Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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9.285. He who destroys a bridge, the flag (of a temple or royal palace), a pole, or images, shall repair the whole (damage) and pay five hundred (panas).

AËi;tana< ÔVya[a< Ë;[e -edne twa, m[Inam! Apvexe c d{f> àwmsahs>. 9£286

9.286. For adulterating unadulterated commodities, and for breaking gems or for improperly boring (them), the fine is the first (or lowest) amercement.

smErœ ih iv;m< ys! tu credœ vE mULytae Aip va, smaßuyadœ dm< pUv¡ nrae mXymm! @v va. 9£287

9.287. But that man who behaves dishonestly to honest (customers) or cheats in his prices, shall be fined in the first or in the middlemost amercement.

bNxnain c svaRi[ raja mageR invezyet!, Ê>iota yÇ †Zyern! ivk«ta> papkair[hœ. 9£288

9.288. Let him place all prisons near a high-road, where the suffering and disfigured offenders can be seen.

àakarSy c -eÄar< piroa[a< c pUrkm!, Öara[a< c£@v -“ar< i]àm! @v àvasyet!. 9£289

9.289. Him who destroys the wall (of a town), or fills up the ditch (round a town), or breaks a (town)- gate, he shall instantly banish.

Ai-care;u sveR;u ktRVyae iÖztae dm>, mUlkmRi[ c£AnaÝe> k«Tyasu ivivxasu c. 9£290

9.290. For all incantations intended to destroy life, for magic rites with roots (practised by persons) not related (to him against whom they are directed), and for various kinds of sorcery, a fine of two hundred (panas) shall be inflicted.

AbIjiv³yI c£@v bIj£%Tk«òa twa£@v c, myaRda-edkz! c£@v ivk«t< àaßuyadœ vxm!. 9£291

9.291. He who sells (for seed-corn that which is) not seed-corn, he who takes up seed (already sown), and he who destroys a boundary (-mark), shall be punished by mutilation.

svRk{qkpaipó< hemkar< tu paiwRv>, àvtRmanm! ANyaye cedyet! £ lvz> ]urE>. 9£292

9.292. But the king shall cause a goldsmith who behaves dishonestly, the most nocuous of all the thorns, to be cut to pieces with razors.

sIta£ÔVyaphr[e zôa[am! AaE;xSy c, kalm! Aasa* kay¡ c raja d{f< àkLpyet!. 9£293

9.293. For the theft of agricultural implements, of arms and of medicines, let the king award punishment, taking into account the time (of the offence) and the use (of the object).

SvaMY£AmaTyaE pur< raò+< kaez£d{faE suùt! twa, sÝ àk«tyae ýeta> sÝa¼< raJym! %Cyte. 9£294

9.294. The king and his minister, his capital, his realm, his treasury, his army, and his ally are the seven constituent parts (of a kingdom); (hence) a kingdom is said to have seven limbs (anga).

sÝana< àk«tIna< tu raJySy£Asa< ywa³mm!, pUv¡ pUv¡ guétr< janIyadœ Vysn< mht!. 9£295

9.295. But let him know (that) among these seven constituent parts of a kingdom (which have been enumerated) in due order, each earlier (named) is more important and (its destruction) the greater calamity.

sÝ£A¼Sy£#h raJySy ivòBxSy iÇd{fvt!, ANyaeNygu[vEze:yat! £ n ik< icdœ AitirCyte. 9£296

9.296. Yet in a kingdom containing seven constituent parts, which is upheld like the triple staff (of an ascetic), there is no (single part) more important (than the others), by reason of the importance of the qualities of each for the others.

te;u te;u tu k«Tye;u tt! tdœ A¼< iviz:yte, yen yt! saXyte kay¡ tt! tiSmn! £ ïeóm! %Cyte. 9£297

9.297. For each part is particularly qualified for (the accomplishment of) certain objects, (and thus) each is declared to be the most important for that particular purpose which is effected by its means.

care[£%Tsahyaegen i³yya£@v c kmR[am!, Svzi­< przi­< c inTy< iv*at! £ mhIpit>. 9£298

9.298. By spies, by a (pretended) display of energy, and by carrying out (various) undertakings, let the king constantly ascertain his own and his enemy's strength;

pIfnain c svaRi[ Vysnain twa£@v c, Aar-et tt> kay¡ s

9.299. Moreover, all calamities and vices; afterwards, when he has fully considered their relative importance, let him begin his operations.

