Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886



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ivàa[a< }antae JyEó(< ]iÇya[a< tu vIyRt>, vEZyana< xaNyxnt> zUÔa[am! @v jNmt>. 2£155

2.155. The seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred) knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas from wealth in grain (and other goods), but that of Sudras alone from age.

n ten v&Ïae -vit yenaSy pilt< izr>, yae vE yuva£APyxIyans! t< deva> Swivr< ivÊ>. 2£156

2.156. A man is not therefore (considered) venerable because his head is gray; him who, though young, has learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable.

ywa kaómyae hStI ywa cmRmyae m&g>, yz! c ivàae An! £ AxIyans! Çys! te nam ibæit. 2£157

2.157. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those three have nothing but the names (of their kind).

ywa ;{Fae A£)l> ôI;u ywa gaErœ giv c£A£)la, ywa c£A}e A£)l< dan< twa ivàae An! £ \cae A£)l>. 2£158

2.158. As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow with a cow is unprolific, and as a gift made to an ignorant man yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who (does) not (know) the Rikas.

Aih

2.159. Created beings must be instructed in (what concerns) their welfare without giving them pain, and sweet and gentle speech must be used by (a teacher) who desires (to abide by) the sacred law.

ySy vaC£mnsI zuÏe sMyGguÝe c svRda, s vE svRm! Avaßaeit vedaNt£%pgt< )lm!. 2£160

2.160. He, forsooth, whose speech and thoughts are pure and ever perfectly guarded, gains the whole reward which is conferred by the Vedanta.

n£Aé Syadœ AataeR Aip n prÔaeh£kmR£xI>, yya£ASy£%iÖjte vaca n£AlaeKya< tam! %dIryet!. 2£161

2.161. Let him not, even though in pain, (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed; let him not utter speeches which make (others) afraid of him, since that will prevent him from gaining heaven.

sMmanadœ äaü[ae inTym! %iÖjet iv;adœ #v, Am&tSy£#v c£Aka'œ]edœ AvmanSy svRda. 2£162

2.162. A Brahmana should always fear homage as if it were poison; and constantly desire (to suffer) scorn as (he would long for) nectar.

suo< ývmt> zete suo< c àitbuXyte. suo< crit laeke AiSmÚ! AvmNta ivnZyit. 2£163

2.163. For he who is scorned (nevertheless may) sleep with an easy mind, awake with an easy mind, and with an easy mind walk here among men; but the scorner utterly perishes.

Anen ³myaegen s znE>, guraE vsn! siÂnuyadœ äüaixgimk< tp>. 2£164

2.164. A twice-born man who has been sanctified by the (employment of) the means, (described above) in due order, shall gradually and cumulatively perform the various austerities prescribed for (those who) study the Veda.

tpae£ivze;Erœ ivivxErœ ìtEz! c ivixcaeidtE>, ved> k«Tõae AixgNtVy> s£rhSyae iÖjNmna. 2£165

2.165. An Aryan must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas, performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda).

vedm! @v sda£A_ySyet! tps! tPSyn! iÖjaeÄm>, veda_yasae ih ivàSy tp> prm! #h£%Cyte. 2£166

2.166. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform austerities, constantly repeat the Veda; for the study of the Veda is declared (to be) in this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana.

Aa h£@v s noa¢e_y> prm< tPyte tp>, y> öGVyip iÖjae AxIte SvaXyay< zi­tae ANvhm!. 2£167

2.167. Verily, that twice-born man performs the highest austerity up to the extremities of his nails, who, though wearing a garland, daily recites the Veda in private to the utmost of his ability.

yae An! £ AxITy iÖjae vedm! ANyÇ k…éte ïmm!, s jIvÚ! @v zUÔTvm! Aazu g½it s£ANvy>. 2£168

2.168. A twice-born man who, not having studied the Veda, applies himself to other (and worldly study), soon falls, even while living, to the condition of a Sudra and his descendants (after him).

