Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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2.71. At the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in the) Veda he must always clasp both the feet of his teacher, (and) he must study, joining his hands; that is called the Brahmangali (joining the palms for the sake of the Veda).

VyTySt£pai[na kayRm! %ps<¢h[< gurae>, sVyen sVy> SàòVyae di][en c di][>. 2£72

2.72. With crossed hands he must clasp (the feet) of the teacher, and touch the left (foot) with his left (hand), the right (foot) with his right (hand).

AXye:yma[< tu guérœ inTykalm! AtiNÔt>, AxI:v -ae #it äUyadœ ivramae ASTv! #it c£Armet!. 2£73

2.73. But to him who is about to begin studying, the teacher always unwearied, must say: Ho, recite! He shall leave off (when the teacher says): Let a stoppage take place!

äün> à[v< k…yaRdœ Aadav! ANte c svRda, övTynae

2.74. Let him always pronounce the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in) the Veda; (for) unless the syllable Om precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him), and unless it follow it will fade away.

àaK£kªlan! pyuRpasIn> pivÇEz! c£@v paivt>, àa[ayamEs! iÇi-> pUts! tt Aae<£karm! AhRit. 2£75

2.75. Seated on (blades of Kusa grass) with their points to the east, purified by Pavitras (blades of Kusa grass), and sanctified by three suppressions of the breath (Pranayama), he is worthy (to pronounce) the syllable Om.

Akar< c£APyu£kar< c m£kar< c àjapit>, vedÇyat! £ inrÊhdœ -Urœ -uv> Svrœ #it£#it c. 2£76

2.76. Pragapati (the lord of creatures) milked out (as it were) from the three Vedas the sounds A, U, and M, and (the Vyahritis) Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah.

iÇ_y @v tu vede_y> pad< padm! AËÊht!, tdœ #Ty&cae ASya> saivÈya> prmeóI àjapit>. 2£77

2.77. Moreover from the three Vedas Pragapati, who dwells in the highest heaven (Parameshthin), milked out (as it were) that Rik-verse, sacred to Savitri (Savitri), which begins with the word tad, one foot from each.

@tdœ A]rm! @ta< c jpn! Vyaùit£pUivRkam!, s

2.78. A Brahmana, learned in the Veda, who recites during both twilights that syllable and that (verse), preceded by the Vyahritis, gains the (whole) merit which (the recitation of) the Vedas confers.

shök«Tvs! Tv! A_ySy bihrœ @tt! iÇk< iÖj>, mhtae APyensae masat! Tvca£#v£Aihrœ ivmuCyte. 2£79

2.79. A twice-born man who (daily) repeats those three one thousand times outside (the village), will be freed after a month even from great guilt, as a snake from its slough.

@tya£\ca ivs kale c i³yya Svya, äü£]iÇy£ivZ£yaeinrœ ghR[a< yait saxu;u. 2£80

2.80. The Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya who neglect (the recitation of) that Rik-verse and the timely (performance of the) rites (prescribed for) them, will be blamed among virtuous men.

Aae<£kar£pUivRkas! itöae mhaVyaùtyae AVyya>, iÇ£pda c£@v saivÇI iv}ey< äü[ae muom!. 2£81

2.81. Know that the three imperishable Mahavyahritis, preceded by the syllable Om, and (followed) by the three-footed Savitri are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman.

yae AxIte AhNyhNyeta< ÇIi[ v;aR{ytiNÔt>, s äü prm! A_yeit vayu-Ut> o£mUitRman!. 2£82

2.82. He who daily recites that (verse), untired, during three years, will enter (after death) the highest Brahman, move as free as air, and assume an ethereal form.

@ka]r< pr< äü àa[ayam> pr< tp>, saivÈyas! tu pr< n£AiSt maEnat! sTy< iviz:yte. 2£83

2.83. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman, (three) suppressions of the breath are the best (form of) austerity, but nothing surpasses the Savitri truthfulness is better than silence.

