Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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8.290. They declare with respect to a carriage, its driver and its owner, (that there are) ten cases in which no punishment (for damage done) can be inflicted; in other cases a fine is prescribed.

icÚ£naSye -¶£yuge ityRK£àitmuo£Agte, A]£-¼e c yanSy c³£-¼e twa£@v c,8£291

8.291. When the nose-string is snapped, when the yoke is broken, when the carriage turns sideways or back, when the axle or a wheel is broken,

cedne c£@v yÙa[a< yae±£rZMyaes! twa£@v c, Aa³Nde c£APypEih£#it n d{f< mnurœ AävIt!. 8£292

8.292. When the leather-thongs, the rope around the neck or the bridle are broken, and when (the driver) has loudly called out, 'Make way,' Manu has declared (that in all these cases) no punishment (shall be inflicted).

yÇ£ApvtRte yuGy< vEgu{yat! àajkSy tu, tÇ SvamI -vedœ d{f(ae ih

8.293. But if the cart turns off (the road) through the driver's want of skill, the owner shall be fined, if damage (is done), two hundred (panas).

àajkz! cedœ -vedœ AaÝ> àajkae d{fm! AhRit, yuGySwa> àajke AnaÝe sveR d{f(a> zt< ztm!. 8£294

8.294. If the driver is skilful (but negligent), he alone shall be fined; if the driver is unskilful, the occupants of the carriage (also) shall be each fined one hundred (panas).

s cet! tu piw s<éÏ> pzui-rœ va rwen va, àmapyet! àa[-&ts! tÇ d{fae Aivcairt>. 8£295

8.295. But if he is stopped on his way by cattle or by (another) carriage, and he causes the death of any living being, a fine shall without doubt be imposed.

mnu:ymar[e i]à< caErvt! ikiLb;< -vet!, àa[-&Tsu mhTSv! Ax¡ gae£gj£%ò+£hyaid;u. 8£296

8.296. If a man is killed, his guilt will be at once the same as (that of) a thief; for large animals such as cows, elephants, camels or horses, half of that.

]uÔka[a< pzUna< tu ih, pÂazt! tu -vedœ d{f> zu-e;u m&gpi];u. 8£297

8.297. For injuring small cattle the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas); the fine for beautiful wild quadrupeds and birds shall amount to fifty (panas).

gxR-£Aj£Aivkana< tu d{f> Syat! pÂmai;k>, mai;ks! tu -vedœ d{f> ñ£sUkrinpatne. 8£298

8.298. For donkeys, sheep, and goats the fine shall be five mashas; but the punishment for killing a dog or a pig shall be one masha.

-ayaR puÇz! c dasz! c àe:yae æaÇa c s£%dr>, àaÝ£Apraxas! taf(a> SyU rJJva ve[udlen va. 8£299

8.299. A wife, a son, a slave, a pupil, and a (younger) brother of the full blood, who have committed faults, may be beaten with a rope or a split bamboo,

p&óts! tu zrIrSy n£%Äma¼e kw< cn, Atae ANywa tu àhrn! àaÝ> Syac! caErikiLb;m!. 8£300

8.300. But on the back part of the body (only), never on a noble part; he who strikes them otherwise will incur the same guilt as a thief.

@;ae Aiolen£Ai-ihtae d{fpaé:yin[Ry>, StenSy£At> àvúyaim ivix< d{fivin[Rye. 8£301

8.301. Thus the whole law of assault (and hurt) has been declared completely; I will now explain the rules for the decision (in cases) of theft.

prm< yÆm! Aaitóet! Stenana< in¢he n&p>, Stenana< in¢hadœ ASy yzae raò+< c vxRte. 8£302

8.302. Let the king exert himself to the utmost to punish thieves; for, if he punishes thieves, his fame grows and his kingdom prospers.

A-ySy ih yae data s pUJy> stt< n&p>, sTÇ< ih vxRte tSy sda£@v£A-y£di][m!. 8£303

8.303. That king, indeed, is ever worthy of honour who ensures the safety (of his subjects); for the sacrificial session (sattra, which he, as it were, performs thereby) ever grows in length, the safety (of his subjects representing) the sacrificial fee.

svRtae xmR;fœ-agae ra}ae -vit r]t>, AxmaRdœ Aip ;fœ-agae -vTySy ýr]t>. 8£304

8.304. A king who (duly) protects (his subjects) receives from each and all the sixth part of their spiritual merit; if he does not protect them, the sixth part of their demerit also (will fall on him).

ydœ AxIte ydœ yjte ydœ ddait ydœ AcRit, tSy ;fœ-ag-ag! raja sMyg! -vit r][at!. 8£305

8.305. Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda, by sacrificing, by charitable gifts, (or by) worshipping (Gurus and gods), the king obtains a sixth part of that in consequence of his duly protecting (his kingdom).

r]n! xmeR[ -Utain raja vXya shözt£di][E>. 8£306

8.306. A king who protects the created beings in accordance with the sacred law and smites those worthy of corporal punishment, daily offers (as it were) sacrifices at which hundred thousands (are given as) fees.

yae A£r]n! bilm! AadÄe kr< zuLk< c paiwRv>, àit-ag< c d{f< c s s*ae nrk< ìjet!. 8£307

8.307. A king who does not afford protection, (yet) takes his share in kind, his taxes, tolls and duties, daily presents and fines, will (after death) soon sink into hell.

Ari]tarm! rajan< bil;fœ-ag£hair[m!, tm! Aa÷> svRlaekSy sm¢ml£harkm!. 8£308

8.308. They declare that a king who affords no protection, (yet) receives the sixth part of the produce, takes upon himself all the foulness of his whole people.

Anpei]t£myaRd< naiStk< ivàlu

8.309. Know that a king who heeds not the rules (of the law), who is an atheist, and rapacious, who does not protect (his subjects, but) devours them, will sink low (after death).

AxaimRk< iÇi-rœ NyayErœ ing&ŸIyat! àyÆt>, inraexnen bNxen ivivxen vxen c. 8£310

8.310. Let him carefully restrain the wicked by three methods,- by imprisonment by putting them in fetters, and by various (kinds of) corporal punishments.

in¢he[ ih papana< saxUna< s<¢he[ c, iÖjaty #v£#Jyai-> pUyNte stt< n&pa>. 8£311

8.311. For by punishing the wicked and by favouring the virtuous, kings are constantly sanctified, just as twice-born men by sacrifices.

]NtVy< à-u[a inTy< i]pta< kaiyR[a< n&[am!, bal£v&Ï£Atura[a< c k…vRta ihtm! AaTmn>. 8£312

8.312. A king who desires his own welfare must always forgive litigants, infants, aged and sick men, who inveigh against him.

y> i]Ýae m;RyTyatERs! ten SvgeR mhIyte, ys! Tv! @eñyaRn! n ]mte nrk< ten g½it. 8£313

8.313. He who, being abused by men in pain, pardons (them), will in reward of that (act) be exalted in heaven; but he who, (proud) of his kingly state, forgives them not, will for that (reason) sink into hell.

raja Stenen gNtVyae mu­£kezen xavta, Aac]a[en tt! Steym! @v

8.314. A thief shall, running, approach the king, with flying hair, confessing that theft (and saying), 'Thus have I done, punish me;'

SkNxen£Aday musl< lguf< va£Aip oaidrm!, zi­< c£%-yts! tIú[am! Aays< d{fm! @v va. 8£315

8.315. (And he must) carry on his shoulder a pestle, or a club of Khadira wood, or a spear sharp at both ends, or an iron staff.

zasnadœ va ivmae]adœ va Sten> Steyadœ ivmuCyte, AzaisTva tu t< raja StenSy£Aßaeit ikiLb;m!. 8£316

8.316. Whether he be punished or pardoned, the thief is freed from the (guilt of) theft; but the king, if he punishes not, takes upon himself the guilt of the thief.