Aar-et£@v kmaRi[ ïaNt> ïaNt> pun> pun>, kmaR{yar-ma[< ih pué;< ïIrœ in;evte. 9£300

9.300. (Though he be) ever so much tired (by repeated failures), let him begin his operations again and again; for fortune greatly favours the man who (strenuously) exerts himself in his undertakings.

k«t< Çetayug< c£@v Öapr< kilrœ @v c, ra}ae v&Äain svaRi[ raja ih yugm! %Cyte. 9£301

9.301. The various ways in which a king behaves (resemble) the Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali ages; hence the king is identified with the ages (of the world).

kil> àsuÝae -vit s ja¢dœ Öapr< yugm!, kmRSv! A_yu*ts! Çeta ivcr

9.302. Sleeping he represents the Kali (or iron age), waking the Dvapara (or brazen) age, ready to act the Treta (or silver age), but moving (actively) the Krita (or golden) age.

#NÔSy£AkRSy vayaez! c ymSy vé[Sy c, cNÔSy£A¶e> p&iwVyaz! c tejaev&Ä< n&pz! cret!. 9£303

9.303. Let the king emulate the energetic action of Indra, of the Sun, of the Wind, of Yama, of Varuna, of the Moon, of the Fire, and of the Earth.


9.304. As Indra sends copious rain during the four months of the rainy season, even so let the king, taking upon himself the office of Indra, shower benefits on his kingdom.

AòaE masan! ywa£AidTys! taey< hrit riZmi->, twa hret! kr< raò+at! £ inTym! AkRìt< ih tt!. 9£305

9.305. As the Sun during eight months (imperceptibly) draws up the water with his rays, even so let him gradually draw his taxes from his kingdom; for that is the office in which he resembles the Sun.

àivZy svR-Utain ywa crit maét>, twa carE> àveòVy< ìtm! @tΉ ih maétm!. 9£306

9.306. As the Wind moves (everywhere), entering (in the shape of the vital air) all created beings, even so let him penetrate (everywhere) through his spies; that is the office in which he resembles the Wind.

ywa ym> iày£Öe:yaE àaÝe kale iny½it, twa ra}a inyNtVya> àjas! tΉ ih ymìtm!. 9£307

9.307. As Yama at the appointed time subjects to his rule both friends and foes, even so all subjects must be controlled by the king; that is the office in which he resembles Yama.

vé[en ywa pazErœ bÏ @v£Ai-†Zyte, twa papan! ing&ŸIyadœ ìtm! @tΉ ih vaé[m!. 9£308

9.308. As (a sinner) is seen bound with ropes by Varuna, even so let him punish the wicked; that is his office in which he resembles Varuna.

pirpU[¡ ywa cNÔ< †òœva ù:yiNt manva>, twa àk«tyae yiSmn! s caNÔìitkae n&p>. 9£309

9.309. He is a king, taking upon himself the office of the Moon, whose (appearance) his subjects (greet with as great joy) as men feel on seeing the full moon.

àtapyu­s! tejSvI inTy< Syat! papkmRsu, ÊòsamNtih<öz! c tdœ Aa¶ey< ìt< Sm&tm!. 9£310

9.310. (If) he is ardent in wrath against criminals and endowed with brilliant energy, and destroys wicked vassals, then his character is said (to resemble) that of Fire.

ywa svaRi[ -Utain xra xaryte smm!, twa svaRi[ -Utain ibæt> paiwRv< ìtm!. 9£311

9.311. As the Earth supports all created beings equally, thus (a king) who supports all his subjects, (takes upon himself) the office of the Earth.

@tErœ %payErœ ANyEz! c yu­ae inTym! AtiNÔt>, Stenan! raja ing&ŸIyat! Svraò+e pr @v c. 9£312

9.312. Employing these and other means, the king shall, ever untired, restrain thieves both in his own dominions and in (those of) others.

pram! APyapd< àaÝae äaü[an! n àkaepyet!, te ýen< k…ipta hNyu> s*> s£bl£vahnm!. 9£313

9.313. Let him not, though fallen into the deepest distress, provoke Brahmanas to anger; for they, when angered, could instantly destroy him together with his army and his vehicles.

yE> k«t> svR-úyae Ai¶rœ Apeyz! c mhaedix>, ]yI c£APyaiyt> saem> kae n nZyet! àkaePy tan!. 9£314