]riNt svaR vEidKyae juhaeit£yjit£i³ya>, A]r< Ê:kr< }ey< äü c£@v àjapit>. 2£84

2.84. All rites ordained in the Veda, burnt oblations and (other) sacrifices, pass away; but know that the syllable (Om) is imperishable, and (it is) Brahman, (and) the Lord of creatures (Pragapati).

ivixy}aj! jpy}ae ivizòae dzi-rœ gu[E>, %pa Syat! £ ztgu[> sahöae mans> Sm&t>. 2£85

2.85. An offering, consisting of muttered prayers, is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice performed according to the rules (of the Veda); a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times.

ye paky}as! cTvarae ivixy}smiNvta>, sveR te jpy}Sy kla< n£AhRiNt ;aefzIm!. 2£86

2.86. The four Pakayagnas and those sacrifices which are enjoined by the rules (of the Veda) are all together not equal in value to a sixteenth part of the sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers.

jPyen£@v tu s, k…yaRdœ ANyn! n va k…yaRn! mEÇae äaü[ %Cyte. 2£87

2.87. But, undoubtedly, a Brahmana reaches the highest goal by muttering prayers only; (whether) he perform other (rites) or neglect them, he who befriends (all creatures) is declared (to be) a (true) Brahmana.

#iNÔya[a< ivcrta< iv;ye:v! Aphair;u, s

2.88. A wise man should strive to restrain his organs which run wild among alluring sensual objects, like a charioteer his horses.

@kadz£#iNÔya{ya÷rœ yain pUveR mnIi;[>, tain sMykœ àvúyaim ywavdœ AnupUvRz>. 2£89

2.89. Those eleven organs which former sages have named, I will properly (and) precisely enumerate in due order,

ïaeÇ< Tvkœ c]u;I ijþa naiska c£@v pÂmI, payu£%pSw< hSt£pad< vakœ c£@v dzmI Sm&ta,2£90

2.90. (Viz.) the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose as the fifth, the anus, the organ of generation, hands and feet, and the (organ of) speech, named as the tenth.

buÏIiNÔyai[ p£@;a< ïaeÇadINynupUvRz>, kmR£#iNÔyai[ p£@;a< payu£AdIin àc]te. 2£91

2.91. Five of them, the ear and the rest according to their order, they call organs of sense, and five of them, the anus and the rest, organs of action.

@kadz< mnae }ey< Svgu[en£%-y£ATmkm!, yiSmn! ijte ijtav! @taE -vt> pÂkaE g[aE. 2£92

2.92. Know that the internal organ (manas) is the eleventh, which by its quality belongs to both (sets); when that has been subdued, both those sets of five have been conquered.

#iNÔya[a< às¼en dae;m! \½Tys isiÏ< ing½it. 2£93

2.93. Through the attachment of his organs (to sensual pleasure) a man doubtlessly will incur guilt; but if he keep them under complete control, he will obtain success (in gaining all his aims).

n jatu kam> kamanam! %p-aegen zaMyit, hiv;a k«:[vTmaR£#v -Uy @v£Ai-vxRte. 2£94

2.94. Desire is never extinguished by the enjoyment of desired objects; it only grows stronger like a fire (fed) with clarified butter.

yz! c£@tan! àaßuyat! svaRn! yz! c£@tan! kevla

2.95. If one man should obtain all those (sensual enjoyments) and another should renounce them all, the renunciation of all pleasure is far better than the attainment of them.

n twa£@tain zKyNte s. 2£96

2.96. Those (organs) which are strongly attached to sensual pleasures, cannot so effectually be restrained by abstinence (from enjoyments) as by a constant (pursuit of true) knowledge.

vedas! Tyagz! c y}az! c inymaz! c tpa

2.97. Neither (the study of) the Vedas, nor liberality, nor sacrifices, nor any (self-imposed) restraint, nor austerities, ever procure the attainment (of rewards) to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sensuality).

ïuTva Sp&òœva c †òœva c -u®va ºaTva c yae nr>, n ù:yit Glayit va s iv}eyae ijt£#iNÔy>. 2£98

2.98. That man may be considered to have (really) subdued his organs, who on hearing and touching and seeing, on tasting and smelling (anything) neither rejoices nor repines.