AÚade æU[ha maiòR pTyaE -ayaR£Apcair[I, guraE iz:yz! c yaJyz! c Stenae rajin ikiLb;m!. 8£317

8.317. The killer of a learned Brahmana throws his guilt on him who eats his food, an adulterous wife on her (negligent) husband, a (sinning) pupil or sacrificer on (their negligent) teacher (or priest), a thief on the king (who pardons him).

raji-> k«td{fas! tu k«Tva papain manva>, in£mRla> SvgRm! AayaiNt sNt> suk«itnae ywa. 8£318

8.318. But men who have committed crimes and have been punished by the king, go to heaven, being pure like those who performed meritorious deeds.

ys! tu r¾u< "q< kªpaΉ hredœ i-N*ac! c y> àpam!, s d{f< àaßuyan! ma;< tc! c tiSmn! smahret!. 8£319

8.319. He who steals the rope or the water-pot from a well, or damages a hut where water is distributed, shall pay one masha as a fine and restore the (article abstracted or damaged) in its (proper place).

xaNy< dz_y> k…M-e_yae hrtae A_yixk< vx>, ze;e APyekadzgu[< daPys! tSy c tdœ xnm!. 8£320

8.320. On him who steals more than ten kumbhas of grain corporal punishment (shall be inflicted); in other cases he shall be fined eleven times as much, and shall pay to the (owner the value of his) property.

twa xirmmeyana< ztadœ A_yixke vx>, suv[R£rjtadInam! %Ämana< c vassam!. 8£321

8.321. So shall corporal punishment be inflicted for stealing more than a hundred (palas) of articles sold by the weight, (i.e.) of gold, silver, and so forth, and of most excellent clothes.

pÂazts! Tv! A_yixke hSt½ednm! #:yte, ze;e Tv! @kadzgu[< mULyadœ d{f< àkLpyet!. 8£322

8.322. For (stealing) more than fifty (palas) it is enacted that the hands (of the offender) shall be cut off; but in other cases, let him inflict a fine of eleven times the value.

pué;a[a< k…lInana< narI[a< c ivze;t>, muOyana< c£@v rÆana< hr[e vxm! AhRit. 8£323

8.323. For stealing men of noble family and especially women and the most precious gems, (the offender) deserves corporal (or capital) punishment.

mhapzUna< hr[e zôa[am! AaE;xSy c, kalm! Aasa* kay¡ c d{f< raja àkLpyet!. 8£324

8.324. For stealing large animals, weapons, or medicines, let the king fix a punishment, after considering the time and the purpose (for which they were destined).

gae;u äaü[s kayaeR AxRpaidk>. 8£325

8.325. For (stealing) cows belonging to Brahmanas, piercing (the nostrils of) a barren cow, and for stealing (other) cattle (belonging to Brahmanas, the offender) shall forthwith lose half his feet.

sUÇ£kapaRs£ik{vana< gaemySy gufSy c, d×> ]IrSy t³Sy panIySy t&[Sy c. 8£326

8.326. (For stealing) thread, cotton, drugs causing fermentation, cowdung, molasses, sour milk, sweet milk, butter-milk, water, or grass,

ve[uvEdl-a{fana< lv[ana< twa£@v c, m&{myana< c hr[e m&dae -Smn @v c. 8£327

8.327. Vessels made of bamboo or other cane, salt of various kinds, earthen (vessels), earth and ashes,

mTSyana< pi][a< c£@v tElSy c "&tSy c, ma

8.328. Fish, birds, oil, clarified butter, meat, honey, and other things that come from beasts,

ANye;a< c£@vM£AdIna< m*anam! AaednSy c, pKvaÚana< c sveR;a< tNmuLyadœ iÖgu[ae dm>. 8£329

8.329. Or other things of a similar kind, spirituous liquor, boiled rice, and every kind of cooked food, the fine (shall be) twice the value (of the stolen article).

pu:pe;u hirte xaNye guLm£v‘I£nge;u c, ANye:v! ApirpUte;u d{f> Syat! pÂk«:[l>. 8£330

8.330. For flowers, green corn, shrubs, creepers, trees, and other unhusked (grain) the fine (shall be) five krishnalas.

pirpUte;u xaNye;u zak£mUl£)le;u c, inrNvye zt< d{f> saNvye AxRzt< dm>. 8£331

8.331. For husked grain, vegetables, roots, and fruit the fine (shall be) one hundred (panas) if there is no connexion (between the owner and the thief), fifty (panas) if such a connexion exists.

Syat! sahs< Tv! ANvyvt! às-< kmR yt! k«tm!, inrNvy< -vet! Stey< ùTva£ApVyyte c yt!. 8£332

8.332. An offence (of this description), which is committed in the presence (of the owner) and with violence, will be robbery; if (it is committed) in his absence, it will be theft; likewise if (the possession of) anything is denied after it has been taken.

ys! Tv! @taNyupK¦œÝain ÔVyai[ Stenyen! nr>, tm! Aa*< d{fyedœ raja yz! cai¶< caeryedœ g&hat!. 8£333

8.333. On that man who may steal (any of) the above-mentioned articles, when they are prepared for (use), let the king inflict the first (or lowest) amercement; likewise on him who may steal (a sacred) fire out of the room (in which it is kept).

yen yen ywa¼en Stenae n&;u ivceòte, tt! tdœ @v hret! tSy àTyadezay paiwRv>. 8£334

8.334. With whatever limb a thief in any way commits (an offence) against men, even of that (the king) shall deprive him in order to prevent (a repetition of the crime).

ipta£AcayR> suùt! £ mata -ayaR puÇ> puraeiht>, n£Ad{f(ae nam ra}ae AiSt y> SvxmeR n itóit. 8£335

8.335. Neither a father, nor a teacher, nor a friend, nor a mother, nor a wife, nor a son, nor a domestic priest must be left unpunished by a king, if they do not keep within their duty.

ka;aRp[< -vedœ d{f(ae yÇ£ANy> àak«tae jn>, tÇ raja -vedœ d{f(> shöm! #it xar[a. 8£336

8.336. Where another common man would be fined one karshapana, the king shall be fined one thousand; that is the settled rule.

Aòapa*< tu zUÔSy Steye -vit ikiLb;m!, ;aefz£@v tu vEZySy ÖaiÇ

8.337. In (a case of) theft the guilt of a Sudra shall be eightfold, that of a Vaisya sixteenfold, that of a Kshatriya two-and-thirtyfold,

äaü[Sy ctu>;iò> pU[¡ va£Aip zt< -vet!, iÖgu[a va ctu>;iòs! tÎae;gu[ivΉ ih s>. 8£338

8.338. That of a Brahmana sixty-fourfold, or quite a hundredfold, or (even) twice four-and-sixtyfold; (each of them) knowing the nature of the offence.

vanSpTy< mUl£)l< daé£AGNY£Aw¡ twa£@v c, t&[< c gae_yae ¢as£AwRm! AStey< mnurœ AävIt!. 8£339

8.339. (The taking of) roots and of fruit from trees, of wood for a (sacrificial) fire, and of grass for feeding cows, Manu has declared (to be) no theft.

yae AdÄadaiynae hStat! £ ilPset äaü[ae xnm!, yajn£AXyapnen£Aip ywa Stens! twa£@v s>. 8£340

8.340. A Brahmana, seeking to obtain property from a man who took what was not given to him, either by sacrificing for him or by teaching him, is even like a thief.

iÖjae AXvg> ]I[£v&iÄrœ Öav! #]U Öe c mUlke, Aaddan> pr]eÇat! £ n d{f< datum! AhRit. 8£341

8.341. A twice-born man, who is travelling and whose provisions are exhausted, shall not be fined, if he takes two stalks of sugar-cane or two (esculent) roots from the field of another man.

As, das£Añ£rwhtaR c àaÝ> Syac! caerikiLb;m!. 8£342

8.342. He who ties up unbound or sets free tied up (cattle of other men), he who takes a slave, a horse, or a carriage will have incurred the guilt of a thief.

Anen ivixna raja k…vaR[> Stenin¢hm!, yzae AiSmn! àaßuyat! £ laeke àeTy c£AnuÄm< suom!. 8£343

8.343. A king who punishes thieves according to these rules, will gain fame in this world and after death unsurpassable bliss.

@eNÔ< Swanm! Ai-àePsurœ yzz! c£A]ym! AVyym!, n£%pe]et ][m! Aip raja sahisk< nrm!. 8£344

8.344. A king who desires to gain the throne of Indra and imperishable eternal fame, shall not, even for a moment, neglect (to punish) the man who commits violence.

vaGÊòat! tSkrac! c£@v d{fen£@v c ih, sahsSy nr> ktaR iv}ey> papk«Äm>. 8£345

8.345. He who commits violence must be considered as the worst offender, (more wicked) than a defamer, than a thief, and than he who injures (another) with a staff.

sahse vtRman< tu yae m;Ryit paiwRv>, s ivnaz< ìjTyazu ivÖe;< c£Aixg½it. 8£346

8.346. But that king who pardons the perpetrator of violence quickly perishes and incurs hatred.

n imÇkar[adœ raja ivpuladœ va xnagmat!, smuTs&jet! sahiskan! svR-Ut-yavhan!. 8£347

8.347. Neither for friendship's sake, nor for the sake of great lucre, must a king let go perpetrators of violence, who cause terror to all creatures.

zô< iÖjaiti-rœ ¢aý< xmaeR yÇ£%péXyte, iÖjatIna< c v[aRna< ivPlve kalkairte. 8£348