maturœ A¢e Aixjnn< iÖtIy< maEiÃbNxne, t&tIy< y}dI]aya< iÖjSy ïuitcaednat!. 2£169

2.169. According to the injunction of the revealed texts the first birth of an Aryan is from (his natural) mother, the second (happens) on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass, and the third on the initiation to (the performance of) a (Srauta) sacrifice.

tÇ ydœ äüjNm£ASy maEÃIbNxniciûtm!, tÇ£ASy mata saivÇI ipta Tv! AacayR %Cyte. 2£170

2.170. Among those (three) the birth which is symbolised by the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass, is his birth for the sake of the Veda; they declare that in that (birth) the Sivitri (verse) is his mother and the teacher his father.

vedàdanadœ Aacay¡ iptr< pirc]te, n ýiSmn! yuJyte kmR ik|! icdœ Aa maEiÃbNxnat!. 2£171

2.171. They call the teacher (the pupil's) father because he gives the Veda; for nobody can perform a (sacred) rite before the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass.

n£Ai-Vyaharyedœ äü Svxainnynadœ \te, zUÔe[ ih sms! tavdœ yavdœ vede n jayte. 2£172

2.172. (He who has not been initiated) should not pronounce (any) Vedic text excepting (those required for) the performance of funeral rites, since he is on a level with a Sudra before his birth from the Veda.

k«t£%pnynSy£ASy ìtadeznm! #:yte, äü[ae ¢h[< c£@v ³me[ ivix£pUvRkm!. 2£173

2.173. The (student) who has been initiated must be instructed in the performance of the vows, and gradually learn the Veda, observing the prescribed rules.

y*Sy iviht< cmR yt! sUÇ< ya c meola, yae d{fae yt! £ c vsn< tt! tdœ ASy ìte:v! Aip. 2£174

2.174. Whatever dress of skin, sacred thread, girdle, staff, and lower garment are prescribed for a (student at the initiation), the like (must again be used) at the (performance of the) vows.

sevet£#ma. 2£175

2.175. But a student who resides with his teacher must observe the following restrictive rules, duly controlling all his organs, in order to increase his spiritual merit.

inTy< õaTva zuic> k…yaRdœ dev£\i;£ipt&tpR[m!, devta_ycRn< c£@v simdaxanm! @v c. 2£176

2.176. Every day, having bathed, and being purified, he must offer libations of water to the gods, sages and manes, worship (the images of) the gods, and place fuel on (the sacred fire).

vjRyen! mxu ma, zu­ain yain svaRi[ àai[na< c£@v ih

2.177. Let him abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, garlands, substances (used for) flavouring (food), women, all substances turned acid, and from doing injury to living creatures.

A_y¼m! AÃn< caú[aerœ %panhœ£cÇxar[m!, kam< ³aex< c lae-< c ntRn< gItvadnm!. 2£178

2.178. From anointing (his body), applying collyrium to his eyes, from the use of shoes and of an umbrella (or parasol), from (sensual) desire, anger, covetousness, dancing, singing, and playing (musical instruments),

*Ut< c jnvad< c pirvad< twa£An&tm!, ôI[a< c àe][alM-m! %p"at< prSy c.

2.179. From gambling, idle disputes, backbiting, and lying, from looking at and touching women, and from hurting others.

@k> zyIt svRÇ n ret> SkNdyet! Kv ict!, kamaΉ ih SkNdyn! retae ihniSt ìtm! AaTmn>. 2£180

2.180. Let him always sleep alone, let him never waste his manhood; for he who voluntarily wastes his manhood, breaks his vow.

Svße is®va äücarI iÖj> zu³m! Akamt>, õaTva£AkRm! AcRiyTva iÇ> punrœ mam! #Ty&c< jpet!. 2£181

2.181. A twice-born student, who has involuntarily wasted his manly strength during sleep, must bathe, worship the sun, and afterwards thrice mutter the Rik-verse (which begins), 'Again let my strength return to me.'