9.314. Who could escape destruction, when he provokes to anger those (men), by whom the fire was made to consume all things, by whom the (water of the) ocean was made undrinkable, and by whom the moon was made to wane and to increase again?

laekan! ANyan! s&jeyurœ ye laekpala, devan! k…yuRrœ Adeva i]{v

9.315. Who could prosper, while he injures those (men) who provoked to anger, could create other worlds and other guardians of the world, and deprive the gods of their divine station?

yan! %paiïTy itóiNt laeka devaz! c svRda, äü c£@v xn< ye;a< kae ih. 9£316

9.316. What man, desirous of life, would injure them to whose support the (three) worlds and the gods ever owe their existence, and whose wealth is the Veda?


9.317. A Brahmana, be he ignorant or learned, is a great divinity, just as the fire, whether carried forth (for the performance of a burnt-oblation) or not carried forth, is a great divinity.

Zmzane:v! Aip tejSvI pavkae n£@v Ê:yit, øymanz! c y}e;u -Uy @v£Ai-vxRte. 9£318

9.318. The brilliant fire is not contaminated even in burial-places, and, when presented with oblations (of butter) at sacrifices, it again increases mightily.

@v< y*Pyinòe;u vtRNte svRkmRsu, svRwa äaü[a> pUJya> prm< dEvtm! ih tt!. 9£319

9.319. Thus, though Brahmanas employ themselves in all (sorts of) mean occupations, they must be honoured in every way; for (each of) them is a very great deity.

]ÇSy£Aitàv&ÏSy äaü[an! àit svRz>, äü£@v s

9.320. When the Kshatriyas become in any way overbearing towards the Brahmanas, the Brahmanas themselves shall duly restrain them; for the Kshatriyas sprang from the Brahmanas.

AÑ(ae Ai¶rœ äüt> ]Çm! AZmnae laehm! %iTwtm!, te;a< svRÇg< tej> Svasu yaein;u zaMyit. 9£321

9.321. Fire sprang from water, Kshatriyas from Brahmanas, iron from stone; the all-penetrating force of those (three) has no effect on that whence they were produced.

n£A£äü ]Çm! \×aeit n£A£]Ç< äü vxRte, äü ]Ç< c s

9.322. Kshatriyas prosper not without Brahmanas, Brahmanas prosper not without Kshatriyas; Brahmanas and Kshatriyas, being closely united, prosper in this (world) and in the next.

dÅva xn< tu ivàe_y> svRd{fsmuiTwtm!, puÇe raJy< smas&Jy k…vIRt àay[< r[e. 9£323

9.323. But (a king who feels his end drawing nigh) shall bestow all his wealth, accumulated from fines, on Brahmanas, make over his kingdom to his son, and then seek death in battle.

@v< crn! sda yu­ae rajxmeR;u paiwRv>, ihte;u c£@v laekSy svaRn! -&Tyan! inyaejyet!. 9£324

9.324. Thus conducting himself (and) ever intent on (discharging) his royal duties, a king shall order all his servants (to work) for the good of his people.

@;ae A£iol> kmRivixrœ %­ae ra}> snatn>, #m< kmRivix< iv*at! ³mzae vEZy£zUÔyae>. 9£325

9.325. Thus the eternal law concerning the duties of a king has been fully declared; know that the following rules apply in (due) order to the duties of Vaisyas and Sudras.

vEZys! tu k«t£s k«Tva darpir¢hm!, vataRya< inTyyu­> Syat! pzUna< c£@v r][e. 9£326

9.326. After a Vaisya has received the sacraments and has taken a wife, he shall be always attentive to the business whereby he may subsist and to (that of) tending cattle.

àjapitrœ ih vEZyay s&òœva pirdde pzUn!, äaü[ay c ra}e c svaR> pirdde àja>. 9£327

9.327. For when the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created cattle, he made them over to the Vaisya; to the Brahmana, and to the king he entrusted all created beings.

n c vEZySy kam> Syan! n r]ey< pzUn! #it, vEZye c£#½it n£ANyen ri]tVya> kw< cn. 9£328

9.328. A Vaisya must never (conceive this) wish, I will not keep cattle; and if a Vaisya is willing (to keep them), they must never be kept by (men of) other (castes).

mi[£mu­a£àvalana< laehana< taNtvSy c, gNxana< c rsana< c iv*adœ A"R£bl£Ablm!. 9£329