8.348. Twice-born men may take up arms when (they are) hindered (in the fulfilment of their duties, when destruction (threatens) the twice-born castes (varna) in (evil) times,

AaTmnz! c pirÇa[e di][ana< c s

8.349. In their own defence, in a strife for the fees of officiating priests, and in order to protect women and Brahmanas; he who (under such circumstances) kills in the cause of right, commits no sin.

gué< va bal£v&ÏaE va äaü[< va b÷£ïutm!, Aattaiynm! AayaNt< hNyadœ @v£A£ivcaryn!. 8£350

8.350. One may slay without hesitation an assassin who approaches (with murderous intent), whether (he be one's) teacher, a child or an aged man, or a Brahmana deeply versed in the Vedas.

n£Attaiyvxe dae;ae hNturœ -vit kz! cn, àkaz< va£Aàkaz< va mNyus! t< mNyum! \½it. 8£351

8.351. By killing an assassin the slayer incurs no guilt, whether (he does it) publicly or secretly; in that case fury recoils upon fury.

prdarai-mzeR;u àv&Äan! n¨n! mhIpit>, %ÖejnkrErœ d{fEz! icÚiyTva àvasyet!. 8£352

8.352. Men who commit adultery with the wives of others, the king shall cause to be marked by punishments which cause terror, and afterwards banish.

tt! £ smuTwae ih laekSy jayte v[Rs, yen mUlhrae AxmR> svRnazay kLpte. 8£353

8.353. For by (adultery) is caused a mixture of the castes (varna) among men; thence (follows) sin, which cuts up even the roots and causes the destruction of everything.

prSy pTNya pué;> s<-a;a< yaejyn! rh>, pUvRm! Aa]airtae dae;E> àaßuyat! pUvRsahsm!. 8£354

8.354. A man formerly accused of (such) offences, who secretly converses with another man's wife, shall pay the first (or lowest) amercement.

ys! Tv! Ana]airt> pUvRm! Ai--a;te kar[at!, n dae;< àaßuyat! ik< icn! n ih tSy Vyit³m>. 8£355

8.355. But a man, not before accused, who (thus) speaks with (a woman) for some (reasonable) cause, shall not incur any guilt, since in him there is no transgression.

priôy< yae Ai-vdet! tIweR Ar{ye vne Aip va, ndIna< va£Aip s<-ede s s<¢h[m! Aaßuyat!. 8£356

8.356. He who addresses the wife of another man at a Tirtha, outside the village, in a forest, or at the confluence of rivers, suffer (the punishment for) adulterous acts (samgrahana).

%pcari³ya keil> SpzaeR -U;[£vassam!, sh oqœva£Asn< c£@v sv¡ s<¢h[< Sm&tm!. 8£357

8.357. Offering presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her ornaments and dress, sitting with her on a bed, all (these acts) are considered adulterous acts (samgrahana).

iôy< Sp&zedœ Adeze y> Sp&òae va m;Ryet! tya, prSprSy£Anumte sv¡ s<¢h[< Sm&tm!. 8£358

8.358. If one touches a woman in a place (which ought) not (to be touched) or allows (oneself to be touched in such a spot), all (such acts done) with mutual consent are declared (to be) adulterous (samgrahana).

Aäaü[> s<¢h[e àa[aNt< d{fm! AhRit, ctu[aRm! Aip v[aRna< dara rúytma> sda. 8£359

8.359. A man who is not a Brahmana ought to suffer death for adultery (samgrahana); for the wives of all the four castes even must always be carefully guarded.

i-]uka biNdnz! c£@v dIi]ta> karvs! twa, s<-a;n< sh ôIi-> k…yuRrœ Aàitvairta>. 8£360

8.360. Mendicants, bards, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony of a Vedic sacrifice, and artisans are not prohibited from speaking to married women.

n s<-a;a< prôIi-> àiti;Ï> smacret!, ini;Ïae -a;ma[s! tu suv[¡ d{fm! AhRit. 8£361

8.361. Let no man converse with the wives of others after he has been forbidden (to do so); but he who converses (with them), in spite of a prohibition, shall be fined one suvarna.

n£@; car[dare;u ivixrœ n£ATm£%pjIiv;u, s¾yiNt ih te narIrœ ingUFaz! caryiNt c. 8£362

8.362. This rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) those who live on (the intrigues of) their own (wives); for such men send their wives (to others) or, concealing themselves, allow them to hold criminal intercourse.

ik< icdœ @v tu daPy> Syat! s<-a;a< tai-rœ Aacrn!, àE:yasu c£@k-­asu rh> àìijtasu c. 8£363

8.363. Yet he who secretly converses with such women, or with female slaves kept by one (master), and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small fine.

yae A£kama< Ë;yet! kNya< s s*ae vxm! AhRit, s£kama< Ë;y. 8£364

8.364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall instantly suffer corporal punishment; but a man who enjoys a willing maiden shall not suffer corporal punishment, if (his caste be) the same (as hers).

kNyam! -jNtIm! %Tk«ò< n ik< icdœ Aip dapyet!, j"Ny< sevmana< tu s

8.365. From a maiden who makes advances to a (man of) high (caste), he shall not take any fine; but her, who courts a (man of) low (caste), let him force to live confined in her house.

%Äma< sevmans! tu j"Nyae vxm! AhRit, zuLk< d*at! sevman> smam! #½et! ipta yid. 8£366

8.366. A (man of) low (caste) who makes love to a maiden (of) the highest (caste) shall suffer corporal punishment; he who addresses a maiden (on) equal (caste) shall pay the nuptial fee, if her father desires it.

Ai-;ý tu y> kNya< k…yaRdœ dpeR[ manv>, tSy£Azu kTyeR A¼‚LyaE d{f< c£AhRit ;qœztm!. 8£367

8.367. But if any man through insolence forcibly contaminates a maiden, two of his fingers shall be instantly cut off, and he shall pay a fine of six hundred (panas).

s£kama< Ë;y às¼ivinv&Äye. 8£368

8.368. A man (of) equal (caste) who defiles a willing maiden shall not suffer the amputation of his fingers, but shall pay a fine of two hundred (panas) in order to deter him from a repetition (of the offence).

kNya£@v kNya< ya k…yaRt! tSya> Syadœ iÖztae dm>, zuLk< c iÖgu[< d*at! £ iz)az! c£@v£Aßuyadœ dz. 8£369

8.369. A damsel who pollutes (another) damsel must be fined two hundred (panas), pay the double of her (nuptial) fee, and receive ten (lashes with a) rod.

ya tu kNya< àk…yaRt! ôI sa s*ae maE{f(m! AhRit, A¼‚Lyaerœ @v va ced< ore[£%Öhn< twa. 8£370

8.370. But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall instantly have (her head) shaved or two fingers cut off, and be made to ride (through the town) on a donkey.

-taRr< l'œ"yedœ ya tu ôI }ait£gu[dipRta, ta< ñi-> oadyedœ raja s

8.371. If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) excellence, violates the duty which she owes to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many.


8.372. Let him cause the male offender to be burnt on a red-hot iron bed; they shall put logs under it, (until) the sinner is burned (to death).

s, ìaTyya sh s

8.373. On a man (once) convicted, who is (again) accused within a year, a double fine (must be inflicted); even thus (must the fine be doubled) for (repeated) intercourse with a Vratya and a Kandali.

zUÔae guÝm! AguÝ< va ÖEjat< v[Rm! Aavsn!, AguÝm! A¼£svRSvErœ guÝ< sveR[ hIyte. 8£374

8.374. A Sudra who has intercourse with a woman of a twice-born caste (varna), guarded or unguarded, (shall be punished in the following manner): if she was unguarded, he loses the part (offending) and all his property; if she was guarded, everything (even his life).

vEZy> svRSv£d{f> Syat! s, shö< ]iÇyae d{f(ae maE{f(< mUÇe[ c£AhRit. 8£375

8.375. (For intercourse with a guarded Brahmana a Vaisya shall forfeit all his property after imprisonment for a year; a Kshatriya shall be fined one thousand (panas) and be shaved with the urine (of an ass).

äaü[I— y*guÝa< tu g½eta< vEZy£paiwRvaE, vEZy< pÂzt< k…yaRt! ]iÇy< tu shiö[m!. 8£376

8.376. If a Vaisya or a Kshatriya has connexion with an unguarded Brahmana, let him fine the Vaisya five hundred (panas) and the Kshatriya one thousand.