#iNÔya[a< tu sveR;a< y*ek< ]rit£#iNÔym!, ten£ASy ]rit à}a †te> padadœ #v£%dkm!. 2£99

2.99. But when one among all the organs slips away (from control), thereby (man's) wisdom slips away from him, even as the water (flows) through the one (open) foot of a (water-carrier's) skin.

vze k«Tva£#iNÔy¢am< s

2.100. If he keeps all the (ten) organs as well as the mind in subjection, he may gain all his aims, without reducing his body by (the practice) of Yoga.

pUva¡ s sMyg! \]iv-avnat!. 2£101

2.101. Let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering the Savitri until the sun appears, but (let him recite it), seated, in the evening until the constellations can be seen distinctly.

pUva¡ s

2.102. He who stands during the morning twilight muttering (the Savitri), removes the guilt contracted during the (previous) night; but he who (recites it), seated, in the evening, destroys the sin he committed during the day.

n itóit tu y> pUva¡ n£%paSte yz! c piímam!, s zUÔvdœ bih:kayR> svRSmadœ iÖjkmR[>. 2£103

2.103. But he who does not (worship) standing in the morning, nor sitting in the evening, shall be excluded, just like a Sudra, from all the duties and rights of an Aryan.

Apa< smIpe inytae nETyk< ivixm! AaiSwt>, saivÇIm! APyxIyIt gTva£Ar{y< smaiht>. 2£104

2.104. He who (desires to) perform the ceremony (of the) daily (recitation), may even recite the Savitri near water, retiring into the forest, controlling his organs and concentrating his mind.

ved£%pkr[e c£@v SvaXyaye c£@v nETyke, n£Anuraexae ASTynXyaye haemmÙe;u c£@v ih. 2£105

2.105. Both when (one studies) the supplementary treatises of the Veda, and when (one recites) the daily portion of the Veda, no regard need be paid to forbidden days, likewise when (one repeats) the sacred texts required for a burnt oblation.

nETyke n£ASTynXyayae äüsTÇ< ih tt! Sm&tm!. äüa÷it£÷t< pu{ym! AnXyay£v;qœk«tm!. 2£106

2.106. There are no forbidden days for the daily recitation, since that is declared to be a Brahmasattra (an everlasting sacrifice offered to Brahman); at that the Veda takes the place of the burnt oblations, and it is meritorious (even), when (natural phenomena, requiring) a cessation of the Veda-study, take the place of the exclamation Vashat.

y> SvaXyaym! AxIte ABd< ivixna inyt> zuic>, tSy inTy< ]rTye; pyae dix "&t< mxu. 2£107

2.107. For him who, being pure and controlling his organs, during a year daily recites the Veda according to the rule, that (daily recitation) will ever cause sweet and sour milk, clarified butter and honey to flow.

A¶INxn< -E]cyaRm! Ax>zYya< guraerœ ihtm!, Aa smavtRnat! k…yaRt! k«t£%pnynae iÖj>. 2£108

2.108. Let an Aryan who has been initiated, (daily) offer fuel in the sacred fire, beg food, sleep on the ground and do what is beneficial to this teacher, until (he performs the ceremony of) Samavartana (on returning home).

AacayRpuÇ> zuïU;urœ }andae xaimRk> zuic>, AaÝ> z­ae AwRd> saxu> Svae AXyaPya dz xmRt>. 2£109

2.109. According to the sacred law the (following) ten (persons, viz.) the teacher's son, one who desires to do service, one who imparts knowledge, one who is intent on fulfilling the law, one who is pure, a person connected by marriage or friendship, one who possesses (mental) ability, one who makes presents of money, one who is honest, and a relative, may be instructed (in the Veda).

n£Ap&ò> kSy icdœ äUyan! n c£ANyayen p&½t>, janÚ! Aip ih mexavI jfvl! laek Aacret!. 2£110

2.110. Unless one be asked, one must not explain (anything) to anybody, nor (must one answer) a person who asks improperly; let a wise man, though he knows (the answer), behave among men as (if he were) an idiot.

AxmeR[ c y> àah yz! c£AxmeR[ p&½it, tyaerœ ANytr> àEit ivÖe;< va£Aixg½it. 2£111

2.111. Of the two persons, him who illegally explains (anything), and him who illegally asks (a question), one (or both) will die or incur (the other's) enmity.

xmR£AwaER yÇ n Syata< zuïU;a va£Aip tiÖxa, tÇ iv*a n vÝVya zu-< bIjm! #v£^;re. 2£112

2.112. Where merit and wealth are not (obtained by teaching) nor (at least) due obedience, in such (soil) sacred knowledge must not be sown, just as good seed (must) not (be thrown) on barren land.

iv*ya£@v sm< kam< mtRVy< äüvaidna, Aap*ip ih "aeraya< n Tv! @nam! #ir[e vpet!. 2£113