%dk…M-< sumnsae gaezk«t! £ m&iÄka£k…zan!, Aahredœ yavdœ AwaRin -E]< c£Ah£ARhz! cret!. 2£182

2.182. Let him fetch a pot full of water, flowers, cowdung, earth, and Kusa grass, as much as may be required (by his teacher), and daily go to beg food.

ved£y}Erœ AhInana< àzStana< SvkmRsu, äücayaRhredœ -E]< g&he_y> àytae ANvhm!. 2£183

2.183. A student, being pure, shall daily bring food from the houses of men who are not deficient in (the knowledge of) the Veda and in (performing) sacrifices, and who are famous for (following their lawful) occupations.

gurae> k…le n i-]et n }ait£k…l£bNxu;u, Ala-e Tv! ANygehana< pUv¡ pUv¡ ivvjRyet!. 2£184

2.184. Let him not beg from the relatives of his teacher, nor from his own or his mother's blood-relations; but if there are no houses belonging to strangers, let him go to one of those named above, taking the last-named first;

sv¡ vaip credœ ¢am< pUvR£%­anam! As<-ve, inyMy àytae vacm! Ai-zSta

2.185. Or, if there are no (virtuous men of the kind) mentioned above, he may go to each (house in the) village, being pure and remaining silent; but let him avoid Abhisastas (those accused of mortal sin).

Ëradœ AaùTy simx> siÚdXyadœ ivhayis, say<£àatz! c ju÷yat! tai-rœ Ai¶m! AtiNÔt>. 2£186

2.186. Having brought sacred fuel from a distance, let him place it anywhere but on the ground, and let him, unwearied, make with it burnt oblations to the sacred fire, both evening and morning.

Ak«Tva -E]cr[m! AsimXy c pavk<, Anatur> sÝraÇm! AvkIi[Rìt< cret!. 2£187

2.187. He who, without being sick, neglects during seven (successive) days to go out begging, and to offer fuel in the sacred fire, shall perform the penance of an Avakirnin (one who has broken his vow).

-E]e[ vtRyen! inTy< n£@kaÚ£AdI -vedœ ìtI, -E]e[ ìitnae v&iÄrœ %pvas£sma Sm&ta. 2£188

2.188. He who performs the vow (of studentship) shall constantly subsist on alms, (but) not eat the food of one (person only); the subsistence of a student on begged food is declared to be equal (in merit) to fasting.

ìtvdœ dev£dEvTye ipÈye kmR{yw£\i;vt!, kamm! A_yiwRtae AîIyadœ ìtm! ASy n luPyte. 2£189

2.189. At his pleasure he may eat, when invited, the food of one man at (a rite) in honour of the gods, observing (however the conditions on his vow, or at a (funeral meal) in honor of the manes, behaving (however) like a hermit.

äaü[Sy£@v kmR£@tdœ %pidò< mnIi;i->, rajNy£vEZyyaes! Tv! @v< n£@tt! kmR ivxIyte. 2£190

2.190. This duty is prescribed by the wise for a Brahmana only; but no such duty is ordained for a Kshatriya and a Vaisya.

caeidtae gué[a inTym! Aàcaeidt @v va, k…yaRdœ AXyyne yÆm! AacayRSy ihte;u c. 2£191

2.191. Both when ordered by his teacher, and without a (special) command, (a student) shall always exert himself in studying (the Veda), and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher.

zrIr< c£@v vac< c buÏIiNÔy£mna

2.192. Controlling his body, his speech, his organs (of sense), and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, looking at the face of his teacher.

inTym! %ϯt£pai[> Syat! saxu£Acar> su£s, AaSytam! #it c£%­> sÚ! AasIt£Ai-muo< gurae>. 2£193

2.193. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, behave decently and keep his body well covered, and when he is addressed (with the words), 'Be seated,' he shall sit down, facing his teacher.

hIn£AÚ£vô£ve;> Syat! svRda guésiÚxaE. %iÄóet! àwm< caSy crm< c£@v s

2.194. In the presence of his teacher let him always eat less, wear a less valuable dress and ornaments (than the former), and let him rise earlier (from his bed), and go to rest later.