%-av! Aip tu tav! @v äaü{ya guÝya sh, ivPlutaE zUÔvdœ d{f(aE dGxVyaE va kqai¶na. 8£377

8.377. But even these two, if they offend with a Brahmani (not only) guarded (but the wife of an eminent man), shall be punished like a Sudra or be burnt in a fire of dry grass.

shö< äaü[ae d{f(ae guÝa< ivàa< bladœ ìjn!, ztain p d{f(> Syadœ #½NTya sh s. 8£378

8.378. A Brahmana who carnally knows a guarded Brahmani against her will, shall be fined one thousand (panas); but he shall be made to pay five hundred, if he had connexion with a willing one.

maE{f(< àa[aiNtk< d{fae äaü[Sy ivxIyte, #tre;a< tu v[aRna< d{f> àa[aiNtkae -vet!. 8£379

8.379. Tonsure (of the head) is ordained for a Brahmana (instead of) capital punishment; but (men of) other castes shall suffer capital punishment.

n jatu äaü[< hNyat! svRpape:v! Aip iSwtm!, raò+adœ @n< bih> k…yaRt! sm¢£xnm! A]tm!. 8£380

8.380. Let him never slay a Brahmana, though he have committed all (possible) crimes; let him banish such an (offender), leaving all his property (to him) and (his body) unhurt.

n äaü[vxadœ -Uyan! AxmaeR iv*te -uiv, tSmadœ ASy vx< raja mnsa£Aip n icNtyet!. 8£381

8.381. No greater crime is known on earth than slaying a Brahmana; a king, therefore, must not even conceive in his mind the thought of killing a Brahmana.

vEZyz! cet! ]iÇya< guÝa< vEZya< va ]iÇyae ìjet!, yae äaü{yam! AguÝaya< tav! %-aE d{fm! AhRt>. 8£382

8.382. If a Vaisya approaches a guarded female of the Kshatriya caste, or a Kshatriya a (guarded) Vaisya woman, they both deserve the same punishment as in the case of an unguarded Brahmana female.

shö< äaü[ae d{f< daPyae guÝe tu te ìjn!, zUÔaya< ]iÇy£ivzae> sahöae vE -vedœ dm>. 8£383

8.383. A Brahmana shall be compelled to pay a fine of one thousand (panas) if he has intercourse with guarded (females of) those two (castes); for (offending with) a (guarded) Sudra female a fine of one thousand (panas shall be inflicted) on a Kshatriya or a Vaisya.

]iÇyayam! AguÝaya< vEZye pÂzt< dm>, mUÇe[ maE{f(m! #½et! tu ]iÇyae d{fm! @v va. 8£384

8.384. For (intercourse with) an unguarded Kshatriya a fine of five hundred (panas shall fall) on a Vaisya; but (for the same offence) a Kshatriya shall be shaved with the urine (of a donkey) or (pay) the same fine.

AguÝe ]iÇya£vEZye zUÔa< va äaü[ae ìjn!, ztain p d{f(> Syat! shö< Tv! ANTyjiôym!. 8£385

8.385. A Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the) Kshatriya or Vaisya (castes), or a Sudra female, shall be fined five hundred (panas); but (for intercourse with) a female (of the) lowest (castes), one thousand.

ySy Sten> pure n£AiSt n£ANyôIgae n Êò£vakœ, n sahisk£d{f¹ae s raja z³laek-akœ. 8£386

8.386. That king in whose town lives no thief, no adulterer, no defamer, no man guilty of violence, and no committer of assaults, attains the world of Sakra (Indra).

@te;a< in¢hae ra}> pÂana< iv;ye Svke, sa. 8£387

8.387. The suppression of those five in his dominions secures to a king paramount sovereignty among his peers and fame in the world.

\iTvj< ys! Tyjedœ yaJyae yaJy< c iTvRkœ Tyjedœ yid, z­< kmR{yÊò< c tyaerœ d{f> zt< ztm!. 8£388

8.388. A sacrificer who forsakes an officiating priest, and an officiating priest who forsakes a sacrificer, (each being) able to perform his work and not contaminated (by grievous crimes), must each be fined one hundred (panas).

n mata n ipta n ôI n puÇs! Tyagm! AhRit, TyjÚ! Apittan! @tan! ra}a d{f(> ztain ;qœ. 8£389

8.389. Neither a mother, nor a father, nor a wife, nor a son shall be cast off; he who casts them off, unless guilty of a crime causing loss of caste, shall be fined six hundred (panas).

Aaïme;u iÖjatIna< kayeR ivvdta< imw>, n iväUyan! n&pae xm¡ ickI;Rn! ihtm! AaTmn>. 8£390

8.390. If twice-born men dispute among each other concerning the duty of the orders, a king who desires his own welfare should not (hastily) decide (what is) the law.

ywahRm! @tan! A_yCyR äaü[E> sh paiwRv>, saNTven àzmYy£AdaE Svxm¡ àitpadyet!. 8£391

8.391. Having shown them due honor, he should, with (the assistance of) Brahmanas, first soothe them by gentle (speech) and afterwards teach them their duty.

àitveZy£AnuveZyaE c kLya[e iv

8.392. A Brahmana who does not invite his next neighbour and his neighbour next but one, (though) both (he) worthy (of the honour), to a festival at which twenty Brahmanas are entertained, is liable to a fine of one masha.

ïaeiÇy> ïaeiÇy< saxu< -Uitk«Tye:v! A-aejyn!, tdœ£AÚ< iÖgu[< daPyae ihr{y< c£@v ma;km!. 8£393

8.393. A Srotriya who does not entertain a virtuous Srotriya at auspicious festive rites, shall be made to pay him twice (the value of) the meal and a masha of gold (as a fine to the king).

ANxae jf> pIQspIR sÝTya Swivrz! c y>, ïaeiÇye;Upk…v¡z! c n daPya> ken ict! krm!. 8£394

8.394. A blind man, an idiot, (a cripple) who moves with the help of a board, a man full seventy years old, and he who confers benefits on Srotriyas, shall not be compelled by any (king) to pay a tax.

ïaeiÇy< Vyaixt£AtaER c bal£v&Ïav! Aik

8.395. Let the king always treat kindly a Srotriya, a sick or distressed man, an infant and an aged or indigent man, a man of high birth, and an honourable man (Arya).

zaLmlI)lke ðú[e neinJyan! nejk> znE>, n c vasa

8.396. A washerman shall wash (the clothes of his employers) gently on a smooth board of Salmaliwood he shall not return the clothes (of one person) for those (of another), nor allow anybody (but the owner) to wear them.

tNtuvayae dzpl< d*adœ @kpl£Aixkm!, Atae ANywa vtRmanae daPyae Öadzk< dmm!. 8£397

8.397. A weaver (who has received) ten palas (of thread), shall return (cloth weighing) one pala more; he who acts differently shall be compelled to pay a fine of twelve (panas).

zuLkSwane;u k…zla> svRp{y£ivc][a>, k…yuRrœ A"¡ ywap{y< ttae iv

8.398. Let the king take one-twentieth of that (amount) which men, well acquainted with the settlement of tolls and duties (and) skilful in (estimating the value of) all kinds of merchandise, may fix as the value for each saleable commodity.

ra}> àOyat-a{fain àiti;Ïain yain c, tai[ inhRrtae lae-at! svRhar< hren! n&p>. 8£399

8.399. Let the king confiscate the whole property of (a trader) who out of greed exports goods of which the king has a monopoly or (the export of which is) forbidden.

zuLkSwan< pirhrÚ! Akale ³y£iv³yI, imWyavadI c s

8.400. He who avoids a custom-house (or a toll), he who buys or sells at an improper time, or he who makes a false statement in enumerating (his goods), shall be fined eight times (the amount of duty) which he tried to evade.

Aagm< ingRm< Swan< twa v&iÏ£]yav! %-aE, ivcayR svRp{yana< karyet! ³y£iv³yaE. 8£401

8.401. Let (the king) fix (the rates for) the purchase and sale of all marketable goods, having (duly) considered whence they come, whither they go, how long they have been kept, the (probable) profit and the (probable) outlay.

pÂraÇe pÂraÇe p]e p]e Aw va gte, k…vIRt c£@;a< àTy]m! A"Rs. 8£402

8.402. Once in five nights, or at the close of each fortnight, let the king publicly settle the prices for the (merchants).

tulaman< àtIman< sv¡ c Syat! suli]tm!, ;qœsu ;qœsu c mase;u punrœ @v prI]yet!. 8£403

8.403. All weights and measures must be duly marked, and once in six months let him re-examine them.

p[< yan< tre daPy< paEé;ae AxRp[< tre, pad< pzuz! c yaei;t! £ c padax¡ ir­k> puman!. 8£404

8.404. At a ferry an (empty) cart shall be made to pay one pana, a man's (load) half a pana, an animal and a woman one quarter of a (pana), an unloaded man one-half of a quarter.

