174

7.174. But when he is very easily assailable by the forces of the enemy, then let him quickly seek refuge with a righteous, powerful king.

in¢h< àk«tIna< c k…yaRdœ yae AirblSy c, %psevet t< inTy< svRyÆErœ gué< ywa. 7£175

7.175. That (prince) who will coerce both his (disloyal) subjects and the army of the foe, let him ever serve with every effort like a Guru.

yid tǣAip s
smacret!. 7£176

7.176. When, even in that (condition), he sees (that) evil is caused by (such) protection, let him without hesitation have recourse to war.

svR£%payEs! twa k…yaRn! nIit}> p&iwvIpit>, ywa£ASy£A_yixka n Syurœ imÇ£%dasIn£zÇv>. 7£177

7.177. By all (the four) expedients a politic prince must arrange (matters so) that neither friends, nor neutrals, nor foes are superior to himself.

Aayit< svRkayaR[a< tdaTv< c ivcaryet!, AtItana< c sveR;a< gu[£dae;aE c tÅvt>. 7£178

7.178. Let him fully consider the future and the immediate results of all undertakings, and the good and bad sides of all past (actions).

AayTya< gu[£dae;}s! tdaTve i]à£iníy>, AtIte kayRze;}> zÇui-rœ n£Ai--Uyte. 7£179

7.179. He who knows the good and the evil (which will result from his acts) in the future, is quick in forming resolutions for the present, and understands the consequences of past (actions), will not be conquered.

ywa£@n< n£Ai-s, twa sv¡ s. 7£180

7.180. Let him arrange everything in such a manner that no ally, no neutral or foe may injure him; that is the sum of political wisdom.

tda tu yanm! Aaitóedœ Airraò+< àit à-u>, tdanen ivxanen yayadœ Airpur< znE>. 7£181

7.181. But if the king undertakes an expedition against a hostile kingdom, then let him gradually advance, in the following manner, against his foe's capital.

magRzI;eR zu-e mais yayadœ yaÇa< mhIpit>, )aLgun< vaw cEÇ< va masaE àit ywablm!. 7£182

7.182. Let the king undertake his march in the fine month Margasirsha, or towards the months of Phalguna and Kaitra, according to the (condition of his) army.

ANye:v! Aip tu kale;u yda pZyedœ Øuv< jym!, tda yayadœ ivg&ý£@v Vysne c£%iTwte irpae>. 7£183

7.183. Even at other times, when he has a certain prospect of victory, or when a disaster has befallen his foe, he may advance to attack him.

k«Tva ivxan< mUle tu yaiÇk< c ywaivix, %pg&ý£ASpd< c£@v caran! sMyg! ivxay c. 7£184

7.184. But having duly arranged (all affairs) in his original (kingdom) and what relates to the expedition, having secured a basis (for his operations) and having duly dispatched his spies;


7.185. Having cleared the three kinds of roads, and (having made) his sixfold army (efficient), let him leisurely proceed in the manner prescribed for warfare against the enemy's capital.

zÇuseivin imÇe c gUFe yu­trae -vet!, gt£àTyagte c£@v s ih kòtrae irpu>. 7£186

7.186. Let him be very much on his guard against a friend who secretly serves the enemy and against (deserters) who return (from the enemy's camp); for such (men are) the most dangerous foes.

d{fVyUhen tn! mag¡ yayat! tu zkqen va, vrah£mkra_ya< va sUCya va géfen va. 7£187

7.187. Let him march on his road, arraying (his troops) like a staff (i.e. in an oblong), or like a waggon (i.e. in a wedge), or like a boar (i.e. in a rhombus), or like a Makara (i.e. in two triangles, with the apices joined), or like a pin (i.e. in a long line), or like a Garuda (i.e. in a rhomboid with far-extended wings).

ytz! c -ym! Aaz»et! ttae ivStaryedœ blm!, pÒen c£@v VyUhen inivzet sda Svym!. 7£188

7.188. From whatever (side) he apprehends danger, in that (direction) let him extend his troops, and let him always himself encamp in an array, shaped like a lotus.

senapit£blaXy]aE svRid]u invezyet!, ytz! c -ym! Aaz»et! àacI— ta< kLpyedœ idzm!. 7£189

7.189. Let him allot to the commander-in-chief, to the (subordinate) general, (and to the superior officers) places in all directions, and let him turn his front in that direction whence he fears danger.

guLma, Swane yuÏe c k…zlan! A-Iên! Aivkair[>. 7£190

7.190. On all sides let him place troops of soldiers, on whom he can rely, with whom signals have been arranged, who are expert both in sustaining a charge and in charging, fearless and loyal.


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