Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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k«t£vapnae invsedœ ¢amaNte gaeìje Aip va, Aaïme v&]mUle va gae£äaü[ihte rt>. 11£78

11.78. Having shaved off (all his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village, or in a cow-pen, or in a hermitage, or at the root of a tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas.

äaü[aweR gvaweR va s*> àa[an! pirTyjet!, muCyte äühTyaya gaeÝa gaerœ äaü[Sy c. 11£79

11.79. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt of) the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana.

iÇvar< àitraeÏa va svRSvm! AvijTy va, ivàSy tiÚimÄe va àa[ala-e ivmuCyte. 11£80

11.80. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana's (property), or reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such a cause, he is freed (from his guilt).

@v< †F£ìtae inTy< äücarI smaiht>, smaÝe Öadze v;eR äühTyam! Vypaehit. 11£81

11.81. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow, chaste, and of concentrated mind, removes after the lapse of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana.

izòœva va -Uimdevana< nrdevsmagme, Svm! @nae Av-&wõatae hymexe ivmuCyte. 11£82

11.82. Or he who, after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas), and the gods of men (Kshatriyas), bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacrifice, is (also) freed (from guilt).

xmRSy äaü[ae mUlm! A¢< rajNy %Cyte, tSmat! smagme te;am! @nae ivOyaPy zuXyit. 11£83

11.83. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top; hence he who has confessed his sin before an assembly of such men, becomes pure.

äü[> s<-ven£@v devanam! Aip dEvtm!, àma[< c£@v laekSy äüaÇ£@v ih kar[m!. 11£84

11.84. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda is the foundation for that.

te;a< vedivdae äUyus! Çyae APyen> suin:k«itm!, sa te;a< pavnay Syat! pivÇa ivÊ;a< ih vakœ. 11£85

11.85. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences, that shall purify the (sinners); for the words of learned men are a means of purification.

Atae ANytmm! AaSway ivix< ivà> smaiht>, äühTyak«t< pap< VypaehTyaTmvÄya. 11£86

11.86. A Brahmana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the (above-mentioned) rules, removes the sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self-control.

hTva g-Rm! Aiv}atm! @tdœ @v ìt< cret!, rajNy£vEZyaE c£$janav! AaÇeyIm! @v c iôym!. 11£87

11.87. For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice, or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance,

%®va c£@v£An&t< saúye àitéXy gué< twa, ApùTy c in>]ep< k«Tva c ôI£suùt! £ vxm!. 11£88

11.88. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause), for passionately abusing the teacher, for stealing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend:

#y< ivzuiÏrœ %idta àmaPy£Akamtae iÖjm!, kamtae äaü[vxe in:k«itrœ n ivxIyte. 11£89

11.89. This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a Brahmana no atonement is ordained.

sura< pITva iÖjae maehadœ Ai¶£v[a¡ sura< ipbet!, tya s kaye indRGxe muCyte ikiLb;at! tt>. 11£90

11.90. A twice-born man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of mind, (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely scalded by that, he is freed from his guilt;

gaemUÇm! Ai¶£v[¡ va ipbedœ %dkm! @v va, pyae "&t< va£A mr[adœ gaezk«Ôsm! @v va. 11£91

11.91. Or he may drink cow's urine, water, milk, clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies;

k[an! va -]yedœ ABd< ip{yak< va sk«t! £ iniz, surapanapnuÅyw¡ valvasa jqI XvjI. 11£92

11.92. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oilcake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a flag.

sura vE mlm! AÚana< paPma c mlm! %Cyte, tSmadœ äaü[£rajNyaE vEZyz! c n sura< ipbet!. 11£93

11.93. Sura, indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura.

gaEfI pEòI c maXvI c iv}eya iÇivxa sura, ywa£@v£@ka twa svaR n patVya iÖjaeÄmE>. 11£94

11.94. Sura one must know to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi), that distilled from ground rice, and that distilled from Madhuka-flowers (madhvi); as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of the twice-born.

y]£r]>£ipzac£AÚ< m*< ma. 11£95

11.95. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods, must not partake of such (substances).

AmeXye va pten! mÄae vEidk< va£APyudahret!, AkayRm! ANyt! k…yaRdœ va äaü[ae mdmaeiht>. 11£96

11.96. A Brahmana, stupefied by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts), or commit some other act which ought not to be committed.

ySy kaygt< äü m*en£APlaVyte sk«t!, tSy VypEit äaü{y< zUÔTv< c s g½it. 11£97

11.97. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor, his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra.

@;a ivicÇai-ihta surapanSy in:k«it>, At ^Xv¡ àvúyaim suv[RSteyin:k«itm!. 11£98

11.98. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).

suv[RSteyk«dœ ivàae rajanm! Ai-gMy tu, SvkmR Oyapyn! äUyat! £ ma< -van! AnuzaSTv! #it. 11£99

11.99. A Brahmana who has stolen the gold (of a Brahmana) shall go to the king and, confessing his deed, say, 'Lord, punish me!'

g&hITva musl< raja sk«Î‰ hNyat! tu t< Svym! , vxen zuXyit Stenae äaü[s! tpsa£@v tu. 11£100

11.100. Taking (from him) the club (which he must carry), the king himself shall strike him once, by his death the thief becomes pure; or a Brahmana (may purify himself) by austerities.

tpsapnunuTsus! tu suv[RSteyj< mlm!, cIrvasa iÖjae Ar{ye credœ äüh[ae ìtm!. 11£101

11.101. He who desires to remove by austerities the guilt of stealing the gold (of a Brahmana), shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the slayer of a Brahmana, (living) in a forest and dressed in (garments) made of bark.

@tErœ ìtErœ Apaehet pap< Steyk«t< iÖj>, guéôIgmnI£#y< tu ìtErœ @i-rœ Apanudet!. 11£102

11.102. By these penances a twice-born man may remove the guilt incurred by a theft (of gold); but he may atone for connexion with a Guru's wife by the following penances.

guétLPyi--a:y£@ns! tÝe SvPyadœ Ayaemye, sUmI¡ JvlNtI— Svaið:yen! m&Tyuna s ivzuXyit. 11£103

11.103. He who has violated his Guru's bed, shall, after confessing his crime, extend himself on a heated iron bed, or embrace the red-hot image (of a woman); by dying he becomes pure;

Svy< va iz:[£v&;[av! %Tk«Ty£Axay c£AÃlaE, nE\RtI— idzm! Aaitóedœ Aa inpatadœ Aijüg>. 11£104

11.104. Or, having himself cut off his organ and his testicles and having taken them in his joined hands, he may walk straight towards the region of Nirriti (the south-west), until he falls down (dead);

oqœva¼I cIr£vasa va Zmïulae ivjne vne, àajapTy< cret! k«½!rm! ABdm! @k< smaiht>. 11£105

11.105. Or, carrying the foot of a bedstead, dressed in (garments of) bark and allowing his beard to grow, he may, with a concentrated mind, perform during a whole year the Krikkhra (or hard, penance), revealed by Pragapati, in a lonely forest;

caNÔay[< va ÇIn! masan! A_ySyen! inyt£#iNÔy>, hiv:ye[ yvaGva va guétLpapnuÄye. 11£106

11.106. Or, controlling his organs, he may during three months continuously perform the lunar penance, (subsisting) on sacrificial food or barley-gruel, in order to remove (the guilt of) violating a Guru's bed.

@tErœ ìtErœ Apaeheyurœ mhapatiknae mlm!, %ppatikns! Tv! @vm! @i-rœ nanaivxErœ ìtE>. 11£107

11.107. By means of these penances men who have committed mortal sins (Mahapataka) may remove their guilt, but those who committed minor offences, causing loss of caste, (Upapataka, can do it) by the various following penances.

%ppatks. 11£108

11.108. He who has committed a minor offence by slaying a cow (or bull) shall drink during (the first) month (a decoction of) barley-grains; having shaved all his hair, and covering himself with the hide (of the slain cow), he must live in a cow-house.

ctuwRkalm! AîIyadœ A]ar£lv[< imtm!, gaemUÇe[£Acret! õan< ÖaE masaE inyt£#iNÔy>. 11£109

11.109. During the two (following) months he shall eat a small (quantity of food) without any factitious salt at every fourth meal-time, and shall bathe in the urine of cows, keeping his organs under control.

idva£Anug½edœ gas! tas! tu itóÚ! ^Xv¡ rj> ipbet!, zuïUi;Tva nmSk«Ty raÇaE vIrasn< vset!. 11£110

11.110. During the day he shall follow the cows and, standing upright, inhale the dust (raised by their hoofs); at night, after serving and worshipping them, he shall remain in the (posture, called) virasana.

itóNtI:v! Anuitóet! tu ìjNtI:v! APynuìjet!, AasInasu twa£AsInae inytae vIt£mTsr>. 11£111

11.111. Controlling himself and free from anger, he must stand when they stand, follow them when they walk, and seat himself when they lie down.