àitïav[£s<-a;e zyanae n smacret!, n£AsInae n c -uÃanae n itón! n pra'œ£muo>. 2£195

2.195. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher), reclining on a bed, nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing, nor with an averted face.

AasInSy iSwt> k…yaRdœ Ai-g½, àTyuÌMy Tv! Aaìjt> píadœ xav. 2£196

2.196. Let him do (that), standing up, if (his teacher) is seated, advancing towards him when he stands, going to meet him if he advances, and running after him when he runs;

pra'œ£muoSy£Ai-muoae ËrSwSy£@Ty c£AiNtkm!, à[My tu zyanSy indeze c£@v itót>. 2£197

2.197. Going (round) to face (the teacher), if his face is averted, approaching him if he stands at a distance, but bending towards him if he lies on a bed, and if he stands in a lower place.

nIc< zYya£Asn< c£ASy inTy< Syadœ guésiÚxaE, guraes! tu c]uivR;ye n ywa£#ò£Asnae -vet!. 2£198

2.198. When his teacher is nigh, let his bed or seat be low; but within sight of his teacher he shall not sit carelessly at ease.

n£%dahredœ ASy nam prae]m! Aip kevlm!, n c£@v£ASy£Anuk…vIRt git£-ai;t£ceiòtm!. 2£199

2.199. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his teacher (without adding an honorific title) behind his back even, and let him not mimic his gait, speech, and deportment.

guraerœ yÇ pirvadae inNda va£Aip àvtRte, k[aER tÇ ipxatVyaE gNtVy< va ttae ANyt>. 2£200

2.200. Wherever (people) justly censure or falsely defame his teacher, there he must cover his ears or depart thence to another place.

prIvadat! orae -vit ña vE -vit inNdk>, pir-ae­a k«imrœ -vit kIqae -vit mTsrI. 2£201

2.201. By censuring (his teacher), though justly, he will become (in his next birth) an ass, by falsely defaming him, a dog; he who lives on his teacher's substance, will become a worm, and he who is envious (of his merit), a (larger) insect.

ËrSwae n£AcRyedœ @n< n ³…Ïae n£AiNtke iôya>, yan£AsnSwz! c£@v£@nm! Avéý£Ai-vadyet!. 2£202

2.202. He must not serve the (teacher by the intervention of another) while he himself stands aloof, nor when he (himself) is angry, nor when a woman is near; if he is seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat, he must descend and afterwards salute his (teacher).

àitvate Anuvate c n£AsIt gué[a sh, As<ïve c£@v guraerœ n ik< icdœ Aip kItRyet!. 2£203

2.203. Let him not sit with his teacher, to the leeward or to the windward (of him); nor let him say anything which his teacher cannot hear.

gae£Añ£%ò+£yan£àasad£àStre;u kqe;u c, AasIt gué[a sax¡ izla£)lk£naE;u c. 2£204

2.204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by oxen, horses, or camels, on a terrace, on a bed of grass or leaves, on a mat, on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat.

guraerœ guraE siÚihte guévdœ v&iÄm! Aacret!, n c£A£ins&òae gué[a Svan! guên! Ai-vadyet!. 2£205

2.205. If his teacher's teacher is near, let him behave (towards him) as towards his own teacher; but let him, unless he has received permission from his teacher, not salute venerable persons of his own (family).

iv*agué:v! @vm! @v inTya v&iÄ> Svyaein;u, àit;exTsu c£AxmaRΉ iht< c£%pidzTSv! Aip. 2£206

2.206. This is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards (other) instructors in science, towards his relatives (to whom honour is due), towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice.