2.113. Even in times of dire distress a teacher of the Veda should rather die with his knowledge than sow it in barren soil.

iv*a äaü[m! @Ty£Ah zevixs! te AiSm r] mam!, AsUykay ma< madas! twa Sya< vIyRvÄma. 2£114

2.114. Sacred Learning approached a Brahmana and said to him: 'I am thy treasure, preserve me, deliver me not to a scorner; so (preserved) I shall become supremely strong.'

ym! @v tu zuic< iv*an! inyt£äücair[m!, tSmE ma< äUih ivàay inixpay£A£àmaidne,2£115

2.115. 'But deliver me, as to the keeper of thy treasure, to a Brahmana whom thou shalt know to be pure, of subdued senses, chaste and attentive.'

äü ys! Tv! Annu}atm! AxIyanadœ Avaßuyat!, s äüSteys

2.116. But he who acquires without permission the Veda from one who recites it, incurs the guilt of stealing the Veda, and shall sink into hell.

laEikk< vEidk< va£Aip twa£AXyaiTmkm! @v va, AaddIt ytae }an< t< pUvRm! Ai-vadyet!. 2£117

2.117. (A student) shall first reverentially salute that (teacher) from whom he receives (knowledge), referring to worldly affairs, to the Veda, or to the Brahman.

saivÇImaÇ£sarae Aip vr< ivà> suyiÙt>, n£A£yiÙts! iÇvedae Aip svaRzI svRiv³yI. 2£118

2.118. A Brahmana who completely governs himself, though he know the Savitri only, is better than he who knows the three Vedas, (but) does not control himself, eats all (sorts of) food, and sells all (sorts of goods).

zYya£Asne AXyacirte ïeysa n smaivzet!, zYya£AsnSwz! c£@v£@n< àTyuTway£Ai-vadyet!. 2£119

2.119. One must not sit down on a couch or seat which a superior occupies; and he who occupies a couch or seat shall rise to meet a (superior), and (afterwards) salute him.

^Xv¡ àa[a ýuT³amiNt yUn> Swivr Aayit, àTyuTwan£Ai-vada_ya< puns! tan! àitp*te. 2£120

2.120. For the vital airs of a young man mount upwards to leave his body when an elder approaches; but by rising to meet him and saluting he recovers them.

Ai-vadn£zIlSy inTy< v&Ï£%pseivn>, cTvair tSy vxRNte Aayurœ xmaeR yzae blm!. 2£121

2.121. He who habitually salutes and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an increase of four (things), (viz.) length of life, knowledge, fame, (and) strength.

Ai-vadat! pr< ivàae Jyaya

2.122. After the (word of) salutation, a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce his name, saying, 'I am N. N.'

namxeySy ye ke icdœ Ai-vad< n jante, tan! àa}ae Ahm! #it äUyat! iôy> svaRs! twa£@v c. 2£123

2.123. To those (persons) who, when a name is pronounced, do not understand (the meaning of) the salutation, a wise man should say, 'It is I;' and (he should address) in the same manner all women.

-ae>zBd< kItRyedœ ANte SvSy naçae Ai-vadne, naçam! Svêp£-avae ih -ae£-av \i;i-> Sm&t>. 2£124

2.124. In saluting he should pronounce after his name the word bhoh; for the sages have declared that the nature of bhoh is the same as that of (all proper) names.

Aayu:man! -v saEMy£#it vaCyae ivàae Ai-vadne, Akarz! c£ASy naçae ANte vaCy> pUvaR]r> Plut>. 2£125

2.125. A Brahmana should thus be saluted in return, 'May'st thou be long-lived, O gentle one!' and the vowel 'a' must be added at the end of the name (of the person addressed), the syllable preceding it being drawn out to the length of three moras.

yae n veÅyi-vadSy ivà> àTyi-vadnm!, n£Ai-va*> s ivÊ;a ywa zUÔs! twa£@v s>. 2£126

2.126. A Brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation, must not be saluted by a learned man; as a Sudra, even so is he.

äaü[< k…zl< p&½et! ]ÇbNxum! Anamym!, vEZy< ]em< smagMy zUÔm! AaraeGym! @v c. 2£127

2.127. Let him ask a Brahmana, on meeting him, after (his health, with the word) kusala, a Kshatriya (with the word) anamaya, a Vaisya (with the word) kshema, and a Sudra (with the word) anarogya.