Aaturam! Ai-zSta< va caEr£Vyaºaidi-rœ -yE>, pitta< p»l¶< va svR£%payErœ ivmaecyet!. 11£112

11.112. (When a cow is) sick, or is threatened by danger from thieves, tigers, and the like, or falls, or sticks in a morass, he must relieve her by all possible means:

%:[e v;Rit zIte va maéte vait va -&zm!, n k…vIRt£ATmns! Ça[< gaerœ Ak«Tva tu zi­t>. 11£113

11.113. In heat, in rain, or in cold, or when the wind blows violently, he must not seek to shelter himself, without (first) sheltering the cows according to his ability.

AaTmnae yid va£ANye;a< g&he ]eÇe Aw va ole, -]yNtI— n kwyet! ipbNt< c£@v vTskm!. 11£114

11.114. Let him not say (a word), if a cow eats (anything) in his own or another's house or field or on the threshing-floor, or if a calf drinks (milk).

Anen ivixna ys! tu gae¹ae gam! Anug½it, s gaehTyak«t< pap< iÇi-rœ masErœ Vypaehit. 11£115

11.115. The slayer of a cow who serves cows in this manner, removes after three months the guilt which he incurred by killing a cow.

v&;-£@kadza gaz! c d*at! sucirt£ìt>, Aiv*mane svRSv< vedivÑ(ae invedyet!. 11£116

11.116. But after he has fully performed the penance, he must give to (Brahmanas) learned in the Veda ten cows and a bull, (or) if he does not possess (so much property) he must offer to them all he has.

@tdœ @v ìt< k…yuRrœ %ppatiknae iÖja>, AvkIi[RvJy¡ zuÏ(w¡ caNÔay[m! Aw£Aip va. 11£117

11.117. Twice-born men who have committed (other) minor offences (Upapataka), except a student who has broken his vow (Avakirnin), may perform, in order to purify themselves, the same penance or also a lunar penance.

AvkI[IR tu ka[en gdR-en ctu:pwe, paky}ivxanen yjet in\Rit< iniz. 11£118

11.118. But a student who has broken his vow shall offer at night on a crossway to Nirriti a one-eyed ass, according to the rule of the Pakayagnas.

÷Tva£A¶aE ivixvΉ haeman! ANttz! c sm£#Ty&ca, vat£#NÔ£gué£vûIna< ju÷yat! sipR;a£A÷tI>. 11£119

11.119. Having offered according to the rule oblations in the fire, he shall finally offer (four) oblations of clarified butter to Vata, to Indra, to the teacher (of the gods, Brihaspati) and to Agni, reciting the Rik verse 'May the Maruts grant me,' &c.

kamtae rets> sek< ìtSwSy iÖjNmn>, Ait³m< ìtSy£A÷rœ xmR}a äüvaidn>. 11£120

11.120. Those who know the Veda declare that a voluntary effusion of semen by a twice-born (youth) who fulfils the vow (of studentship constitutes) a breach of that vow.

maét< puéøt< c gué< pavkm! @v c, cturae ìitnae A_yeit äaü< tejae AvkIi[Rn>. 11£121

11.121. The divine light which the Veda imparts to the student, enters, if he breaks his vow, the Maruts, Puruhuta (Indra), the teacher (of the gods, Brihaspati) and Pavaka (Fire).

@tiSmÚ! @nis àaÝe visTva gdR-aijnm!, sÝagara

11.122. When this sin has been committed, he shall go begging to seven houses, dressed in the hide of the (sacrificed) ass, proclaiming his deed.

te_yae lBxen -E]e[ vtRyÚ! @kkailkm!, %pSp&z

11.123. Subsisting on a single (daily meal that consists) of the alms obtained there and bathing at (the time of) the three savanas (morning, noon, and evening), he becomes pure after (the lapse of) one year.


11.124. For committing with intent any of the deeds which cause loss of caste (Gatibhramsakara), (the offender) shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra; (for doing it) unintentionally, (the Krikkhra) revealed by Pragapati.

s Syadœ yavkEs! Èyhm!. 11£125

11.125. As atonement for deeds which degrade to a mixed caste (Samkara), and for those which make a man unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra), (he shall perform) the lunar (penance) during a month; for (acts) which render impure (Malinikaraniya) he shall scald himself during three days with (hot) barley-gruel.

turIyae äühTyaya> ]iÇySy vxe Sm&t>, vEZye Aòma. 11£126

11.126. One fourth (of the penance) for the murder of a Brahmana is prescribed (as expiation) for (intentionally) killing a Kshatriya, one-eighth for killing a Vaisya; know that it is one-sixteenth for killing a virtuous Sudra.

Akamts! tu rajNy< ivinpaTy iÖjaeÄm>, v&;-£@kshöa ga d*at! sucirt£ìt>. 11£127

11.127. But if a Brahmana unintentionally kills a Kshatriya, he shall give, in order to purify himself, one thousand cows and a bull;

ÈyBd< credœ va inytae jqI äüh[ae ìtm!, vsn! Ërtre ¢amadœ v&]mUl£inketn>. 11£128

11.128. Or he may perform the penance prescribed for the murderer of a Brahmana during three years, controlling himself, wearing his hair in braids, staying far away from the village, and dwelling at the root of a tree.

@tdœ @v credœ ABd< àayiíÄ< iÖjaeÄm>, àmaPy vEZy< v&ÄSw< d*ac! c£@kzt< . 11£129

11.129. A Brahmana who has slain a virtuous Vaisya, shall perform the same penance during one year, or he may give one hundred cows and one (bull).

@tdœ @v ìt< k«Tõ< ;{masan! £ zUÔha cret!, v&;-£@kadza va£Aip d*adœ ivàay ga> ista>. 11£130

11.130. He who has slain a Sudra, shall perform that whole penance during six months, or he may also give ten white cows and one bull to a Brahmana.

majaRr£nk…laE hTva ca;< m{fªkm! @v c, ñ£gaexa£%lUk£kaka

11.131. Having killed a cat, an ichneumon, a blue jay, a frog, a dog, an iguana, an owl, or a crow, he shall perform the penance for the murder of a Sudra;

py> ipbet! iÇraÇ< va yaejn< va£AXvnae ìjet!, %pSp&zet! övNTya< va sU­< va£AB£dEvt< jpet!. 11£132

11.132. Or he may drink milk during three days, or walk one hundred yoganas, or bathe in a river, or mutter the hymn addressed to the Waters.

Aiæ< ka:[aRysI— d*at! sp¡ hTva iÖjaeÄm>, plal-ark< ;{Fe sEsk< c£@kma;km!. 11£133

11.133. For killing a snake, a Brahmana shall give a spade of black iron, for a eunuch a load of straw and a masha of lead;

"&tk…M-< vrahe tu itlÔae[< tu itiÄraE, zuke iÖhayn< vTs< ³aEÂ< hTva iÇhaynm!. 11£134

11.134. For a boar a pot of clarified butter, for a partridge a drona of sesamum-grains, for a parrot a calf two years old, for a crane (a calf) three years old.

hTva h

11.135. If he has killed a Hamsa, a Balaka, a heron, a peacock, a monkey, a falcon, or a Bhasa, he shall give a cow to a Brahmana.

vasae d*aΉ hy< hTva p nIlan! v&;an! gjm!, Aj£me;av! Anfœvah< or< hTva£@khaynm!. 11£136

11.136. For killing a horse, he shall give a garment, for (killing) an elephant, five black bulls, for (killing) a goat, or a sheep, a draught-ox, for killing a donkey, (a calf) one year old;


11.137. But for killing carnivorous wild beasts, he shall give a milch-cow, for (killing) wild beasts that are not carnivorous, a heifer, for killing a camel, one krishnala.

jIn£kamuRk£bSt£AvIn! p&wg! d*adœ ivzuÏye, ctu[aRm! Aip v[aRna< narIrœ hTva£An! £ AviSwta>. 11£138

11.138. For killing adulterous women of the four castes, he must give, in order to purify himself, respectively a leathern bag, a bow, a goat, or a sheep.

danen vxin[eRk< spaRdInam! Az²…vn!, @kEkzz! cret! k«½!r< iÖj> papapnuÄye. 11£139

11.139. A twice-born man, who is unable to atone by gifts for the slaughter of a serpent and the other (creatures mentioned), shall perform for each of them, a Krikkhra (penance) in order to remove his guilt.