ïey>su guévdœ v&iÄ< inTym! @v smacret!, guépuÇe;u c£AyeR;u guraez! c£@v SvbNxu;u. 2£207

2.207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher, likewise towards sons of his teacher, born by wives of equal caste, and towards the teacher's relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother.

bal> sman£jNma va iz:yae va y}kmRi[, AXyapyn! guésutae guévt! £ manm! AhRit. 2£208

2.208. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father's stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student of (the science of) sacrifices (or of other Angas), deserves the same honour as the teacher.

%Tsadn< c gaÇa[a< õapn£%i½ò-aejne, n k…yaRdœ guépuÇSy padyaez! c£Avnejnm!. 2£209

2.209. (A student) must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher's son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor wash his feet.

guévt! àitpUJya> Syu> s£v[aR guéyaei;t>, Asv[aRs! tu sMpUJya> àTyuTwan£Ai-vadnE>. 2£210

2.210. The wives of the teacher, who belong to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher; but those who belong to a different caste, must be honoured by rising and salutation.

A_yÃn< õapn< c gaÇ£%Tsadnm! @v c, guépTNya n kayaRi[ kezana< c àsaxnm!. 2£211

2.211. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair.

guépÆI tu yuvitrœ n£Ai-va*a£#h padyae>, pU[Riv

2.212. (A pupil) who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet.

Sv-av @; narI[a< nra[am! #h Ë;[m!, Atae AwaRn! n àma*iNt àmdasu ivpiít>. 2£213

2.213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.

AivÖa, àmda ýuTpw< netu< kam£³aexvzanugm!. 2£214

2.214. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.

maÇa Svöa ÊihÇa va n iviv­asnae -vet!, blvan! #iNÔy¢amae ivÖa

2.215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one's mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.

kam< tu guépÆIna< yuvtIna< yuva -uiv, ivixvdœ vNdn< k…yaRdœ Asav! Ahm! #it äuvn!. 2£216

2.216. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher, in accordance with the rule, and say, 'I, N. N., (worship thee, O lady).'

ivàae:y pad¢h[m! ANvh< c£Ai-vadnm!, guédare;u k…vIRt sta< xmRm! AnuSmrn!. 2£217

2.217. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher's wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous.

ywa onn! oinÇe[ nrae vayRixg½it, twa guégta< iv*a< zuïU;urœ Aixg½it. 2£218

2.218. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher.

mu{fae va jiqlae va Syadœ Aw va Syat! £ izoa£jq>, n£@n< ¢ame Ai-inMlaecet! sUyaeR n£A_yuidyat! Kv ict!. 2£219

2.219. A (student) may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while he (lies asleep) in the village.

t< cedœ A_yuidyat! sUyR> zyan< kamcart>, inMlaecedœ va£APyiv}anaj! jpÚ! %pvsedœ idnm!. 2£220

2.220. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it (that he offended) intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the (next) day, muttering (the Savitri).

sUyeR[ ýi-inmuR­> zyanae A_yuidtz! c y>, àayiíÄm! Ak…vaR[ae yu­> Syan! mhta£@nsa. 2£221

2.221. For he who lies (sleeping), while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform (that) penance, is tainted by great guilt.

AacMy àytae inTym! %-e s, zucaE deze jp|! jPym! %pasIt ywaivix. 2£222

2.222. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule.

yid ôI y*vrj> ïey> ik< ict! smacret!, tt! svRm! Aacredœ yu­ae yÇ c£ASy rmen! mn>. 2£223

2.223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything (leading to) happiness, let him diligently practise it, as well as (any other permitted act) in which his heart finds pleasure.

xmR£AwaRv! %Cyte ïey> kam£AwaER xmR @v c, AwR @v£#h va ïeys! iÇvgR #it tu iSwit>. 2£224

2.224. (Some declare that) the chief good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, (others place it) in (the gratification of) desire and (the acquisition of) wealth, (others) in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit alone, and (others say that the acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (below); but the (correct) decision is that it consists of the aggregate of (those) three.