9.329. (A Vaisya) must know the respective value of gems, of pearls, of coral, of metals, of (cloth) made of thread, of perfumes, and of condiments.

bIjanam! %iÝivdœ£c Syat! ]eÇdae;£gu[Sy c, manyaeg< c janIyat! tulayaega,9£330

9.330. He must be acquainted with the (manner of) sowing of seeds, and of the good and bad qualities of fields, and he must perfectly know all measures and weights.

sar£Asar< c -a{fana< dezana< c gu[£Agu[an!, la-£Ala-< c p{yana< pzUna< pirvxRnm!. 9£331

9.331. Moreover, the excellence and defects of commodities, the advantages and disadvantages of (different) countries, the (probable) profit and loss on merchandise, and the means of properly rearing cattle.

-&Tyana< c -&it< iv*adœ -a;az! c ivivxa n&[a<, ÔVya[a< Swan£yaega

9.332. He must be acquainted with the (proper), wages of servants, with the various languages of men, with the manner of keeping goods, and (the rules of) purchase and sale.

xmeR[ c ÔVyv&Ïav! Aaitóedœ yÆm! %Ämm!, d*ac! c svR-Utanam! AÚm! @v àyÆt>. 9£333

9.333. Let him exert himself to the utmost in order to increase his property in a righteous manner, and let him zealously give food to all created beings.

ivàa[a< vedivÊ;a< g&hSwana< yziSvnam!, zuïU;a£@v tu zUÔSy xmaeR nEïeys> pr>. 9£334

9.334. But to serve Brahmanas (who are) learned in the Vedas, householders, and famous (for virtue) is the highest duty of a Sudra, which leads to beatitude.

zuicrœ %Tk«òzuïU;urœ m&Ê£vag! Anh, äaü[aid£Aïyae inTym! %Tk«òa< jaitm! Aîute. 9£335

9.335. (A Sudra who is) pure, the servant of his betters, gentle in his speech, and free from pride, and always seeks a refuge with Brahmanas, attains (in his next life) a higher caste.

@;ae Anapid v[aRnam! %­> kmRivix> zu->, Aap*ip ih ys! te;a< ³mzs! tn! inbaext. 9£336

9.336. The excellent law for the conduct of the (four) castes (varna), (when they are) not in distress, has been thus promulgated; now hear in order their (several duties) in times of distress.

Chapter 10
AxIyIr SvkmRSwa iÖjaty>, àäUyadœ äaü[s! Tv! @;a< n£#trav! #it iníy>. 10£01

10.1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study (the Veda); but among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.

sveR;a< äaü[ae iv*adœ v&Åyupayan! ywaivix, àäUyadœ #tre_yz! c Svy< c£@v twa -vet!. 10£02

10.2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live according to (the law)

vEze:yat! àk«itïEó(at! £ inymSy c xar[at!, s à-u>. 10£03

10.3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna).

äaü[> ]iÇyae vEZys! Çyae v[aR iÖjaty>, ctuwR @kjaits! tu zUÔae n£AiSt tu pÂm>. 10£04

10.4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth (caste).

svRv[eR;u tuLyasu pÆI:v! A]t£yaein;u, AanulaeMyen s<-Uta jaTya }eyas! t @v te. 10£05

10.5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers)

ôI:v! AnNtrjatasu iÖjErœ %Tpaidtan! sutan!, s†zan! @v tan! Aa÷rœ mat&dae;ivgihRtan!. 10£06

10.6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.

AnNtrasu jatana< ivixrœ @; snatn>, iÖ£@kaNtrasu jatana< xMy¡ iv*adœ #m< ivixm!. 10£07

10.7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower.

äaü[adœ vEZykNyayam! AMbóae nam jayte, in;ad> zUÔkNyaya< y> parzv %Cyte. 10£08

10.8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava.

]iÇyat! £ zUÔkNyaya< ³ªracarivharvan!, ]Ç£zUÔ£vpurœ jNturœ %¢ae nam àjayte. 10£09

10.9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty.

ivàSy iÇ;u v[eR;u n&pterœ v[Ryaerœ Öyae>, vEZySy v[eR c£@kiSmn! ;fœ @te Apsda> Sm&ta>. 10£10

10.10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada).

