Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886

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c{falat! pa{fusaepaks! TvKsarVyvharvan!, Aaihi{fkae in;aden vEdeýam! @v jayte. 10£37

10.37. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika.

c{falen tu saepakae mUlVysnv&iÄman!, puŠSya< jayte pap> sda s¾ngihRt>. 10£38

10.38. But from a Kandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men.

in;adôI tu c{falat! puÇm! ANTyavsaiynm!, Zmzan£gaecr< sUte baýanam! Aip gihRtm!. 10£39

10.39. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community).

s ipt&£mat&£àdizRta>, àcÚa va àkaza va veidtVya> SvkmRi->. 10£40

10.40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves.

Svjaitj£AnNtrja> ;qœ suta iÖjximR[>, zUÔa[a< tu s£xmaR[> sveR ApXv Sm&ta>. 10£41

10.41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sudras.

tpae£bIj£à-avEs! tu te g½iNt yuge yuge, %Tk;¡ c£Apk;¡ c mnu:ye:v! #h jNmt>. 10£42

10.42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.

znkEs! tu i³yalaepadœ #ma> ]iÇy£jaty>, v&;lTv< gta laeke äaü[adzRnen c. 10£43

10.43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;

paE{f+kaz! caEf+£Ôivfa> kaMbaeja yvna> zka>, parda£p’vaz! cIna> ikrata drda> oza>. 10£44

10.44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.

muo£ba÷£^é£pdœ£jana< ya laeke jatyae bih>, Mle½£vacz! c£AyR£vac> sveR te dSyv> Sm&ta>. 10£45

10.45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.

ye iÖjanam! Apsda ye c£ApXv Sm&ta>, te iniNdtErœ vtRyeyurœ iÖjanam! @v kmRi->. 10£46

10.46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice-born.

sUtanam! Añ£sarWym! AMbóana< icikTsnm!, vEdehkana< ôIkay¡ magxana< vi[Kpw>. 10£47

10.47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade;

mTSy"atae in;adana< Tviòs! Tv! AayaegvSy c, med£ANØ£cuÂu£m̃nam! Aar{ypzuih

10.48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters' work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals;

]Ä&£%¢£puŠsana< tu iblaEkaevx£bNxnm!, ixGv[ana< cmRkay¡ ve[ana< -a{fvadnm!. 10£49

10.49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums.

cETyÔ‚m£Zmzane;u zEle;u£%pvne;u c, vseyurœ @te iv}ata vtRyNt> SvkmRi->. 10£50

10.50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations.

c{fal£ñpcana< tu bihrœ ¢amat! àitïy>, AppaÇaz! c ktRVya xnm! @;a< ñ£gdR-m!. 10£51

10.51. But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys.

vasa pirìJya c inTyz>. 10£52

10.52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place.

n tE> smym! AiNv½et! pué;ae xmRm! Aacrn!, Vyvharae imws! te;a< ivvah> s†zE> sh. 10£53

10.53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.

AÚm! @;a< praxIn< dey< Syadœ i-Ú-ajne, raÇaE n ivcreyus! te ¢ame;u ngre;u c. 10£54

10.54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.

idva creyu> kayaRw¡ iciûta rajzasnE>, AbaNxv< zv< c£@v inhRreyurœ #it iSwit>. 10£55

10.55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king's command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.

vXya stt< ywazaô< n&pa}ya, vXyvasa zYyaz! c£A-r[ain c. 10£56

10.56. By the king's order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.

v[aRpetm! Aiv}at< nr< klu;yaeinjm!, AayR£êpm! #v£Anay¡ kmRi-> SvErœ iv-avyet!. 10£57

10.57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.

AnayRta inóurta ³ªrta ini:³yaTmta, pué;< VyÃyiNt£#h laeke klu;yaeinjm!. 10£58

10.58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin.

ipÈy< va -jte zIl< maturœ va£%-ym! @v va, n kw< cn ÊyaeRin> àk«it< Sva< iny½it. 10£59

10.59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature.

k…le muOye Aip jatSy ySy Syadœ yaeins, s<ïyTyev tt! £ zIl< nrae ALpm! Aip va b÷. 10£60

10.60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small or great.

yÇ Tv! @te pirXv, raiò+kE> sh tdœ raò+< i]àm! @v ivnZyit. 10£61

10.61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants.

äaü[aweR gvaweR va dehTyagae An! £ %pSk«t>, ôI£bala_yuppÄaE c baýana< isiÏkar[m!. 10£62

10.62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)

Aih, @t< samaisk< xm¡ catuvR{yeR AävIn! mnu>. 10£63

10.63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

zUÔaya< äaü[aj! jat> ïeysa cet! àjayte, Aïeyan! ïeysI— jait< g½Tya sÝmadœ yugat!. 10£64

10.64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation.

zUÔae äaü[tam! @it äaü[z! c£@it zUÔtam!, ]iÇyaj! jatm! @v< tu iv*adœ vEZyat! twa£@v c. 10£65

10.65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya.