-a{fpU[aRin yanain tay¡ daPyain sart>, ir­-a{fain yt! ik< ict! puma. 8£405

8.405. Carts (laden) with vessels full (of merchandise) shall be made to pay toll at a ferry according to the value (of the goods), empty vessels and men without luggage some trifle.

dI"aRXvin ywadez< ywakal< trae -vet!, ndItIre;u tdœ iv*at! smuÔe n£AiSt l][m!. 8£406

8.406. For a long passage the boat-hire must be proportioned to the places and times; know that this (rule refers) to (passages along) the banks of rivers; at sea there is no settled (freight).

gi-R[I tu iÖmasaids! twa àìijtae muin>, äaü[a ili¼nz! c£@v n daPyas! tairk< tre. 8£407

8.407. But a woman who has been pregnant two months or more, an ascetic, a hermit in the forest, and Brahmanas who are students of the Veda, shall not be made to pay toll at a ferry.

yn! naiv ik< icdœ dazana< ivzIyeRt£Apraxt>, tdœ dazErœ @v datVy< smagMy Svtae A. 8£408

8.408. Whatever may be damaged in a boat by the fault of the boatmen, that shall be made good by the boatmen collectively, (each paying) his share.

@; naEyaiynam! %­ae VyvharSy in[Ry>, dazapraxts! taeye dEivke n£AiSt in¢h>. 8£409

8.409. This decision in suits (brought) by passengers (holds good only) in case the boatmen are culpably negligent on the water; in the case of (an accident) caused by (the will of) the gods, no fine can be (inflicted on them).

vai[Jy< karyedœ vEZy< k…sId< k«i;m! @v c, pzUna< r][< c£@v daSy< zUÔ< iÖjNmnam!. 8£410

8.410. (The king) should order a Vaisya to trade, to lend money, to cultivate the land, or to tend cattle, and a Sudra to serve the twice-born castes

]iÇy< c£@v vEZy< c äaü[ae v&iÄkizRtaE, ib-&yadœ Aan&z

8.411. (Some wealthy) Brahmana shall compassionately support both a Kshatriya and a Vaisya, if they are distressed for a livelihood, employing them on work (which is suitable for) their (castes).

daSy< tu karyn! £ lae-adœ äaü[> s àa-vTyadœ ra}a d{f(> ztain ;qœ. 8£412

8.412. But a Brahmana who, because he is powerful, out of greed makes initiated (men of the) twice-born (castes) against their will do the work of slaves, shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas).

zUÔ< tu karyedœ daSy< ³Itm! A³Itm! @v va, daSyay£@v ih s&òae AsaE äaü[Sy Svy<-uva. 8£413

8.413. But a Sudra, whether bought or unbought, he may compel to do servile work; for he was created by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) to be the slave of a Brahmana.

n Svaimna ins&òae Aip zUÔae daSyadœ ivmuCyte, insgRj< ih tt! tSy ks! tSmat! tdœ Apaehit. 8£414

8.414. A Sudra, though emancipated by his master, is not released from servitude; since that is innate in him, who can set him free from it?

Xvjaùtae -­dasae g&hj> ³It£diTÇmaE, pEiÇkae d{fdasz! c sÝ£@te dasyaeny>. 8£415

8.415. There are slaves of seven kinds, (viz.) he who is made a captive under a standard, he who serves for his daily food, he who is born in the house, he who is bought and he who is given, he who is inherited from ancestors, and he who is enslaved by way of punishment.

-ayaR puÇz! c dasz! c Çy @v£A£xna> Sm&ta>, yt! te smixg½iNt ySy te tSy tdœ xnm!. 8£416

8.416. A wife, a son, and a slave, these three are declared to have no property; the wealth which they earn is (acquired) for him to whom they belong.

ivöBx< äaü[> zUÔadœ ÔVy£%padanm! Aacret!, n ih tSy£AiSt ik< ict! Sv< -t&RhayR£xnae ih s>. 8£417

8.417. A Brahmana may confidently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave); for, as that (slave) can have no property, his master may take his possessions.

vEZy£zUÔaE àyÆen Svain kmaRi[ karyet!, taE ih CyutaE SvkmR_y> ]ae-yetam! #d< jgt!. 8£418

8.418. (The king) should carefully compel Vaisyas and Sudra to perform the work (prescribed) for them; for if these two (castes) swerved from their duties, they would throw this (whole) world into confusion.

AhNyhNyve]et kmaRNtan! vahnain c, Aay£VyyaE c inytav! Aakran! kaezm! @v c. 8£419

8.419. Let him daily look after the completion of his undertakings, his beasts of burden, and carriages, (the collection of) his revenues and the disbursements, his mines and his treasury.

@v< svaRn! #man! raja Vyvharan! smapyn!, Vypaeý ikiLb;< sv¡ àaßaeit prma< gitm!. 8£420

8.420. A king who thus brings to a conclusion. all the legal business enumerated above, and removes all sin, reaches the highest state (of bliss).

Chapter 9

pué;Sy iôyaz! c£@v xmeR vTmRin itótae>, s9.1. I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife who keep to the path of duty, whether they be united or separated.

ASvtÙa> iôy> kayaR> pué;E> SvErœ idva£inzm!, iv;ye;u c s¾NTy> s

9.2. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their (families), and, if they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be kept under one's control.

ipta r]it kaEmare -taR r]it yaEvne, r]iNt Swivre puÇa n ôI SvatÙ!(m! AhRit. 9£03

9.3. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, and her sons protect (her) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence.

kale A£data ipta vaCyae vaCyz! c£An! £ %pyn! pit>, m&te -tRir puÇs! tu vaCyae maturœ Ari]ta. 9£04

9.4. Reprehensible is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage) at the proper time; reprehensible is the husband who approaches not (his wife in due season), and reprehensible is the son who does not protect his mother after her husband has died.

sUúme_yae Aip às¼e_y> iôyae rúya ivze;t>, Öyaerœ ih k…lyae> zaekm! Aavheyurœ Ari]ta>. 9£05

9.5. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling (they may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on two families.

#m< ih svRv[aRna< pZyNtae xmRm! %Ämm!, ytNte ri]tu< -aya¡ -taRrae ÊbRla Aip. 9£06

9.6. Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must) strive to guard their wives.

Sva< àsUit< cirÇ< c k…lm! AaTmanm! @v c, Sv< c xm¡ àyÆen jaya< r]n! ih r]it. 9£07

9.7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring, virtuous conduct, his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit.

pitrœ -aya¡ s<àivZy g-aeR -UTva£#h jayte, jayayas! tΉ ih jayaTv< ydœ ASya< jayte pun>. 9£08

9.8. The husband, after conception by his wife, becomes an embryo and is born again of her; for that is the wifehood of a wife (gaya), that he is born (gayate) again by her.

ya†z< -jte ih ôI sut< sUte twaivxm!, tSmat! àjaivzuiÏ£Aw¡ iôy< r]et! àyÆt>. 9£09

9.9. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves, even so is the son whom she brings forth; let him therefore carefully guard his wife, in order to keep his offspring pure.

n kz! icdœ yaei;t> z­> àsý pirri]tum!, @tErœ %payyaegEs! tu zKyas! ta> pirri]tum!. 9£10

9.10. No man can completely guard women by force; but they can be guarded by the employment of the (following) expedients:

AwRSy s<¢he c£@na< Vyye c£@v inyaejyet!, zaEce xmeR AÚp®ya< c pair[aýSy ve][e. 9£11

9.11. Let the (husband) employ his (wife) in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keeping (everything) clean, in (the fulfilment of) religious duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after the household utensils.

Ari]ta g&he éÏa> pué;Erœ AaÝkairi->, AaTmanm! AaTmna yas! tu r]eyus! ta> suri]ta>. 9£12

9.12. Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants, are not (well) guarded; but those who of their own accord keep guard over themselves, are well guarded.

pan< ÊjRns pTya c ivrhae Aqnm!, Svßae ANygehvasz! c narIs<Ë;[ain ;qœ. 9£13

9.13. Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, separation from the husband, rambling abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours), and dwelling in other men's houses, are the six causes of the ruin of women.

n£@ta êp< prI]Nte n£Asa< vyis s, suêp< va ivêp< va puman! #Tyev -uÃte. 9£14

9.14. Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age; (thinking), '(It is enough that) he is a man,' they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly.

paE<íLyac! clicÄac! c nEõeýac! c Sv-avt>, ri]ta yÆtae Aip£#h -t&R:v! @ta ivk…vRte. 9£15

9.15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully they may be guarded in this (world).