]iÇyadœ ivàkNyaya< sUtae -vit jaitt>, vEZyan! magx£vEdehaE raj£ivà£A¼nasutaE. 10£11

10.11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha.

zUÔadœ Aayaegv> ]Äa c{falz! c£Axmae n&[am!, vEZy£rajNy£ivàasu jayNte v[Rs. 10£12

10.12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes.

@kaNtre Tv! AanulaeMyadœ AMbó£%¢aE ywa Sm&taE, ]Ä&£vEdehkaE tÖt! àaitlaeMye Aip jNmin. 10£13

10.13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers).

puÇa ye AnNtrôIja> ³me[£%­a iÖjNmnam!, tan! AnNtr£naçs! tu mat&dae;at! àc]te. 10£14

10.14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower castes, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.

äaü[adœ %¢kNyayam! Aav&tae nam jayte, Aa-Irae AMbókNyayam! AayaegVya< tu ixGv[>. 10£15

10.15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana.

Aayaegvz! c ]Äa c c{falz! c£Axmae n&[am!, àaitlaeMyen jayNte zUÔadœ Apsdas! Çy>. 10£16

10.16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men;

vEZyan! magx£vEdehaE ]iÇyat! sUt @v tu, àtIpm! @te jayNte pre APypsdas! Çy>. 10£17

10.17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other base-born ones (apasada).

jatae in;adat! £ zUÔaya< jaTya -vit puŠs>, zUÔaj! jatae in;a*a< tu s vE k…Š…qk> Sm&t>. 10£18

10.18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka.

]Äurœ jats! twa£%¢aya< ñpak #it kITyRte, vEdehken Tv! AMbó(am! %TpÚae ve[ %Cyte. 10£19

10.19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena.

iÖjaty> sv[aRsu jnyNTyìta

10.20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas.

ìaTyat! tu jayte ivàat! pap£ATma -UjRk{qk>, AavNTy£vaqxanaE c pu:px> zEo @v c. 10£21

10.21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha.

H‘ae m‘z! c rajNyadœ ìaTyat! £ ini½ivrœ @v c, nqz! c kr[z! c£@v osae Ôivf @v c. 10£22

10.22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida.

vEZyat! tu jayte ìaTyat! suxNva£AcayR @v c, kaé;z! c ivjNma c mEÇ> saTvt @v c. 10£23

10.23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata.

Vyi-care[ v[aRnam! Ave*avednen c, SvkmR[a< c Tyagen jayNte v[Rs. 10£24

10.24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes.

s, ANyaeNyVyit;­az! c tan! àvúyaMyze;t>. 10£25

10.25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected.

sUtae vEdehkz! c£@v c{falz! c nraxm>, magx> twa£Ayaegv @v c ]Çjaitz! c. 10£26

10.26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava,

@te ;qœ s†zan! v[aR|! jnyiNt Svyaein;u, mat&jaTya< àsUyNte àvarasu c yaein;u. 10£27

10.27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother's caste (gati), and with females (of) higher ones.

ywa Çya[a< v[aRna< Öyaerœ AaTma£ASy jayte, AanNtyaRt! SvyaeNya< tu twa baýe:v! Aip ³mat! . 10£28

10.28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).

te c£Aip baýan! subø

10.29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya).

ywa£@v zUÔae äaü{ya< baý< jNtu< àsUyte, twa baýtr< baýz! catuvR{yeR àsUyte. 10£30

10.30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself).

àitkªl< vtRmana baýa baýtran! pun>, hIna hInan! àsUyNte v[aRn! pÂdz£@v tu. 10£31

10.31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number).

àsaxn£%pcar}m! Adas< dasjIvnm!, sEirNØ< vagura£v&iÄ< sUte dSyurœ Ayaegve. 10£32

10.32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals).

mEÇeyk< tu vEdehae maxUk< s<àsUyte, n¨n! àz

10.33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men.

in;adae magRv< sUte das< naEkmRjIivnm!, kEvtRm! #it y< àa÷rœ AayaRvtRinvaisn>. 10£34

10.34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Kaivarta.

m&tvô-&TSv! narI;u gihRt£AÚ£Aznasu c, -vNTyayaegvI:v! @te jaithIna> p&wkœ Çy>. 10£35

10.35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food.

karavrae in;adat! tu cmRkar> àsUyte, vEdeihkadœ ANØ£medaE bih¢aRm£àitïyaE. 10£36

10.36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.

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