AiSwmta< tu sÅvana< shöSy àmap[e, pU[eR c£AnSynSÉa< tu zUÔhTyaìt< cret!. 11£140

11.140. But for destroying one thousand (small) animals that have bones, or a whole cart-load of boneless (animals), he shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the murder of a Sudra.

ik< icdœ @v tu ivàay d*adœ AiSwmta< vxe, AnSÉa< c£@v ih

11.141. But for killing (small) animals which have bones, he should give some trifle to a Brahmana; if he injures boneless (animals), he becomes pure by a suppressing his breath (pranayama).

)ldana< tu v&]a[a< cedne jPym! \C£ztm!, guLm£v‘I£ltana< c pui:ptana< c vIéxam!. 11£142

11.142. For cutting fruit-trees, shrubs, creepers, lianas, or flowering plants, one hundred Rikas must be muttered.

AÚa*jana< sÅvana< rsjana< c svRz>, )l£pu:p£%Ñvana< c "&tàazae ivzaexnm!. 11£143

11.143. (For destroying) any kind of creature, bred in food, in condiments, in fruit, or in flowers, the expiation is to eat clarified butter.

k«:tjanam! Aae;xIna< jatana< c Svy< vne, v&walM-e Anug½edœ ga< idnm! @k< pyae£ìt>. 11£144

11.144. If a man destroys for no good purpose plants produced by cultivation, or such as spontaneously spring up in the forest, he shall attend a cow during one day, subsisting on milk alone.

@tErœ ìtErœ Apaeý< Syadœ @nae ih

11.145. The guilt incurred intentionally or unintentionally by injuring (created beings) can be removed by means of these penances; hear (now, how) all (sins) committed by partaking of forbidden food (or drink, can be expiated).

A}anadœ vaé[I— pITva s. 11£146

11.146. He who drinks unintentionally (the spirituous liquor, called) Varuni, becomes pure by being initiated (again); (even for drinking it) intentionally (a penance) destructive to life must not be imposed; that is a settled rule.

Ap> sura-ajnSwa m*-a{fiSwtas! twa, pÂraÇ< ipbet! pITva zŒpu:pIz&t< py>. 11£147

11.147. He who has drunk water which has stood in a vessel used for keeping (the spirituous liquor, called) Sura, or other intoxicating drinks, shall drink during five (days and) nights (nothing but) milk in which the Sankhapushpi (plant) has been boiled.

Sp&òœv dÅva c midra< ivixvt! àitg&ý c, zUÔ£%i½òaz! c pITva£Ap> k…zvair ipbet! Èyhm!. 11£148

11.148. He who has touched spirituous liquor, has given it away, or received it in accordance with the rule, or has drunk water left by a Sudra, shall drink during three days water in which Kusa-grass has been boiled.

äaü[s! tu surapSy gNxm! Aaºay saemp>, àa[an! APsu iÇrœ AayMy "&t< àaZy ivzuXyit. 11£149

11.149. But when a Brahmana who has partaken of Soma-juice, has smelt the odour exhaled by a drinker of Sura, he becomes pure by thrice suppressing his breath in water, and eating clarified butter.

A}anat! àaZy iv:£mUÇ< suras s. 11£150

11.150. (Men of) the three twice-born castes who have unintentionally swallowed ordure or urine, or anything that has touched Sura, must be initiated again.

vpn< meola d{fae -E]cyaR ìtain c, invtRNte iÖjatIna< pun>s

11.151. The tonsure, (wearing) the sacred girdle, (carrying) a staff, going to beg, and the vows (incumbent on a student), are omitted on the second initiation of twice-born men.

A-aeJyana< tu -u®va£AÚ< ôI£zUÔ£%i½òm! @v c, 11£152 jGXva ma

11.152. But he who has eaten the food of men, whose food must not be eaten, or the leavings of women and Sudras, or forbidden flesh, shall drink barley (-gruel) during seven (days and) nights.

1zu­ain c k;aya, tavdœ -vTyàytae yavt! tn! n ìjTyx>. 11£153

11.153. A twice-born man who has drunk (fluids that have turned) sour, or astringent decoctions, becomes, though (these substances may) not (be specially) forbidden, impure until they have been digested.

ivfœvrah£or£%:Ça[a< gaemayae> kip£kakyae>, àaZy mUÇ£purI;ai[ iÖjz! caNÔay[< cret!. 11£154

11.154. A twice-born man, who has swallowed the urine or ordure of a village pig, of a donkey, of a camel, of a jackal, of a monkey, or of a crow, shall perform a lunar penance.

zu:kai[ -u®va ma

11.155. He who has eaten dried meat, mushrooms growing on the ground, or (meat, the nature of) which is unknown, (or) such as had been kept in a slaughter-house, shall perform the same penance.

³Vyad£sUkr£%ò+a[a< k…Š…qana< c -][e, nr£kak£ora[a< c tÝk«½!r< ivzaexnm!. 11£156

11.156. The atonement for partaking of (the meat of) carnivorous animals, of pigs, of camels, of cocks, of crows, of donkeys, and of human flesh, is a Tapta Krikkhra (penance).

maiskaÚ< tu yae AîIyadœ AsmavtRkae iÖj>, s ÇI{yhaNyupvsedœ @kah< c£%dke vset!. 11£157

11.157. If a twice-born man, who has not returned (home from his teacher's house), eats food, given at a monthly (Sraddha,) he shall fast during three days and pass one day (standing) in water.

äücarI tu yae AîIyan! mxu ma

11.158. But a student who on any occasion eats honey or meat, shall perform an ordinary Krikkhra (penance), and afterwards complete his vow (of studentship).

ibfal£kak£Aou£%i½ò< jGXva ñ£nk…lSy c, kez£kIqavpÚ< c ipbedœ äüsuvcRlam!. 11£159

11.159. He who eats what is left by a cat, by a crow, by a mouse (or rat), by a dog, or by an ichneumon, or (food) into which a hair or an insect has fallen, shall drink (a decoction of) the Brahmasuvarkala (plant).

A-aeJym! AÚ< n£AÄVym! AaTmn> zuiÏm! #½ta, A}an-u­< tu£%Äay¡ zaeXy< va£APyazu zaexnE>. 11£160

11.160. He who desires to be pure, must not eat forbidden food, and must vomit up such as he has eaten unintentionally, or quickly atone for it by (various) means of purification.

@;ae Ana*£AdnSy£%­ae ìtana< ivivxae ivix>, Steydae;apht¨R[a< ìtana< ïUyta< ivix>. 11£161

11.161. The various rules respecting penances for eating forbidden food have been thus declared; hear now the law of those penances which remove the guilt of theft.

xaNy£AÚ£xncaEyaRi[ k«Tva kamadœ iÖjaeÄm>, SvjatIyg&hadœ @v k«½!raBden ivzuXyit. 11£162

11.162. The chief of the twice-born, having voluntarily stolen (valuable) property, grain, or cooked food, from the house of a caste-fellow, is purified by performing Krikkhra (penances) during a whole year.

mnu:ya[a< tu hr[e ôI[a< ]eÇ£g&hSy c, kªp£vapIjlana< c zuiÏz! caNÔay[< Sm&tm!. 11£163

11.163. The lunar penance has been declared to be the expiation for stealing men and women, and (for wrongfully appropriating) a field, a house, or the water of wells and cisterns.

ÔVya[am! ALp£sara[a< Stey< k«Tva£ANyveZmt> , cret! sa

11.164. He who has stolen objects of small value from the house of another man, shall, after restoring the (stolen article), perform a Samtapana Krikkhra for his purification.