@v< Sv-av< }aTva£Asa< àjapitinsgRjm!, prm< yÆm! Aaitóet! pué;ae r][< àit. 9£16

9.16. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them.

zYya£Asnm! Al»ar< kam< ³aexm! AnajRvm!, Ôaeh-av< k…cya¡ c ôI_yae mnurœ AkLpyt!. 9£17

9.17. (When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of their) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct.

n£AiSt ôI[a< i³ya mÙErœ #it xmeR VyviSwit> in£#RiNÔya ýmÙaz! c ôI_yae An&tm! #it iSwit>. 9£18

9.18. For women no (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts, thus the law is settled; women (who are) destitute of strength and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood (itself), that is a fixed rule.

twa c ïutyae bþ‰yae ingIta ingme:v! Aip, Sval]{yprI]aw¡ tasa< z&[ut in:k«tI>. 9£19

9.19. And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order to (make) fully known the true disposition (of women); hear (now those texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins).

yn! me mata àlulu-e ivcrNTypitìta, tn! me ret> ipta v&“am! #TySy£@tn! indzRnm!. 9£20

9.20. 'If my mother, going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires, may my father keep that seed from me,' that is the scriptural text.

XyayTyinò< yt! ik< ict! pai[¢ahSy cetsa, tSy£@; Vyi-carSy inûv> sMyg! %Cyte. 9£21

9.21. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband, the (above-mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for) completely removing such infidelity.

ya†G£gu[en -ÇaR ôI s

9.22. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united according to the law, such qualities even she assumes, like a river (united) with the ocean.

A]mala visóen s

9.23. Akshamala, a woman of the lowest birth, being united to Vasishtha and Sarangi, (being united) to Mandapala, became worthy of honour.

@taz! c£ANyaz! c laeke AiSmÚ! Apk«òàsUty>, %Tk;¡ yaei;t> àaÝa> SvE> SvErœ -t&Rgu[E> zu-E>. 9£24

9.24. These and other females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by the respective good qualities of their husbands.

@;a£%idta laekyaÇa inTy< ôI£pu zu-a, àeTy£#h c suo£%dkaRn! àjaxmaRn! inbaext. 9£25

9.25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage (which regulates the relations) between husband and wife; hear (next) the laws concerning children which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death.

àjnaw¡ mha£-aga> pUj£AhaR g&hdIÝy>, iôy> iïyz! c gehe;u n ivze;ae AiSt kz! cn. 9£26

9.26. Between wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear children, who secure many blessings, who are worthy of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings, and between the goddesses of fortune (sriyah, who reside) in the houses (of men), there is no difference whatsoever.

%Tpadnm! ApTySy jatSy pirpalnm!, àTyh< laekyaÇaya> àTy]< ôI inbNxnm!. 9£27

9.27. The production of children, the nurture of those born, and the daily life of men, (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause.

ApTy< xmRkayaRi[ zuïU;a ritrœ %Äma, dara£AxIns! twa SvgR> ipt¨[am! AaTmnz! c h. 9£28

9.28. Offspring, (the due performance on religious rites, faithful service, highest conjugal happiness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself, depend on one's wife alone.

pit< ya n£Ai-crit mnae£vaG£dehs saXvI£#it c£%Cyte. 9£29

9.29. She who, controlling her thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty towards her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and in this world is called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi)

Vyi-carat! tu -tuR> ôI laeke àaßaeit inN*tam!, s&galyaein< c£Aßaeit papraegEz! c pIf(te. 9£30

9.30. But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is censured among men, and (in her next life) she is born in the womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases, the punishment of her sin.

puÇ< àTyuidt< siÑ> pUvRjEz! c mhi;Ri->, ivñjNym! #m< pu{ym! %pNyas< inbaext. 9£31

9.31. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion, salutary to all men, which the virtuous (of the present day) and the ancient great sages have held concerning male offspring.

-tRir puÇ< ivjaniNt ïuitÖEx< tu ktRir, Aa÷rœ %Tpadk< ke icdœ Apre ]eiÇ[< ivÊ>. 9£32

9.32. They (all) say that the male issue (of a woman) belongs to the lord, but with respect to the (meaning of the term) lord the revealed texts differ; some call the begetter (of the child the lord), others declare (that it is) the owner of the soil.

]eÇ-Uta Sm&ta narI bIj-Ut> Sm&t> puman!, ]eÇ£bIjsmayaegat! s<-v> svRdeihnam!. 9£33

9.33. By the sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil, the man is declared to be the seed; the production of all corporeal beings (takes place) through the union of the soil with the seed.

ivizò< k…Ç icdœ bIj< ôIyaeins! Tv! @v k…Ç ict!, %-y< tu sm< yÇ sa àsUit> àzSyte. 9£34

9.34. In some cases the seed is more distinguished, and in some the womb of the female; but when both are equal, the offspring is most highly esteemed.

bIjSy c£@v yaeNyaz! c bIjm! %Tk«òm! %Cyte, svR-UtàsUitrœ ih bIjl][li]ta,9£35

9.35. On comparing the seed and the receptacle (of the seed), the seed is declared to be more important; for the offspring of all created beings is marked by the characteristics of the seed.

ya†z< tu£%Pyte bIj< ]eÇe kal£%ppaidte, ta†g! raehit tt! tiSmn! bIj< SvErœ VyiÃt< gu[E>. 9£36

9.36. Whatever (kind on seed is sown in a field, prepared in due season, (a plant) of that same kind, marked with the peculiar qualities of the seed, springs up in it.

#y< -Uimrœ ih -Utana< zañtI yaeinrœ %Cyte, n c yaeingu[an! ka

9.37. This earth, indeed, is called the primeval womb of created beings; but the seed develops not in its development any properties of the womb.

-Umav! APyekkedare kal£%Ýain k«;IvlE>, nanaêpai[ jayNte bIjain£#h Sv-avt>. 9£38

9.38. In this world seeds of different kinds, sown at the proper time in the land, even in one field, come forth (each) according to its kind.

ìIhy> zalyae muÌas! itla ma;as! twa yva>, ywabIj< àraehiNt lzunain£#]vs! twa. 9£39

9.39. The rice (called) vrihi and (that called) sali, mudga-beans, sesamum, masha-beans, barley, leeks, and sugar-cane, (all) spring up according to their seed.

ANydœ %Ý< jatm! ANydœ #Tyett! £ n£%pp*te, %Pyte yΉ ih ydœ bIj< tt! tdœ @v àraehit. 9£40

9.40. That one (plant) should be sown and another be produced cannot happen; whatever seed is sown, (a plant of) that kind even comes forth.

tt! àa}en ivnIten }an£iv}anveidna, Aayu:kamen vÝVy< n jatu pryaei;it. 9£41

9.41. Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man, who knows the Veda and its Angas and desires long life, cohabit with another's wife.

AÇ gawa vayugIta> kItRyiNt puraivd>, ywa bIj< n vÝVy< pu

9.42. With respect to this (matter), those acquainted with the past recite some stanzas, sung by Vayu (the Wind, to show) that seed must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs to another.

nZyit£#;urœ ywa ivÏ> oe ivÏm! AnuivXyt>, twa nZyit vE i]à< bIj< prpir¢he. 9£43

9.43. As the arrow, shot by (a hunter) who afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in the wound (made by another), is shot in vain, even so the seed, sown on what belongs to another, is quickly lost (to the sower).

p&waerœ Aip£#ma< p&iwvI— -aya¡ pUvRivdae ivÊ>, Swa[u£½edSy kedarm! Aa÷> zaLyvtae m&gm!. 9£44

9.44. (Sages) who know the past call this earth (prithivi) even the wife of Prithu; they declare a field to belong to him who cleared away the timber, and a deer to him who (first) wounded it.

@tavan! @v pué;ae yt! £ jaya£ATma àja£#it h, ivàa> àa÷s! twa c£@tdœ yae -taR sa Sm&t£A¼na. 9£45

9.45. He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united), his wife, himself, and his offspring; thus (says the Veda), and (learned) Brahmanas propound this (maxim) likewise, 'The husband is declared to be one with the wife.'

n in:³y£ivsgaR_ya< -tuRrœ -ayaR ivmuCyte, @v< xm¡ ivjanIm> àakœ àjapitinimRtm!. 9£46

9.46. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband; such we know the law to be, which the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) made of old.

sk«dœ A

9.47. Once is the partition (of the inheritance) made, (once is) a maiden given in marriage, (and) once does (a man) say,' I will give;' each of those three (acts is done) once only.

ywa gae£Añ£%ò+£dasI;u mih:Y£Aja£Aivkasu c, n£%Tpadk> àja-agI twa£@v£ANya¼naSv! Aip. 9£48

9.48. As with cows, mares, female camels, slave-girls, buffalo-cows, she-goats, and ewes, it is not the begetter (or his owner) who obtains the offspring, even thus (it is) with the wives of others.

ye A]eiÇ[ae bIjvNt> pr]eÇàvaip[>, te vE sSySy jatSy n l-Nte )l< Kv ict!. 9£49

9.49. Those who, having no property in a field, but possessing seed-corn, sow it in another's soil, do indeed not receive the grain of the crop which may spring up.

ydœ ANygae;u v&;-ae vTsana< jnyet! £ ztm!, gaeimnam! @v te vTsa mae"< SkiNdtm! Aa;R-m!. 9£50

9.50. If (one man's) bull were to beget a hundred calves on another man's cows, they would belong to the owner of the cows; in vain would the bull have spent his strength.

twa£@v£A]eiÇ[ae bIj< pr]eÇàvaip[>, k…vRiNt ]eiÇ[am! Aw¡ n bIjI l-te )lm!. 9£51

9.51. Thus men who have no marital property in women, but sow their seed in the soil of others, benefit the owner of the woman; but the giver of the seed reaps no advantage.