AnayaRya< smuTpÚae äaü[at! tu y†½ya, äaü{yam! APynayaRt! tu ïeySTv< Kv£#it cedœ -veT. 10£66

10.66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the preeminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan,

jatae nayaRm! AnayaRyam! AayaRdœ AayaeR -vedœ gu[E>, jatae APynayaRdœ AayaRyam! AnayR #it iníy>. 10£67

10.67. The decision is as follows: 'He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.'

tav! %-av! APys, vEgu{yaj! jNmn> pUvR %Är> àitlaemt>. 10£68

10.68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes.

subIj< c£@v su]eÇe jat< s

10.69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.

bIjm! @ke àz, bIj£]eÇe twa£@v£ANye tÇ£#y< tu VyviSwit>. 10£70

10.70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows:

A]eÇe bIjm! %Ts&òm! ANtra£@v ivnZyit, AbIjkm! Aip ]eÇ< kevl< Swi{fl< -vet!,10£71

10.71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.

ySmadœ bIjà-ave[ ityRGja \;yae A-vn!, pUijtaz! c àzStaz! c tSmadœ bIj< àzSyte. 10£72

10.72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more important.

AnayRm! AayR£kmaR[m! Aay¡ c£AnayRkimR[m!, s<àxayR£AävIdœ xata n smaE n£Asmav! #it. 10£73

10.73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, 'Those two are neither equal nor unequal.'

äaü[a äüyaeinSwa ye SvkmR{yviSwta>, te sMyg! %pjIveyu> ;qœ kmaRi[ ywa³mm!. 10£74

10.74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order.

AXyapnm! AXyyn< yjn< yajn< twa, dan< àit¢hz! c£@v ;qœ kmaR{y¢jNmn>. 10£75

10.75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana.

;{[a< tu kmR[am! ASy ÇIi[ kmaRi[ jIivka, yajn£AXyapne c£@v ivzuÏac! c àit¢h>. 10£76

10.76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men.

Çyae xmaR invtRNte äaü[at! ]iÇy< àit, AXyapn< yajn< c t&tIyz! c àit¢h>. 10£77

10.77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sacrificing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts.

vEZy< àit twa£@v£@te invteRrÚ! #it iSwit>, n taE àit ih tan! xmaRn! mnurœ Aah àjapit>. 10£78

10.78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (castes).

zô£Aô-&Åv< ]ÇSy vi[K£pzu£k«i;rœ iv;>, AajIvnaw¡ xmRs! tu danm! AXyyn< yij>. 10£79

10.79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the performance of sacrifices.

veda_yasae äaü[Sy ]iÇySy c r][m!, vataRkmR£@v vEZySy ivizòain SvkmRsu. 10£80

10.80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya.

AjIv Sven kmR[a, jIvet! ]iÇyxmeR[ s ýSy àTynNtr>. 10£81

10.81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank.

%-a_yam! APyjIv

10.82. If it be asked, 'How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?' the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya's mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle.

vEZyv&Åya£Aip jIv KsiÇyae Aip va, ih

10.83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya's mode of subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others.

k«i;< saxu£#it mNyNte sa v&iÄ> siÖgihRta>, -Uim< -Uimzya

10.84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth.

#d< tu v&iÄvEkLyat! Tyjtae xmRnEpu[<, ivZ£p{ym! %ϯt£%Ïar< iv³ey< ivÄvxRnm!. 10£85

10.85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties, may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) exceptions.

svaRn! rsan! Apaehet k«taÚ< c itlE> sh, AZmnae lv[< c£@v pzvae ye c manu;a>. 10£86

10.86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and human (beings),

sv¡ c taNtv< r­< za[£]aEm£Aivkain c, Aip cet! Syurœ Ar­ain )l£mUle twa£Aae;xI>. 10£87

10.87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even though they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs

Ap> zô< iv;< ma, ]Ir< ]aEÔ< dix "&t< tEl< mxu guf< k…zan!. 10£88

10.88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clarified butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass;


10.89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one-hoofed beasts.

kamm! %Tpa* k«:ya< tu Svym! @v k«;Ivl>, iv³I[It itlan! £ zUÔan! xmaRwRm! AicriSwtan!. 10£90

10.90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long.

-aejn£A_yÃnadœ danadœ ydœ ANyt! k…éte itlE>, k«im-Ut> ñivóaya< ipt&i-> sh m¾it. 10£91

10.91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born (again) as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.

s*> ptit ma ]Iriv³yat!. 10£92

10.92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.