-úy£-aeJyaphr[e yan£zYya£AsnSy c, pu:p£mUl£)lana< c pÂgVy< ivzaexnm!. 11£165

11.165. (To swallow) the five products of the cow (pankagavya) is the atonement for stealing eatables of various kinds, a vehicle, a bed, a seat, flowers, roots, or fruit.

t&[£kaó£Ô‚ma[a< c zu:kaÚSy gufSy c, cel£cmR£Aim;a[a< c iÇraÇ< Syadœ A-aejnm!. 11£166

11.166. Fasting during three (days and) nights shall be (the penance for stealing) grass, wood, trees, dry food, molasses, clothes, leather, and meat.

mi[£mu­a£àvalana< taèSy rjtSy c, Ay>£ka

11.167. To subsist during twelve days on (uncooked) grains (is the penance for stealing) gems, pearls, coral, copper, silver, iron, brass, or stone.

kapaRs£kIqj£^[aRna< iÖz)£@kz)Sy c, pi]£gNx£Aae;xIna< c rJJvaz! c£@v Èyh< py>. 11£168

11.168. (For stealing) cotton, silk, wool, an animal with cloven hoofs, or one with uncloven hoofs, a bird, perfumes, medicinal herbs, or a rope (the penance is to subsist) during three days (on) milk.

@tErœ ìtErœ Apaehet pap< Steyk«t< iÖj>, AgMyagmnIy< tu ìtErœ @i-rœ Apanudet!. 11£169

11.169. By means of these penances, a twice-born man may remove the guilt of theft; but the guilt of approaching women who ought not to be approached (agamya), he may expiate by (the following) penances.

guétLpìt< k…yaRdœ ret> is®va Svyaein;u, sOyu> puÇSy c ôI;u k…marI:v! ANTyjasu c. 11£170

11.170. He who has had sexual intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, with unmarried maidens, and with females of the lowest castes, shall perform the penance, prescribed for the violation of a Guru's bed.

pEt&SvseyI— -ignI— SvöIya< maturœ @v c, matuz! c æatus! tnya< gTva caNÔay[< cret!. 11£171

11.171. He who has approached the daughter of his father's sister, (who is almost equal to) a sister, (the daughter) of his mother's sister, or of his mother's full brother, shall perform a lunar penance.

@tas! itös! tu -ayaRweR n£%py½et! tu buiÏman!, }aitTven£An! £ %peyas! ta> ptit ýupyÚ! Ax>. 11£172

11.172. A wise man should not take as his wife any of these three; they must not be wedded because they are (Sapinda-) relatives, he who marries (one of them), sinks low.

Amanu;I;U pué; %dKyayam! Ayaein;u, ret> is®va jle c£@v k«½!r< sa

11.173. A man who has committed a bestial crime, or an unnatural crime with a female, or has had intercourse in water, or with a menstruating woman, shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra.

mEwun< tu smaseVy pu, gae£yane APsu idva c£@v s£vasa> õanm! Aacret!. 11£174

11.174. A twice-born man who commits an unnatural offence with a male, or has intercourse with a female in a cart drawn by oxen, in water, or in the day-time, shall bathe, dressed in his clothes.

c{fal£ANTyiôyae gTva -u®va c àitg&ý c, ptTy}antae ivàae }anat! saMy< tu g½it. 11£175

11.175. A Brahmana who unintentionally approaches a woman of the Kandala or of (any other) very low caste, who eats (the food of such persons) and accepts (presents from them) becomes an outcast; but (if he does it) intentionally, he becomes their equal.

ivàÊòa< iôy< -taR inéNXyadœ @kveZmin, yt! pu prdare;u tc! c£@na< caryedœ ìtm!. 11£176

11.176. An exceedingly corrupt wife let her husband confine to one apartment, and compel her to perform the penance which is prescribed for males in cases of adultery.

sa cet! pun> àÊ:yet! tu s†zen£%pmiÙta, k«½!r< caNÔay[< c£@v tdœ ASya> pavn< Sm&tm!. 11£177

11.177. If, being solicited by a man (of) equal (caste), she (afterwards) is again unfaithful, then a Krikkhra and a lunar penance are prescribed as the means of purifying her.

yt! kraeTyekraÇe[ v&;lIsevnadœ iÖj>, tdœ -E]-uJ£jpn! inTy< iÇi-rœ v;ERrœ Vypaehit. 11£178

11.178. The sin which a twice-born man commits by dallying one night with a Vrishali, he removes in three years, by subsisting on alms and daily muttering (sacred texts).

@;a papk«tam! %­a ctu[aRm! Aip in:k«it>, pittE> s<àyu­anam! #ma> z&[ut in:k«tI>. 11£179

11.179. The atonement (to be performed) by sinners (of) four (kinds) even, has been thus declared; hear now the penances for those who have intercourse with outcasts.


11.180. He who associates with an outcast, himself becomes an outcast after a year, not by sacrificing for him, teaching him, or forming a matrimonial alliance with him, but by using the same carriage or seat, or by eating with him.

yae yen pitten£@;a< s, s tSy£@v ìt< k…yaRt! tTs

11.181. He who associates with any one of those outcasts, must perform, in order to atone for (such) intercourse, the penance prescribed for that (sinner).

pittSy£%dk< kay¡ sip{fErœ baNxvErœ bih>, iniNdte Ahin sayaûe }ait£\iTvJ£gués

11.182. The Sapindas and Samanodakas of an outcast must offer (a libation of) water (to him, as if he were dead), outside (the village), on an inauspicious day, in the evening and in the presence of the relatives, officiating priests, and teachers.

dasI "qm! Apa< pU[¡ pyRSyet! àetvt! pda, AhaeraÇm! %pasIrÚ! AzaEc< baNxvE> sh. 11£183

11.183. A female slave shall upset with her foot a pot filled with water, as if it were for a dead person; (his Sapindas) as well as the Samanodakas shall be impure for a day and a night;


11.184. But thenceforward it shall be forbidden to converse with him, to sit with him, to give him a share of the inheritance, and to hold with him such intercourse as is usual among men;

Jyeóta c invteRt JyeóavaPy< c ydœ xnm!, Jyeóa. 11£185

11.185. And (if he be the eldest) his right of primogeniture shall be withheld and the additional share, due to the eldest son; and his stead a younger brother, excelling in virtue, shall obtain the share of the eldest.

àayiíÄe tu cirte pU[Rk…M-m! Apa< nvm!, ten£@v sax¡ àaSyeyu> õaTva pu{ye jlazye. 11£186

11.186. But when he has performed his penance, they shall bathe with him in a holy pool and throw down a new pot, filled with water.

s Tv! APsu t< "q< àaSy àivZy -vn< Svkm!, svaRi[ }aitkayaRi[ ywapUv¡ smacret!. 11£187

11.187. But he shall throw that pot into water, enter his house and perform, as before, all the duties incumbent on a relative.

@tdœ @v ivix< k…yaRdœ yaei;Tsu pittaSv! Aip, vô£AÚ£pan< dey< tu vseyuz! c g&haiNtke. 11£188

11.188. Let him follow the same rule in the case of female outcasts; but clothes, food, and drink shall be given to them, and they shall live close to the (family-) house.

@niSvi-rœ Aini[R­Erœ n£Aw¡ ik< ict! sh£Acret!, k«tin[eRjna

11.189. Let him not transact any business with unpurified sinners; but let him in no way reproach those who have made atonement.

bal¹a, zr[agthNt¨

11.190. Let him not dwell together with the murderers of children, with those who have returned evil for good, and with the slayers of suppliants for protection or of women, though they may have been purified according to the sacred law.

ye;a< iÖjana< saivÇI n£AnUCyet ywaivix, ta

11.191. Those twice-born men who may not have been taught the Savitri (at the time) prescribed by the rule, he shall cause to perform three Krikkhra (penances) and afterwards initiate them in accordance with the law.

àayiíÄ< ickI;RiNt ivkmRSwas! tu ye iÖja>, äü[a c pirTy­as! te;am! APyetdœ Aaidzet!. 11£192

11.192. Let him prescribe the same (expiation) when twice-born men, who follow forbidden occupations or have neglected (to learn) the Veda, desire to perform a penance.

ydœ gihRten£AjRyiNt kmR[a äaü[a xnm!, tSy£%TsgeR[ zuXyiNt jPyen tpsa£@v c. 11£193

11.193. If Brahmanas acquire property by a reprehensible action, they become pure by relinquishing it, muttering prayers, and (performing) austerities.

jipTva ÇIi[ saivÈya> shöai[ smaiht>, mas< gaeóe py> pITva muCyte AsTàit¢hat!. 11£194

11.194. By muttering with a concentrated mind the Savitri three thousand times, (dwelling) for a month in a cow-house, (and) subsisting on milk, (a man) is freed from (the guilt of) accepting presents from a wicked man.