)l< Tv! Ani-s

9.52. If no agreement with respect to the crop has been made between the owner of the field and the owner of the seed, the benefit clearly belongs to the owner of the field; the receptacle is more important than the seed.

i³ya_yupgmat! Tv! @tdœ bIjaw¡ yt! àdIyte, tSy£#h -aignaE †òaE bIjI ]eiÇk @v c. 9£53

9.53. But if by a special contract (a field) is made over (to another) for sowing, then the owner of the seed and the owner of the soil are both considered in this world as sharers of the (crop).

Aae"£vataùt< bIj< ySy ]eÇe àraehit, ]eiÇkSy£@v tdœ bIj< n vÝa l-te )lm!. 9£54

9.54. If seed be carried by water or wind into somebody's field and germinates (there), the (plant sprung from that) seed belongs even to the owner of the field, the owner of the seed does not receive the crop.

@; xmaeR gv£AñSy daSY£%ò+£Aj£AivkSy c, ivh àsv< àit. 9£55

9.55. Know that such is the law concerning the offspring of cows, mares, slave-girls, female camels, she-goats, and ewes, as well as of females of birds and buffalo-cows.

@tdœ v> sar)LguTv< bIj£yaeNyae> àkIitRtm!, At> pr< àvúyaim yaei;ta< xmRm! Aapid. 9£56

9.56. Thus the comparative importance of the seed and of the womb has been declared to you; I will next propound the law (applicable) to women in times of misfortune.

æaturœ JyeóSy -ayaR ya guépTNynujSy sa, yvIyss! tu ya -ayaR õu;a JyeóSy sa Sm&ta. 9£57

9.57. The wife of an elder brother is for his younger (brother) the wife of a Guru; but the wife of the younger is declared (to be) the daughter-in-law of the elder.

Jyeóae yvIysae -aya¡ yvIyan! va£A¢jiôym!, pittaE -vtae gTva inyu­av! APynapid. 9£58

9.58. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of the younger, and a younger (brother who approaches) the wife of the elder, except in times of misfortune, both become outcasts, even though (they were duly) authorised.

devradœ va sip{fadœ va iôya sMyK£inyu­ya, àja£$iPsta£AixgNtVya s

9.59. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised, may obtain, (in the) proper (manner prescribed), the desired offspring by (cohabitation with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda (of the husband).

9.60. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit with) the widow shall (approach her) at night anointed with clarified butter and silent, (and) beget one son, by no means a second.

iÖtIym! @ke àjn< mNyNte ôI;u tiÖd>, Ainv&Rt< inyaegaw¡ pZyNtae xmRts! tyae>. 9£61

9.61. Some (sages), versed in the law, considering the purpose of the appointment not to have been attained by those two (on the birth of the first), think that a second (son) may be lawfully procreated on (such) women.

ivxvaya< inyaegaweR inv&RÄe tu ywaivix, guévt! £ c õu;avt! £ c vteRyata< prSprm!. 9£62

9.62. But when the purpose of the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow bas been attained in accordance with the law, those two shall behave towards each other like a father and a daughter-in-law.

inyu­aE yaE ivix< ihTva vteRyata< tu kamt>, tav! %-aE pittaE Syata< õu;ag£guétLpgaE. 9£63

9.63. If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule and act from carnal desire, they will both become outcasts, (as men) who defile the bed of a daughter-in-law or of a Guru.

n£ANyiSmn! ivxva narI inyae­Vya iÖjaiti->, ANyiSmn! ih inyuÃana xm¡ hNyu> snatnm!. 9£64

9.64. By twice-born men a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any other (than her husband); for they who appoint (her) to another (man), will violate the eternal law.

n£%Öaihke;u mÙe;u inyaeg> kITyRte Kv ict!, n ivvahivxav! %­< ivxvavedn< pun>. 9£65

9.65. In the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appointment (of widows) is nowhere mentioned, nor is the re-marriage of widows prescribed in the rules concerning marriage.

Ay< iÖjErœ ih ivÖiÑ> pzuxmaeR ivgihRt>, mnu:ya[am! Aip àae­ae vene raJy< àzasit. 9£66

9.66. This practice which is reprehended by the learned of the twice-born castes as fit for cattle is said (to have occurred) even among men, while Vena ruled.

s mhIm! Aiola< -uÃn! raji;Ràvr> pura, v[aRna< s. 9£67

9.67. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the whole world, caused a confusion of the castes (varna), his intellect being destroyed by lust.

tt> à-&it yae maehat! àmIt£pitka< iôym!, inyaejyTypTyaw¡ t< ivghRiNt saxv>. 9£68

9.68. Since that (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly appoints a woman, whose husband died, to (bear) children (to another man).

ySya ièyet kNyaya vaca sTye k«te pit>, tam! Anen ivxanen injae ivNdet devr>. 9£69

9.69. If the (future) husband of a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted, her brother-in-law shall wed her according to the following rule.

ywaivix£AixgMy£@na< zu¬£vôa< zuic£ìtam!, imwae -jet£A àsvat! sk«t! £ sk«dœ \taV£\taE. 9£70

9.70. Having, according to the rule, espoused her (who must be) clad in white garments and be intent on purity, he shall approach her once in each proper season until issue (be had).

n dÅva kSy ict! kNya< punrœ d*adœ ivc][>, dÅva pun> ày½n! ih àaßaeit pué;an&tm!. 9£71

9.71. Let no prudent man, after giving his daughter to one (man), give her again to another; for he who gives (his daughter) whom he had before given, incurs (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human being.

ivixvt! àitg&ý£Aip Tyjet! kNya< ivgihRtam!, Vyaixta< ivàÊòa< va cÒna c£%ppaidtam!. 9£72

9.72. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form, he may abandon (her if she be) blemished, diseased, or deflowered, and (if she have been) given with fraud.

ys! tu dae;vtI— kNyam! AnaOyay£%ppadyet!, tSy tdœ ivtw< k…yaRt! kNyadaturœ ÊraTmn>. 9£73

9.73. If anybody gives away a maiden possessing blemishes without declaring them, (the bridegroom) may annul that (contract) with the evil-minded giver.

ivxay v&iÄ< -ayaRya> àvset! kayRvan! nr>, Av&iÄkizRta ih ôI àÊ:yet! iSwitmTyip. 9£74

9.74. A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a maintenance for his wife; for a wife, even though virtuous, may be corrupted if she be distressed by want of subsistence.

ivxay àaei;te v&iÄ< jIven! inymm! AaiSwta, àaei;te Tv! Aivxay£@v jIvet! £ izLpErœ AgihRtE>. 9£75

9.75. If (the husband) went on a journey after providing (for her), the wife shall subject herself to restraints in her daily life; but if he departed without providing (for her), she may subsist by blameless manual work.

àaei;tae xmRkayaRw¡ àtIúyae AòaE nr> sma>, iv*aw¡ ;fœ yzae£Aw¡ va kamaw¡ ÇI—s! tu vTsran!. 9£76

9.76. If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty, (she) must wait for him eight years, if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years), if (he went) for pleasure three years.

s, ^Xv¡ s

9.77. For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him; but after (the lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and cease to cohabit with her.

Ait³amet! àmÄ< ya mÄ< raegatRm! @v va, sa ÇIn! masan! pirTyaJya iv-U;[£pir½da. 9£78

9.78. She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) passion, is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be deserted for three months (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furniture.

%NmÄ< pitt< ¬Ibm! AbIj< papraeig[m!, n Tyagae AiSt iÖ;NTyaz! c n c dayapvtRnm!. 9£79

9.79. But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband), a eunuch, one destitute of manly strength, or one afflicted with such diseases as punish crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived of her property.

m*pa£Asaxuv&Äa c àitkªla c ya -vet!, Vyaixta va£AixveÄVya ih<öa£AwR¹I c svRda. 9£80

9.80. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct, rebellious, diseased, mischievous, or wasteful, may at any time be superseded (by another wife).

vNXyaòme Aixve*a£ABde dzme tu m&t£àja, @kadze ôIjnnI s*s! Tv! AiàyvaidnI. 9£81

9.81. A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome without delay.

ya raeig[I Syat! tu ihta s
, sa£Anu}aPy£AixveÄVya n£AvmaNya c kihR ict!. 9£82

9.82. But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct, may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must never be disgraced.