AvaCyae dIi]tae naça yvIyan! Aip yae -vet!, -ae£-vt! £ pUvRk< Tv! @nm! Ai--a;et xmRivt!. 2£128

2.128. He who has been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacrifice) must not be addressed by his name, even though he be a younger man; he who knows the sacred law must use in speaking to such (a man the particle) bhoh and (the pronoun) bhavat (your worship).

prpÆI tu ya ôI Syadœ As, ta< äUyadœ -vit£#Tyev< su-ge -igin£#it c. 2£129

2.129. But to a female who is the wife of another man, and not a blood-relation, he must say, 'Lady' (bhavati) or 'Beloved sister!'

matula. 2£130

2.130. To his maternal and paternal uncles, fathers-in-law, officiating priests, (and other) venerable persons, he must say, 'I am N. N.,' and rise (to meet them), even though they be younger (than himself).

mat&ñsa matulanI ñïUrœ Aw ipt&ñsa, s

2.131. A maternal aunt, the wife of a maternal uncle, a mother-in-law, and a paternal aunt must be honoured like the wife of one's teacher; they are equal to the wife of one's teacher.

æaturœ -ayaR£%ps<¢aýa s£v[aR£AhNyhNyip, ivàae:y tu£%ps<¢aýa }ait£s. 2£132

2.132. (The feet of the) wife of one's brother, if she be of the same caste (varna), must be clasped every day; but (the feet of) wives of (other) paternal and maternal relatives need only be embraced on one's return from a journey.

ipturœ -igNya< matuz! c JyaySya< c SvsyRip, mat&vdœ v&iÄm! Aaitóen! mata ta_yae grIysI. 2£133

2.133. Towards a sister of one's father and of one's mother, and towards one's own elder sister, one must behave as towards one's mother; (but) the mother is more venerable than they.

dzaBd£AOy< paErsOy< pÂaBd£AOy< kla-&tam!, ÈyBdpUv¡ ïaeiÇya[a< SvLpen£Aip Svyaein;u. 2£134

2.134. Fellow-citizens are called friends (and equals though one be) ten years (older than the other), men practising (the same) fine art (though one be) five years (older than the other), Srotriyas (though) three years (intervene between their ages), but blood-relations only (if the) difference of age be very small.

äaü[< dzv;¡ tu ztv;¡ tu -Uimpm!, ipta£puÇaE ivjanIyadœ äaü[s! tu tyae> ipta. 2£135

2.135. Know that a Brahmana of ten years and Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son; but between those two the Brahmana is the father.

ivÄ< bNxurœ vy> kmR iv*a -vit pÂmI, @tain maNySwanain grIyae ydœ ydœ %Ärm!. 2£136

2.136. Wealth, kindred, age, (the due performance of) rites, and, fifthly, sacred learning are titles to respect; but each later-named (cause) is more weighty (than the preceding ones).

pÂana< iÇ;u v[eR;u -Uya sae AÇ man£AhR> zUÔae Aip dzmI— gt>. 2£137

2.137. Whatever man of the three (highest) castes possesses most of those five, both in number and degree, that man is worthy of honour among them; and (so is) also a Sudra who has entered the tenth (decade of his life).

ci³[ae dzmISwSy raeig[ae -air[> iôya>, õatkSy c ra}z! c pNwa deyae vrSy c. 2£138

2.138. Way must be made for a man in a carriage, for one who is above ninety years old, for one diseased, for the carrier of a burden, for a woman, for a Snataka, for the king, and for a bridegroom.

te;a< tu smavetana< maNyaE õatk£paiwRvaE, raj£õatkyaez! c£@v õatkae n&pman-akœ. 2£139

2.139. Among all those, if they meet (at one time), a Snataka and the king must be (most) honoured; and if the king and a Snataka (meet), the latter receives respect from the king.

%pnIy tu y> iz:y< vedm! AXyapyedœ iÖj>, s£kLp< s£rhSy< c tm! Aacay¡ àc]te. 2£140

2.140. They call that Brahmana who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas, the teacher (akarya, of the latter).