%pvask«z< t< tu gaeìjat! punrœ Aagtm!, à[t< àit p&½eyu> saMy< saEMy£#½is£#it ikm!. 11£195

11.195. But when he returns from the cow-house, emaciated with his fast, and reverently salutes, (the Brahmanas) shall ask him, 'Friend, dost thou desire to become our equal?'

sTym! %®va tu ivàe;u ivikredœ yvs< gvam!, gaei-> àvitRte tIweR k…yuRs! tSy pir¢hm!. 11£196

11.196. If he answers to the Brahmanas, 'Forsooth, (I will not offend again), 'he shall scatter (some) grass for the cows; if the cows hallow that place (by eating the grass) the (Brahmana) shall re-admit him (into their community).

ìaTyana< yajn< k«Tva pre;am! ANTykmR c, Ai-carm! AhIn< c iÇi-> k«½!rErœ Vypaehit. 11£197

11.197. He who has sacrificed for Vratyas, or has performed the obsequies of strangers, or a magic sacrifice (intended to destroy life) or an Ahina sacrifice, removes (his guilt) by three Krikkhra (penances).

zr[agt< pirTyJy ved< ivPlaVy c iÖj>, s

11.198. A twice-born man who has cast off a suppliant for protection, or has (improperly) divulged the Veda, atones for his offence, if he subsists during a year on barley.

ñ£z&gal£orErœ dòae ¢aMyE> ³VyaiÑrœ @v c, nr£Añ£%ò+£vrahEz! c àa[ayamen zuXyit . 11£199

11.199. He who has been bitten by a dog, a jackal, or a donkey, by a tame carnivorous animal, by a man, a horse, a camel, or a (village-) pig, becomes pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama).

;óaÚkalta mas< s

11.200. To eat during a month at each sixth mealtime (only), to recite the Samhita (of a Veda), and (to perform) daily the Sakala oblations, are the means of purifying those excluded from society at repasts (Apanktya).

%ò+yan< smaéý oryan< tu kamt>, õaTva tu ivàae idG£vasa> àa[ayamen zuXyit. 11£201

11.201. A Brahmana who voluntarily rode in a carriage drawn by camels or by asses, and he who bathed naked, become pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama).

ivna£AiÑrœ APsu va£APyatR> zarIr< s

11.202. He who has relieved the necessities of nature, being greatly pressed, either without (using) water or in water, becomes pure by bathing outside (the village) in his clothes and by touching a cow.

ved£%idtana< inTyana< kmR[a< smit³me, õatkìtlaepe c àayiíÄm! A-aejnm!. 11£203

11.203. Fasting is the penance for omitting the daily rites prescribed by the Veda and for neglecting the special duties of a Snataka.

÷»ar< äaü[Sy£%®va TvMkar< c grIys>, õaTva£An! £ AîÚ! Ah> ze;m! Ai-va* àsadyet!. 11£204

11.204. He who has said 'Hum' to a Brahmana, or has addressed one of his betters with 'Thou,' shall bathe, fast during the remaining part of the day, and appease (the person offended) by a reverential salutation.

tafiyTva t&[en£Aip k{Qe va£AbXy vassa, ivvade va ivinijRTy ài[pTy àsadyet!. 11£205

11.205. He who has struck (a Brahmana) even with a blade of grass, tied him by the neck with a cloth, or conquered him in an altercation, shall appease him by a prostration.

AvgUyR Tv! ABdzt< shöm! Ai-hTy c, ij"a

11.206. But he who, intending to hurt a Brahmana, has threatened (him with a stick and the like) shall remain in hell during a hundred years; he who (actually) struck him, during one thousand years.

zaei[t< yavt> pa

11.207. As many particles of dust as the blood of a Brahmana causes to coagulate, for so many thousand years shall the shedder of that (blood) remain in hell.

AvgUyR cret! k«½!rm! Aitk«½!r< inpatne, k«½!r£Aitk«½!raE k…vIRt ivàSy£%Tpa* zaei[tm!. 11£208

11.208. For threatening a Brahmana, (the offender) shall perform a Krikkhra, for striking him an Atikrikkhra, for shedding his blood a Krikkhra and an Atikrikkhra.

Anu­in:k«tIna< tu papanam! ApnuÄye, zi­< c£Aveúy pap< c àayiíÄ< àkLpyet!. 11£209

11.209. For the expiation of offences for which no atonement has been prescribed, let him fix a penance after considering (the offender's) strength and the (nature of the) offence.

yErœ A_yupayErœ @na

11.210. I will (now) describe to you those means, adopted by the gods, the sages, and the manes, through which a man may remove his sins.

Èyh< àats! Èyh< say< Èyhm! A*adœ Ayaictm!, Èyh< pr< c n£AîIyat! àajapTy< crn! iÖj>. 11£211

11.211. A twice-born man who performs (the Krikkhra penance), revealed by Pragapati, shall eat during three days in the morning (only), during (the next) three days in the evening (only), during the (following) three days (food given) unasked, and shall fast during another period of three days.

gaemUÇ< gaemy< ]Ir< dix sipR> k…z£%dkm!, @kraÇ£%pvasz! c k«½!r< sa

11.212. (Subsisting on) the urine of cows, cowdung, milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Kusa-grass, and fasting during one (day and) night, (that is) called a Samtapana Krikkhra.

@kEk< ¢asm! AîIyat! Èyhai[ ÇIi[ pUvRvt!, Èyh< c£%pvsedœ ANTym! Aitk«½!r< crn! iÖj>. 11£213

11.213. A twice-born man who performs an Atikrikkhra (penance), must take his food during three periods of three days in the manner described above, (but) one mouthful only at each meal, and fast during the last three days.

tÝk«½!r< crn! ivàae jl£]Ir£"&t£Ainlan!, àit£Èyh< ipbedœ %:[an! sk«TõayI smaiht>. 11£214

11.214. A Brahmana who performs a Taptakrikkhra (penance) must drink hot water, hot milk, hot clarified butter and (inhale) hot air, each during three days, and bathe once with a concentrated mind.

yt£ATmnae AàmÄSy Öadzahm! A-aejnm!, prakae nam k«½!rae Ay< svRpap£Apnaedn>. 11£215

11.215. A fast for twelve days by a man who controls himself and commits no mistakes, is called a Paraka Krikkhra, which removes all guilt.

@kEk< ÿasyet! ip{f< k«:[e zu¬e c vxRyet!, %pSp&z

11.216. If one diminishes (one's food daily by) one mouthful during the dark (half of the month) and increases (it in the same manner) during the bright half, and bathes (daily) at the time of three libations (morning, noon, and evening), that is called a lunar penance (Kandrayana).

@tm! @v ivix< k«Tõm! Aacredœ yvmXyme, zu¬p]aidinytz! cr

11.217. Let him follow throughout the same rule at the (Kandrayana, called) yavamadhyama (shaped like a barley-corn), (but) let him (in that case) begin the lunar penance, (with a) controlled (mind), on the first day of the bright half (of the month).

Aòav! AòaE smîIyat! ip{fan! mXy

11.218. He who performs the lunar penance of ascetics, shall eat (during a month) daily at midday eight mouthfuls, controlling himself and consuming sacrificial food (only).

ctur> àatrœ AîIyat! ip{fan! ivà> smaiht>, cturae AStm! #te sUyeR izzucaNÔay[< Sm&tm!. 11£219

11.219. If a Brahmana, with concentrated mind, eats (during a month daily) four mouthfuls in a morning and four after sunset, (that is) called the lunar penance of children.

ywa kw< ict! ip{fana< itöae AzItI> smaiht>, masen£Aîn! hiv:ySy cNÔSy£@it slaektam!. 11£220

11.220. He who, concentrating his mind, eats during a month in any way thrice eighty mouthfuls of sacrificial food, dwells (after death) in the world of the moon.

@tdœ éÔas! twa£AidTya vsvz! c£Acrn! ìtm!, svaRk…zlmae]ay métz! c mhi;Ri->. 11£221

11.221. The Rudras, likewise the Adityas, the Vasus and the Maruts, together with the great sages, practised this (rite) in order to remove all evil.

mhaVyaùiti-rœ haem> ktRVy> Svym! ANvhm!, Aih

11.222. Burnt oblations, accompanied by (the recitation of) the Mahavyahritis, must daily be made (by the penitent) himself, and he must abstain from injuring (sentient creatures), speak the truth, and keep himself free from anger and from dishonesty.

iÇrœ Aûs! iÇrœ inzaya< c s£vasa jlm! Aaivzet!, ôI£zUÔ£pitta

11.223. Let him bathe three times each day and thrice each night, dressed in his clothes; let him on no account talk to women, Sudras, and outcasts.