AixivÚa tu ya narI ingR½edœ éi;ta g&hat!, sa s*> s

9.83. A wife who, being superseded, in anger departs from (her husband's) house, must either be instantly confined or cast off in the presence of the family.

àiti;Ïa£Aip cedœ ya tu m*m! A_yudye:v! Aip, àe]a£smaj< g½edœ va sa d{f(a k«:[lain ;qœ. 9£84

9.84. But she who, though having been forbidden, drinks spirituous liquor even at festivals, or goes to public spectacles or assemblies, shall be fined six krishnalas.

yid Svaz! c£Apraz! c£@v ivNdern! yaei;tae iÖja>, tasa< v[R³me[ Syaj! Jyeó(< pUja c veZm c. 9£85

9.85. If twice-born men wed women of their own and of other (lower castes), the seniority, honour, and habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according to the order of the castes (varna).

-tuR> zrIrzuïU;a< xmRkay¡ c nETykm!, Sva c£@v k…yaRt! sveR;a< n£ASvjait> kw< cn. 9£86

9.86. Among all (twice-born men) the wife of equal caste alone, not a wife of a different caste by any means, shall personally attend her husband and assist him in his daily sacred rites.

ys! tu tt! karyen! maehat! s£jaTya iSwtya£ANyya, ywa äaü[ca{fal> pUvR†òs! twa£@v s>. 9£87

9.87. But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while his wife of equal caste is alive, is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Kandala (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste).

%Tk«òay£Ai-êpay vray s†zay c, AàaÝam! Aip ta< tSmE kNya< d*adœ ywaivix. 9£88

9.88. To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a father) give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed rule, though she have not attained (the proper age).

kamm! Aa mr[at! itóedœ g&he kNya£\tumTyip, n c£@v£@na< ày½et! tu gu[£hInay kihR ict!. 9£89

9.89. (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather stop in (the father's) house until death, than that he should ever give her to a man destitute of good qualities.

ÇIi[ v;aR{yudI]et k…may&RtumtI stI, ^Xv¡ tu kaladœ @tSmadœ ivNdet s†z< pitm!. 9£90

9.90. Three years let a damsel wait, though she be marriageable; but after that time let her choose for herself a bridegroom (of) equal (caste and rank).

AdIymana -taRrm! Aixg½edœ yid Svym!, n£@n> ik< icdœ Avaßaeit n c y< sa£Aixg½it. 9£91

9.91. If, being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband, she incurs no guilt, nor (does) he whom she weds.

Al»ar< n£AddIt ipÈy< kNya Svy

9.92. A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her any ornaments, given by her father or her mother, or her brothers; if she carries them away, it will be theft.

ipÇe n d*at! £ zuLk< tu kNyam! \tumtI— hrn!, s c SvaMyadœ Ait³amedœ \tUna< àitraexnat!. 9£93

9.93. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel, shall not pay any nuptial fee to her father; for the (latter) will lose his dominion over her in consequence of his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance of) her enemies.

. 9£94

9.94. A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, or a man of twenty-four a girl eight years of age; if (the performance of) his duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner.

devdÄa< pitrœ -aya¡ ivNdte n£#½ya£ATmn>, ta< saXvI— ib-&yan! inTy< devana< iàym! Aacrn!. 9£95

9.95. The husband receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her) according to his own will; doing what is agreeable to the gods, he must always support her (while she is) faithful.

àjnaw¡ iôy> s&òa> s, tSmat! saxar[ae xmR> ïutaE pTNya sh£%idt>. 9£96

9.96. To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men; religious rites, therefore, are ordained in the Veda to be performed (by the husband) together with the wife.

kNyaya< dÄ£zuLkaya< ièyet yid zuLkd>, devray àdatVya yid kNya£AnumNyte. 9£97

9.97. If, after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden, the giver of the fee dies, she shall be given in marriage to his brother, in case she consents.

AaddIt n zUÔae Aip zuLk< Êihtr< ddn!, zuLk< ih g&Ÿn! k…éte cÚ< Êiht&iv³ym!. 9£98

9.98. Even a Sudra ought not to take a nuptial fee, when he gives away his daughter; for he who takes a fee sell his daughter, covering (the transaction by another name).

@tt! tu n pre c³…rœ n£Apre jatu saxv>, ydœ ANySy àit}ay punrœ ANySy dIyte. 9£99

9.99. Neither ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) that, after promising (a daughter) to one man, they have her to another;

n£Anuzuïum jatu£@tt! pUveR:v! Aip ih jNmsu, zuLk£s<}en mULyen cÚ< Êiht&iv³ym!. 9£100

9.100. Nor, indeed, have we heard, even in former creations, of such (a thing as) the covert sale of a daughter for a fixed price, called a nuptial fee.

ANyaeNySy£AVyi-carae -vedœ Aa£mr[aiNtk>, @; xmR> smasen }ey> ôI£pu pr>. 9£101

9.101. 'Let mutual fidelity continue until death,' this may be considered as the summary of the highest law for husband and wife.

twa inTy< yteyata< ôI£pu

9.102. Let man and woman, united in marriage, constantly exert themselves, that (they may not be) disunited (and) may not violate their mutual fidelity.

@; ôI£pu, Aap*pTyàaiÝz! c dayxm¡ inbaext. 9£103

9.103. Thus has been declared to you the law for a husband and his wife, which is intimately connected with conjugal happiness, and the manner of raising offspring in times of calamity; learn (now the law concerning) the division of the inheritance.

^Xv¡ iptuz! c matuz! c smeTy æatr> smm!, -jern! pEt&k< irKwm! AnIzas! te ih jIvtae>. 9£104

9.104. After the death of the father and of the mother, the brothers, being assembled, may divide among themselves in equal shares the paternal (and the maternal) estate; for, they have no power (over it) while the parents live.

Jyeó @v tu g&ŸIyat! ipÈy< xnm! Aze;t>, ze;as! tm! %pjIveyurœ ywa£@v iptr< twa. 9£105

9.105. (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others shall live under him just as (they lived) under their father.

Jyeóen jatmaÇe[ puÇI -vit manv>, ipt¨[am! An&[z! c£@v s tSmat! svRm! AhRit. 9£106

9.106. Immediately on the birth of his first-born a man is (called) the father of a son and is freed from the debt to the manes; that (son), therefore, is worthy (to receive) the whole estate.

yiSmÚ! \[< s puÇ> kamjan! #tran! ivÊ>. 9£107

9.107. That son alone on whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains immortality, is begotten for (the fulfilment of) the law; all the rest they consider the offspring of desire.

ipta£#v palyet! pUÇan! Jyeóae æat¨[! yvIys>, puÇvt! £ c£Aip vteRrn! Jyeóe æatir xmRt>. 9£108

9.108. As a father (supports) his sons, so let the eldest support his younger brothers, and let them also in accordance with the law behave towards their eldest brother as sons (behave towards their father).

Jyeó> k…l< vxRyit ivnazyit va pun>, Jyeó> pUJytmae laeke Jyeó> siÑrœ AgihRt>. 9£109

9.109. The eldest (son) makes the family prosperous or, on the contrary, brings it to ruin; the eldest (is considered) among men most worthy of honour, the eldest is not treated with disrespect by the virtuous.

yae Jyeóae Jyeó£v&iÄ> Syan! mata£#v s ipta£#v s>, AJyeóv&iÄrœ ys! tu Syat! s s

9.110. If the eldest brother behaves as an eldest brother (ought to do), he (must be treated) like a mother and like a father; but if he behaves in a manner unworthy of an eldest brother, he should yet be honoured like a kinsman.

@v< sh vseyurœ va p&wg! va xmRkaMyya, p&wg! ivvxRte xmRs! tSmadœ xMyaR p&wŠœirya. 9£111

9.111. Either let them thus live together, or apart, if (each) desires (to gain) spiritual merit; for (by their living) separate (their) merit increases, hence separation is meritorious.

JyeóSy iv svRÔVyac! c ydœ vrm!, ttae Ax¡ mXymSy Syat! turIy< tu yvIys>. 9£112

9.112. The additional share (deducted) for the eldest shall be one-twentieth (of the estate) and the best of all chattels, for the middlemost half of that, but for the youngest one-fourth.

Jyeóz! c£@v kinóz! c s

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