@kdez< tu vedSy veda¼aNyip va pun>, yae AXyapyit v&ÅywRm! %paXyay> s %Cyte. 2£141

2.141. But he who for his livelihood teaches a portion only of the Veda, or also the Angas of the Veda, is called the sub-teacher (upadhyaya).

in;ek£AdIin kmaRi[ y> kraeit ywaivix, s<-avyit c£AÚen s ivàae guérœ %Cyte. 2£142

2.142. That Brahmana, who performs in accordance with the rules (of the Veda) the rites, the Garbhadhana (conception-rite), and so forth, and gives food (to the child), is called the Guru (the venerable one).

AGNyaxey< paky}an! Ai¶òaem£Aidkan! moan!, y> kraeit v&tae ySy s tSy£\iTvg! #h£%Cyte. 2£143

2.143. He who, being (duly) chosen (for the purpose), performs the Agnyadheya, the Pakayagnas, (and) the (Srauta) sacrifices, such as the Agnishtoma (for another man), is called (his) officiating priest.

y Aav&[aeTyivtw< äü[a ïv[av! %-aE, s mata s ipta }eys! t< n Ô‚ýet! kda cn. 2£144

2.144. That (man) who truthfully fills both his ears with the Veda, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother; he must never offend him.

%paXyayan! dz£AcayR AacayaR[a< zt< ipta, shö< tu ipt¨n! mata gaErve[£AitirCyte. 2£145

2.145. The teacher (akarya) is ten times more venerable than a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), the father a hundred times more than the teacher, but the mother a thousand times more than the father.

%Tpadk£äüdaÇaerœ grIyan! äüd> ipta, äüjNm ih ivàSy àeTy c£#h c zañtm!. 2£146

2.146. Of him who gives natural birth and him who gives (the knowledge of) the Veda, the giver of the Veda is the more venerable father; for the birth for the sake of the Veda (ensures) eternal (rewards) both in this (life) and after death.

kaman! mata ipta c£@n< ydœ %Tpadytae imw>, s<-Uit< tSy ta< iv*adœ ydœ yaenav! Ai-jayte. 2£147

2.147. Let him consider that (he received) a (mere animal) existence, when his parents begat him through mutual affection, and when he was born from the womb (of his mother).

AacayRs! Tv! ASy ya< jait< ivixvdœ vedparg>, %Tpadyit saivÈya sa sTya sa£Ajra£Amra. 2£148

2.148. But that birth which a teacher acquainted with the whole Veda, in accordance with the law, procures for him through the Savitri, is real, exempt from age and death.

ALp< va b÷ va ySy ïutSy£%pkraeit y>, tm! ApIh gué< iv*at! £ ïut£%pi³yya tya. 2£149

2.149. (The pupil) must know that that man also who benefits him by (instruction in) the Veda, be it little or much, is called in these (Institutes) his Guru, in consequence of that benefit (conferred by instruction in) the Veda.

äaüSy jNmn> ktaR SvxmRSy c zaista, balae Aip ivàae v&ÏSy ipta -vit xmRt>. 2£150

2.150. That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake of the Veda and the teacher of the prescribed duties becomes by law the father of an aged man, even though he himself be a child.

AXyapyam! Aas ipt¨n! izzurœ Aai¼rs> kiv>, puÇka #it h£%vac }anen pirg&ý tan!. 2£151

2.151. Young Kavi, the son of Angiras, taught his (relatives who were old enough to be) fathers, and, as he excelled them in (sacred) knowledge, he called them 'Little sons.'

te tm! AwRm! Ap&½Nt devan! Aagt£mNyv>, devaz! c£@tan! smeTy£^curœ NyaYy< v> izzurœ %­van!. 2£152

2.152. They, moved with resentment, asked the gods concerning that matter, and the gods, having assembled, answered, 'The child has addressed you properly.'

A}ae -vit vE bal> ipta -vit mÙd>, A}< ih balm! #Tya÷> ipta£#Tyev tu mÙdm!. 2£153

2.153. 'For (a man) destitute of (sacred) knowledge is indeed a child, and he who teaches him the Veda is his father; for (the sages) have always said "child" to an ignorant man, and "father" to a teacher of the Veda.'

n haynErœ n piltErœ n ivÄen n bNxui->, \;yz! ci³re xm¡ yae AnUcan> s nae mhan!. 2£154

2.154. Neither through years, nor through white (hairs), nor through wealth, nor through (powerful) kinsmen (comes greatness). The sages have made this law, 'He who has learnt the Veda together with the Angas (Anukana) is (considered) great by us.'

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