Swan£Asna_ya< ivhredœ Az­ae Ax> zyIt va, äücarI ìtI c Syadœ gué£dev£iÖj£AcRk>. 11£224

11.224. Let him pass the time standing (during the day) and sitting (during the night), or if he is unable (to do that) let him lie on the (bare) ground; let him be chaste and observe the vows (of a student) and worship his Gurus, the gods, and Brahmanas.

saivÇI— c jpen! inTy< pivÇai[ c zi­t>, sveR:v! @v ìte:v! @v< àayiíÄawRm! Aa†t>. 11£225

11.225. Let him constantly mutter the Savitri and (other) purificatory texts according to his ability; (let him) carefully (act thus) on (the occasion of) all (other) vows (performed) by way of penance.

@tErœ iÖjaty> zaeXya ìtErœ Aaiv:k«t£@ns>, Anaiv:k«t£papa

11.226. By these expiations twice-born men must be purified whose sins are known, but let him purify those whose sins are not known by (the recitation of) sacred texts and by (the performance of) burnt oblations.

Oyapnen£Anutapen tpsa£AXyynen c, papk«t! £ muCyte papat! twa danen c£Apid. 11£227

11.227. By confession, by repentance, by austerity, and by reciting (the Veda) a sinner is freed from guilt, and in case no other course is possible, by liberality.

ywa ywa nrae Axm¡ Svy< k«Tva£Anu-a;te, twa twa Tvca£#v£Aihs! ten£AxmeR[ muCyte. 11£228

11.228. In proportion as a man who has done wrong, himself confesses it, even so far he is freed from guilt, as a snake from its slough.

ywa ywa mns! tSy Ê:k«t< kmR ghRit, twa twa zrIr< tt! ten£AxmeR[ muCyte. 11£229

11.229. In proportion as his heart loathes his evil deed, even so far is his body freed from that guilt.

k«Tva pap< ih s. 11£230

11.230. He who has committed a sin and has repented, is freed from that sin, but he is purified only by (the resolution of) ceasing (to sin and thinking) 'I will do so no more.'

@v< s

11.231. Having thus considered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds after death, let him always be good in thoughts, speech, and actions.

A}anadœ yid va }anat! k«Tva kmR ivgihRtm!, tSmadœ ivmui­m! AiNv½n! iÖtIy< n smacret!. 11£232

11.232. He who, having either unintentionally or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed, desires to be freed from (the guilt on it, must not commit it a second time.

yiSmn! kmR{ySy k«te mns> Syadœ Ala"vm!, tiSm k…yaRdœ yavt! tuiòkr< -vet!. 11£233

11.233. If his mind be uneasy with respect to any act, let him repeat the austerities (prescribed as a penance) for it until they fully satisfy (his conscience).

tpaemUlm! #d< sv¡ dEv£manu;k< suom!, tpaemXy< buxE> àae­< tpae£ANt< veddizRi->. 11£234

11.234. All the bliss of gods and men is declared by the sages to whom the Veda was revealed, to have austerity for its root, austerity for its middle, and austerity for its end.

äaü[Sy tpae }an< tp> ]ÇSy r][m!, vEZySy tu tpae vataR tp> zUÔSy sevnm!. 11£235

11.235. (The pursuit of sacred) knowledge is the austerity of a Brahmana, protecting (the people) is the austerity of a Kshatriya, (the pursuit of) his daily business is the austerity of a Vaisya, and service the austerity of a Sudra.

\;y> s )l£mUl£Ainl£Azna>, tpsa£@v àpZyiNt ÇElaeKy< s£cracrm!. 11£236

11.236. The sages who control themselves and subsist on fruit, roots, and air, survey the three worlds together with their moving and immovable (creatures) through their austerities alone.

AaE;xaNygdae iv*a dEvI c ivivxa iSwit>, tpsa£@v àisXyiNt tps! te;a< ih saxnm!. 11£237

11.237. Medicines, good health, learning, and the various divine stations are attained by austerities alone; for austerity is the means of gaining them.

ydœ ÊStr< ydœ Êrap< ydœ Êg¡ yc! c Ê:krm!, sv¡ tu tpsa saXy< tpae ih Êrit³mm!. 11£238

11.238. Whatever is hard to be traversed, whatever is hard to be attained, whatever is hard to be reached, whatever is hard to be performed, all (this) may be accomplished by austerities; for austerity (possesses a power) which it is difficult to surpass.

mhapatiknz! c£@v ze;az! c£AkayRkair[>, tpsa£@v sutÝen muCyNte ikiLb;at! tt>. 11£239

11.239. Both those who have committed mortal sin (Mahapataka) and all other offenders are severally freed from their guilt by means of well-performed austerities.

kItaz! c£Aih£pt

11.240. Insects, snakes, moths, bees, birds and beings, bereft of motion, reach heaven by the power of austerities.

yt! ik< icdœ @n> k…vRiNt mnae£vaC£mUitRi-rœ jna>, tt! sv¡ indRhNTyazu tpsa£@v tpae£xna>. 11£241

11.241. Whatever sin men commit by thoughts, words, or deeds, that they speedily burn away by penance, if they keep penance as their only riches.

tpsa£@v ivzuÏSy äaü[Sy idv£Aaeks>, #Jyaz! c àitg&ŸiNt kaman! s

11.242. The gods accept the offerings of that Brahmana alone who has purified himself by austerities, and grant to him all he desires.

àjapitrœ #d< zaô< tpsa£@v£As&jt! à-u>, twa£@v vedan! \;ys! tpsa àitpeidre. 11£243

11.243. The lord, Pragapati, created these Institutes (of the sacred law) by his austerities alone; the sages likewise obtained (the revelation of) the Vedas through their austerities.

#Tyett! tpsae deva mha-aGy< àc]te, svRSy£ASy àpZyNts! tps> pu{ym! %Ämm!. 11£244

11.244. The gods, discerning that the holy origin of this whole (world) is from austerity, have thus proclaimed the incomparable power of austerity.

veda_yasae ANvh< z®ya mhay}i³ya ]ma, nazyNTyazu papain mhapatkjaNyip. 11£245

11.245. The daily study of the Veda, the performance of the great sacrifices according to one's ability, (and) patience (in suffering) quickly destroy all guilt, even that caused by mortal sins.

ywa£@xs! tejsa viû> àaÝ< indRhit ][at!, twa }anai¶na pap< sv¡ dhit vedivt!. 11£246

11.246. As a fire in one moment consumes with its bright flame the fuel that has been placed on it, even so he who knows the Veda destroys all guilt by the fire of knowledge.

#Tyetdœ @nsam! %­< àayiíÄ< ywaivix, At ^Xv¡ rhSy£Ana< àayiíÄ< inbaext. 11£247

11.247. The penances for sins (made public) have been thus declared according to the law; learn next the penances for secret (sins).

s£Vyaùit£à[vka> àa[ayamas! tu ;aefz, Aip æU[hn< masat! punNTyhrœ Ah> k«ta>. 11£248

11.248. Sixteen suppressions of the breath (Pranayama) accompanied by (the recitation of) the Vyahritis and of the syllable Om, purify, if they are repeated daily, after a month even the murderer of a learned Brahmana.

kaETs< jÞva£Ap #Tyetdœ visó< c àit£#Ty&cm!, maihÇ< zuÏvTyz! c surapae Aip ivzuXyit. 11£249

11.249. Even a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura becomes pure, if he mutters the hymn (seen) by Kutsa, 'Removing by thy splendour our guilt, O Agni,' &c., (that seen) by Vasishtha, 'With their hymns the Vasishthas woke the Dawn,' &c., the Mahitra (hymn) and (the verses called) Suddhavatis.

sk«t! £ jÞva£ASyvamIy< izvs. 11£250

11.250. Even he who has stolen gold, instantly becomes free from guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn beginning with the words) 'The middlemost brother of this beautiful, ancient Hotri-priest' and the Sivasamkalpa.

hiv:paNtIym! A_ySy n tm< h #it£#it c, jipTva paEé;< sU­< muCyte guétLpg>,11£251

11.251. The violator of a Guru's bed is freed (from sin), if he repeatedly recites the Havishpantiya (hymn), (that beginning) 'Neither anxiety nor misfortune,' (and that beginning) 'Thus, verily, thus,' and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha.