#tre;a< tu p{yana< iv³yadœ #h kamt>, äaü[> sÝraÇe[ vEZy-av< iny½it. 10£93

10.93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya.

rsa rsErœ inmatVya n Tv! @v lv[< rsE>, k«taÚ< c k«taÚen itla xaNyen tTsma>. 10£94

10.94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other) condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities.

jIvedœ @ten rajNy> sveR[£APyny< gt>, n Tv! @v Jyay

10.95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters.

yae lae-adœ Axmae jaTya jIvedœ %Tk«ò£kmRi->, t< raja inxRn< k«Tva i]àm! @v àvasyet!. 10£96

10.96. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish.

vr< SvxmaeR ivgu[ae n parKy> Svnuiót>, prxmeR[ jIvn! ih s*> ptit jaitt>. 10£97

10.97. It is better (to discharge) one's own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another; for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own.

vEZyae A£jIvn! SvxmeR[ zUÔv&Åya£Aip vtRyet!, AnacrÚ! AkayaRi[ invteRt c zi­man!. 10£98

10.98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain himself by a Sudra's mode of life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so).

Az²…v ktu¡ iÖjNmnam!, puÇ£daraTyy< àaÝae jIvet! kaék£kmRi->. 10£99

10.99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-born and threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain himself by handicrafts.

yE> kmRi-> àcirtE> zuïU:yNte iÖjaty>, tain kaék£kmaRi[ izLpain ivivxain c. 10£100

10.100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the twice-born are (best) served.

vEZyv&iÄm! Anaitón! äaü[> Sve piw iSwt>, Av&iÄki;Rt> sIdÚ! #m< xm¡ smacret!. 10£101

10.101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya's mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the following manner.

svRt> àitg&ŸIyadœ äaü[s! Tv! Any< gt>, pivÇ< Ê:yit£#Tyetdœ xmRtae n£%pp*te. 10£102

10.102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied.

n£AXyapnadœ yajnadœ va gihRtadœ va àit¢hat!, dae;ae -vit ivàa[a< Jvln£AMbu£sma ih te. 10£103

10.103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as fire and water.

jIivtaTyym! AapÚae yae AÚm! AiÄ tts! tt>, Aakazm! #v p»en n s papen ilPyte. 10£104

10.104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud.

AjIgtR> sut< hNtum! %paspRdœ bu-ui]t>, n c£AilPyt papen ]uTàtIkarm! Aacrn!. 10£105

10.105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing.

ñma, àa[ana< pirr]aw¡ vamdevae n ilÝvan!. 10£106

10.106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life.

-rÖaj> ]uxatRs! tu s£puÇae ivjne vne, bþIrœ ga> àitj¢ah v&xaes! tú[ae mhatpa>. 10£107

10.107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest.

]uxatRz! c£AÄum! A_yagadœ ivñaimÇ> ñja"nIm!, c{falhStadœ Aaday xmR£AxmRivc][>. 10£108

10.108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the hands of a Kandala.

àit¢hadœ yajnadœ va twa£@v£AXyapnadœ Aip, àit¢h> àTyvr> àeTy ivàSy gihRt>. 10£109

10.109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.

yajn£AXyapne inTy< i³yete s. 10£110

10.110. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class.

jp£haemErœ ApETyenae yajn£AXyapnE> k«tm!, àit¢hinimÄ< tu Tyagen tpsa£@v c. 10£111

10.111. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities.

izl£%Âm! APyaddIt ivàae A£jIvn! yts! tt>, àit¢hat! £ izl> ïeya àzSyte. 10£112

10.112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more laudable.

sIdiÑ> k…Pym! #½iÑrœ xne va p&iwvIpit>, yaCy> Syat! õatkErœ ivàErœ AidTs

10.113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left.

Ak«t< c k«tat! ]eÇadœ gaErœ Ajaivkm! @v c, ihr{y< xaNym! AÚ< c pUv¡ pUvRm! Adae;vt!. 10£114

10.114. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than of the following ones).

sÝ ivÄagma xMyaR dayae la-> ³yae jy>, àyaeg> kmRyaegz! c sTàit¢h @v c. 10£115

10.115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheritance, finding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest, lending at interest, the performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men.

iv*a izLp< -&it> seva gaerúy< ivpi[> k«i;>, x&itrœ -E]< k…sId< c dz jIvnhetv>. 10£116

10.116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms, and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress).

äaü[> ]iÇyae va£Aip v&iÏ< n£@v àyaejyet!, kam< tu olu xmaRw¡ d*at! papIyse AiLpkam!. 10£117

10.117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them) may, in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small interest.

ctuwRm! Aaddanae Aip ]iÇyae -agm! Aapid, àja r]n! pr< z®ya ikiLb;at! àitmuCyte. 10£118

10.118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability.

SvxmaeR ivjys! tSy n£Ahve Syat! pra'œ£muo>, zôe[ vEZyan! ri]Tva xMyRm! Aaharyedœ bilm!. 10£119

10.119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be collected;

xaNye Aòm< ivza< zuLk< iv zUÔa> karv> iziLpns! twa. 10£120

10.120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle), which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work (for him).

zUÔs! tu v&iÄm! Aaka'œ]n! ]Çm! Aaraxyedœ yid, xinn< va£APyuparaXy vEZy< zUÔae ijjIiv;et!. 10£121

10.121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya.

SvgaRwRm! %-yaw¡ va ivàan! Aaraxyet! tu s>, jatäaü[£zBdSy sa ýSy k«tk«Tyta. 10£122

10.122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends.

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