AacayRz! c ipta c£@v mata æata c pUvRj>, n£AteRn£APyvmNtVya äaü[en ivze;t>. 2£225

2.225. The teacher, the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them).

AacayaeR äü[ae mUitR> ipta mUitR> àjapte>, mata p&iwVya mUitRs! tu æata Svae mUitRrœ AaTmn>. 2£226

2.226. The teacher is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.

y< mata£iptraE ¬ez< shete s<-ve n&[am!, n tSy in:k«it> zKya ktu¡ v;RztErœ Aip. 2£227

2.227. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated even in a hundred years.

tyaerœ inTy< iày< k…yaRdœ AacayRSy c svRda, te:v! @v iÇ;u tuòe;u tp> sv¡ smaPyte. 2£228

2.228. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher; when those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield).

te;a< Çya[a< zuïU;a prm< tp %Cyte, n tErœ An_ynu}atae xmRm! ANy< smacret!. 2£229

2.229. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission.

t @v ih Çyae laekas! t @v Çy Aaïma>, t @v ih Çyae vedas! t @v£%­as! Çyae A¶y>. 2£230

2.230. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred fires.

ipta vE gahRpTyae Ai¶rœ mata£Ai¶rœ di][> Sm&t>, guérœ AahvnIys! tu sa£Ai¶Çeta grIysI. 2£231

2.231. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.

iÇ:v! Aàma*Ú! @te;u ÇIn! laekan! ivjyedœ g&hI, dIPyman> Svvpu;a devvdœ idiv maedte. 2£232

2.232. He who neglects not those three, (even after he has become) a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.

#m< laek< mat&-®ya ipt&-®ya tu mXymm!, guézuïU;ya Tv! @v< äülaek< smîute. 2£233

2.233. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman.

sveR tSy£A†ta xmaR ySy£@te Çy Aa†ta>, Ana†tas! tu ySy£@te svaRs! tSy£A£)la> i³ya>. 2£234

2.234. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites remain fruitless.

yavt! Çys! te jIveyus! tavt! £ n£ANy< smacret!, te:v! @v inTy< zuïU;a< k…yaRt! iàyihte rt>. 2£235

2.235. As long as those three live, so long let him not (independently) perform any other (meritorious acts); let him always serve them, rejoicing (to do what is) agreeable and beneficial (to them).

te;am! Anupraexen parÈy< ydœ ydœ Aacret!, tt! tn! invedyet! te_yae mnae£vcn£kmRi->. 2£236

2.236. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the sake of the next world.

iÇ:v! @te:v! #itk«Ty< ih pué;Sy smaPyte, @; xmR> pr> sa]adœ %pxmaeR ANy %Cyte. 2£237

2.237. By (honouring) these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest duty, every other (act) is a subordinate duty.

ïÎxan> zu-a< iv*am! AaddIt£Avradœ Aip, ANyadœ Aip pr< xm¡ ôIrÆ< Ê:k…ladœ Aip. 2£238

2.238. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower caste, the highest law even from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a base family.

iv;adœ APym&t< ¢aý< baladœ Aip su-ai;tm!, AimÇadœ Aip sÖ¯Äm! AmeXyadœ Aip kaÂnm!. 2£239

2.239. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child good advice, even from a foe (a lesson in) good conduct, and even from an impure (substance) gold.

iôyae rÆaNywae iv*a xmR> zaEc< su-ai;tm!, ivivxain c zILpain smadeyain svRt>. 2£240

2.240. Excellent wives, learning, (the knowledge of) the law, (the rules of) purity, good advice, and various arts may be acquired from anybody.

Aäaü[adœ AXyaynm! AapTkale ivxIyte, AnuìJya c zuïU;a yavdœ AXyayn< gurae>. 2£241

2.241. It is prescribed that in times of distress (a student) may learn (the Veda) from one who is not a Brahmana; and that he shall walk behind and serve (such a) teacher, as long as the instruction lasts.



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