@nsa< SwUl£sUúma[a< ickI;RÚ! Apnaednm!, Av£#Ty&c< jpedœ ABd< yt! ik< c£#dm! #it£#it va. 11£252

11.252. He who desires to expiate sins great or small, must mutter during a year the Rit-verse 'May we remove thy anger, O Varuna,' &c., or 'Whatever offence here, O Varuna,' &c.

àitg&ý£Aàit¢aý< -u®va c£AÚ< ivgihRtm!, jp

11.253. That man who, having accepted presents which ought not to be accepted, or having eaten forbidden food, mutters the Taratsamandiya (Rikas), becomes pure after three days.

saemaraEÔm! tu bþ‰£@na> masm! A_ySy zuXyit, övNTyam! Aacrn! õanm! AyRM[am! #it c t&cm!. 11£254

11.254. But he who has committed many sins, becomes pure, if he recites during a month the (four verses) addressed to Soma and Rudra, and the three verses (beginning) 'Aryaman, Varuna, and Mitra,' while he bathes in a river.

ABdaxRm! #NÔm! #Tyetdœ @nSvI sÝk< jpet!, AàzSt< tu k«Tva£APsu masm! AasIt -E]-ukœ. 11£255

11.255. A grievous offender shall mutter the seven verses (beginning with) 'Indra,' for half a year; but he who has committed any blamable act in water, shall subsist during a month on food obtained by begging.

mÙE> zaklhaemIyErœ ABd< ÷Tva "&t< iÖj>, suguV APyphNTyenae jÞva va nm #Ty&cm!. 11£256

11.256. A twice-born man removes even very great guilt by offering clarified butter with the sacred texts belonging to the Sakala-homas, or by muttering the Rik, (beginning) 'Adoration.'

mhapatks smaiht>, A_ySy£ABd< pavmanIrœ -E]£Aharae ivzuXyit. 11£257

11.257. He who is stained by mortal sin, becomes pure, if, with a concentrated mind, he attends cows for a year, reciting the Pavamani (hymns) and subsisting on alms.

Ar{ye va iÇrœ A_ySy àytae veds svER> prakE> zaeixts! iÇi->. 11£258

11.258. Or if, pure (in mind and in body), he thrice repeats the Samhita of the Veda in a forest, sanctified by three Paraka (penances), he is freed from all crimes causing loss of caste (pataka).

Èyh< tu£%pvsedœ yu­s! iÇrœ Aûae A_yupyÚ! Ap>, muCyte patkE> svERs! iÇrœ jipTva£A"m;R[m!. 11£259

11.259. But if (a man) fasts during three days, bathing thrice a day, and muttering (in the water the hymn seen by) Aghamarshana, he is (likewise) freed from all sins causing loss of caste.

ywa£Añmex> ³turaJ£svRpapap£naedn>, twa£A"m;R[< sU­< svRpapap£naednm!. 11£260

11.260. As the horse-sacrifice, the king of sacrifices, removes all sin, even so the Aghamarshana hymn effaces all guilt.

hTva laekan! Aip£#ma, \Gved< xaryn! ivàae n£@n> àaßaeit ik< cn. 11£261

11.261. A Brahmana who retains in his memory the Rig-veda is not stained by guilt, though he may have destroyed these three worlds, though he may eat the food of anybody.

\Ks, saça< va s£rhSyana< svRpapE> àmuCyte. 11£262

11.262. He who, with a concentrated mind, thrice recites the Riksamhita, or (that of the) Yagur-veda; or (that of the) Sama-veda together with the secret (texts, the Upanishads), is completely freed from all sins.

ywa mhaÿd< àaPy i]Ý< laeò< ivnZyit, twa Êíirt< sv¡ vede iÇv&it m¾it. 11£263

11.263. As a clod of earth, falling into a great lake, is quickly dissolved, even so every sinful act is engulfed in the threefold Veda.

\cae yjU

11.264. The Rikas, the Yagus (-formulas) which differ (from the former), the manifold Saman (-songs), must be known (to form) the triple Veda; he who knows them, (is called) learned in the Veda.

Aa*< yt! Èy]r< äü ÇyI yiSmn! àitióta, s guýae ANys! iÇv&Öedae ys! t< ved s vedivt!. 11£265

11.265. The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based, is another triple Veda which must be kept secret; he who knows that, (is called) learned in the Veda.

Chapter 12
catuvR{yRSy k«Tõae Aym! %­ae xmRs! Tvya£An">, kmR[a< )linv&RiÄ< z pram!. 12£01

12.1. 'O sinless One, the whole sacred law, (applicable) to the four castes, has been declared by thee; communicate to us (now), according to the truth, the ultimate retribution for (their) deeds.'

s tan! %vac xmR£ATma mh;IRn! manvae -&gu>, ASy svRSy z&[ut kmRyaegSy in[Rym!. 12£02

12.2. To the great sages (who addressed him thus) righteous Bhrigu, sprung from Manu, answered, 'Hear the decision concerning this whole connexion with actions.'

zu-£Azu-£)l< kmR mnae£vaC£deh£s<-vm!, kmRja gtyae n¨[am! %Äm£Axm£mXym>. 12£03

12.3. Action, which springs from the mind, from speech, and from the body, produces either good or evil results; by action are caused the (various) conditions of men, the highest, the middling, and the lowest.

tSy£#h iÇivxSy£Aip ÈyixóanSy deihn>, dzl][yu­Sy mnae iv*at! àvtRkm!. 12£04

12.4. Know that the mind is the instigator here below, even to that (action) which is connected with the body, (and) which is of three kinds, has three locations, and falls under ten heads.

prÔVye:v! Ai-Xyan< mnsa£AinòicNtnm!, ivtwai-invezz! c iÇivx< kmR mansm!. 12£05

12.5. Coveting the property of others, thinking in one's heart of what is undesirable, and adherence to false (doctrines), are the three kinds of (sinful) mental action.

paé:ym! An&t< c£@v pEzuNy< c£Aip svRz>, As

12.6. Abusing (others, speaking) untruth, detracting from the merits of all men, and talking idly, shall be the four kinds of (evil) verbal action.

AdÄanam! %padan< ih, prdar£%pseva c zarIr< iÇivx< Sm&tm!. 12£07

12.7. Taking what has not been given, injuring (creatures) without the sanction of the law, and holding criminal intercourse with another man's wife, are declared to be the three kinds of (wicked) bodily action.

mans< mnsa£@v£Aym! %p-u“e zu-£Azu-m!, vaca vaca k«t< kmR kayen£@v c kaiykm!. 12£08

12.8. (A man) obtains (the result of) a good or evil mental (act) in his mind, (that of) a verbal (act) in his speech, (that of) a bodily (act) in his body.

zrIrjE> kmRdae;Erœ yait Swavrta< nr>, vaickE> pi]£m>a< mansErœ ANTyjaittam!. 12£09

12.9. In consequence of (many) sinful acts committed with his body, a man becomes (in the next birth) something inanimate, in consequence (of sins) committed by speech, a bird, or a beast, and in consequence of mental (sins he is re-born in) a low caste.

vaGd{fae Aw mnaed{f> kayd{fs! twa£@v c, ySy£@te inihta buÏaE iÇd{fI£#it s %Cyte. 12£10

12.10. That man is called a (true) tridandin in whose mind these three, the control over his speech (vagdanda), the control over his thoughts (manodanda), and the control over his body (kayadanda), are firmly fixed.

iÇd{fm! @tn! ini]Py svR-Ute;u manv>, kam£³aexaE tu s isiÏ< iny½it. 12£11

12.11. That man who keeps this threefold control (over himself) with respect to all created beings and wholly subdues desire and wrath, thereby assuredly gains complete success.

yae ASy£ATmn> kariyta t< ]eÇ}< àc]te, y> kraeit tu kmaRi[ s -UtaTma£%Cyte buxE>. 12£12

12.12. Him who impels this (corporeal) Self to action, they call the Kshetragna (the knower of the field); but him who does the acts, the wise name the Bhutatman (the Self consisting of the elements).

jIvs<}ae ANtraTma£ANy> shj> svRdeihnam!, yen vedyte sv¡ suo< Ê>o< c jNmsu. 12£13

12.13. Another internal Self that is generated with all embodied (Kshetragnas) is called Giva, through which (the Kshetragna) becomes sensible of all pleasure and pain in (successive) births.

tav! %-aE -Uts

. 12£14

12.14. These two, the Great One and the Kshetragna, who are closely united with the elements, pervade him who resides in the multiform created beings.

As, %½avcain -Utain stt< ceòyiNt ya>. 12£15

12.15. From his body innumerable forms go forth, which constantly impel the multiform creatures to action.

pÂ_y @v maÇa_y> àeTy Ê:k«itna< n&[am!, zrIr< yatnawIRym! ANydœ %Tp*te Øuvm!. 12£16

12.16. Another strong body, formed of particles (of the) five (elements and) destined to suffer the torments (in hell), is produced after death (in the case) of wicked men.

ten£Anu-Uy ta yamI> zrIre[£#h yatna>, taSv! @v -UtmaÇasu àlIyNte iv-agz>. 12£17

12.17. When (the evil-doers) by means of that body have suffered there the torments imposed by Yama, (its constituent parts) are united, each according to its class, with those very elements (from which they were taken).

sae Anu-Uy£Asuo£%dkaRn! dae;an! iv;ys¼jan!, Vypet£kLm;ae A_yeit tav! @v£%-aE mha£AaejsaE. 12£18

12.18. He, having suffered for his faults, which are produced by attachment to sensual objects, and which result in misery, approaches, free from stains, those two mighty ones.

taE xm¡ pZyts! tSy pap< c£AtiNÔtaE sh, ya_ya< àaßaeit s

àeTy£#h c suo£Asuom!. 12£19

12.19. Those two together examine without tiring the merit and the guilt of that (individual soul), united with which it obtains bliss or misery both in this world and the next.

y*acrit xm¡ s àayzae AxmRm! ALpz>, tErœ @v c£Av&tae -UtE> SvgeR suom! %paîute. 12£20

12.20. If (the soul) chiefly practises virtue and vice to a small degree, it obtains bliss in heaven, clothed with those very elements.

yid tu àayzae Axm¡ sevte xmRm! ALpz>, tErœ -UtE> s pirTy­ae yamI> àaßaeit yatna>. 12£21

12.21. But if it chiefly cleaves to vice and to virtue in a small degree, it suffers, deserted by the elements, the torments inflicted by Yama.

yamIs! ta yatna> àaPy s jIvae vIt£kLm;>, taNyev p -Utain punrœ APyeit -agz>. 12£22

12.22. The individual soul, having endured those torments of Yama, again enters, free from taint, those very five elements, each in due proportion.

@ta †òœva£ASy jIvSy gtI> Sven£@v cetsa, xmRtae AxmRtz! c£@v xmeR dXyat! sda mn>. 12£23

12.23. Let (man), having recognised even by means of his intellect these transitions of the individual soul (which depend) on merit and demerit, always fix his heart on (the acquisition of) merit.

sÅv< rjs! tmS£c£@v ÇIn! iv*adœ AaTmnae gu[an!, yErœ VyaPy£#man! iSwtae -avan! mhan! svaRn! Aze;t>. 12£24

12.24. Know Goodness (sattva), Activity (ragas), and Darkness (tamas) to be the three qualities of the Self, with which the Great One always completely pervades all existences.

yae yda£@;a< gu[ae dehe sakLyen£AitirCyte, s tda tÌ‚[àay< t< kraeit zrIir[m!. 12£25

12.25. When one of these qualities wholly predominates in a body, then it makes the embodied (soul) eminently distinguished for that quality.

sÅv< }an< tmae A}an< rag£Öe;aE rj> Sm&tm!, @tdœ VyaiÝmdœ @te;a< svR-Utaiït< vpu>. 12£26

12.26. Goodness is declared (to have the form of) knowledge, Darkness (of) ignorance, Activity (of) love and hatred; such is the nature of these (three) which is (all-) pervading and clings to everything created.

tÇ yt! àIits

12.27. When (man) experiences in his soul a (feeling) full of bliss, a deep calm, as it were, and a pure light, then let him know (that it is) among those three (the quality called) Goodness.

yt! tu Ê>osmayu­m! AàIitkrm! AaTmn>, tdœ rjae àtIp< iv*at! stt< hair deihnam!. 12£28

12.28. What is mixed with pain and does not give satisfaction to the soul one may know (to be the quality of) Activity, which is difficult to conquer, and which ever draws embodied (souls towards sensual objects).

yt! tu Syan! maehs

12.29. What is coupled with delusion, what has the character of an undiscernible mass, what cannot be fathomed by reasoning, what cannot be fully known, one must consider (as the quality of) Darkness.

Çya[am! Aip c£@te;a< gu[ana< y> )l£%dy>, A¢!(ae mXyae j"Nyz! c t< àvúyaMyze;t>. 12£30

12.30. I will, moreover, fully describe the results which arise from these three qualities, the excellent ones, the middling ones, and the lowest.

veda_yass! tpae }an< zaEcm! #iNÔyin¢h>, xmRi³ya£ATmicNta c saiÅvk< gu[l][m!. 12£31

12.31. The study of the Vedas, austerity, (the pursuit of) knowledge, purity, control over the organs, the performance of meritorious acts and meditation on the Soul, (are) the marks of the quality of Goodness.

AarM-éicta£AxEyRm! AsTkayR£pir¢h>, iv;y£%pseva c£Ajö< rajs< gu[l][m!. 12£32

12.32. Delighting in undertakings, want of firmness, commission of sinful acts, and continual indulgence in sensual pleasures, (are) the marks of the quality of Activity.

lae-> Svßae Ax&it> ³aEy¡ naiStKy< i-Úv&iÄta, yaic:[uta àmadz! c tams< gu[l][m!. 12£33

12.33. Covetousness, sleepiness, pusillanimity, cruelty, atheism, leading an evil life, a habit of soliciting favours, and inattentiveness, are the marks of the quality of Darkness.

Çya[am! Aip c£@te;a< gu[ana< iÇ;u itótam!, #d< samaisk< }ey< ³mzae gu[l][m!. 12£34

12.34. Know, moreover, the following to be a brief description of the three qualities, each in its order, as they appear in the three (times, the present, past, and future).

yt! kmR k«Tva k…v¡z! c kir:y

12.35. When a (man), having done, doing, or being about to do any act, feels ashamed, the learned may know that all (such acts bear) the mark of the quality of Darkness.

yen£AiSmn! kmRna laeke Oyaitm! #½it pu:klam!, n c zaecTys

12.36. But, when (a man) desires (to gain) by an act much fame in this world and feels no sorrow on failing, know that it (bears the mark of the quality of) Activity.

yt! sveR[£#½it }atu< yn! n l¾it c£Acrn!, yen tu:yit c£ATma£ASy tt! sÅvgu[l][m!. 12£37

12.37. But that (bears) the mark of the quality of Goodness which with his whole (heart) he desires to know, which he is not ashamed to perform, and at which his soul rejoices.

tmsae l][< kamae rjss! Tv! AwR %Cyte, sÅvSy l][< xmR> ïEó(m! @;a< ywa£%Ärm!. 12£38

12.38. The craving after sensual pleasures is declared to be the mark of Darkness, (the pursuit of) wealth (the mark) of Activity, (the desire to gain) spiritual merit the mark of Goodness; each later) named quality is) better than the preceding one.

yen ys! tu gu[en£@;a< s

12.39. I will briefly declare in due order what transmigrations in this whole (world a man) obtains through each of these qualities.

devTv< saiÅvka yaiNt mnu:yTv< c rajsa>, ityR®v< tamsa inTym! #Tye;a iÇivxa git>. 12£40

12.40. Those endowed with Goodness reach the state of gods, those endowed with Activity the state of men, and those endowed with Darkness ever sink to the condition of beasts; that is the threefold course of transmigrations.

iÇivxa iÇivxa£@;a tu iv}eya gaEi[kI git>, Axma mXym£A¢!(a c kmR£iv*a£ivze;t>. 12£41

12.41. But know this threefold course of transmigrations that depends on the (three) qualities (to be again) threefold, low, middling, and high, according to the particular nature of the acts and of the knowledge (of each man).

Swavra> k«im£kIqaz! c mTSya> spaR> s£k½pa>, pzvz! c m&gaz! c£@v j"Nya tamsI git>. 12£42

12.42. Immovable (beings), insects, both small and great, fishes, snakes, and tortoises, cattle and wild animals, are the lowest conditions to which (the quality of) Darkness leads.

hiStnz! c tur¼az! c zUÔa Mle½az! c gihRta>, is

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