Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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n£A£äaü[e guraE iz:yae vasm! AaTyiNtk< vset!, äaü[e va£An! £ AnUcane ka'œ]n! gitm! AnuÄmam!. 2£242

2.242. He who desires incomparable bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his whole life in (the house of) a non-Brahmanical teacher, nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas.

yid Tv! AaTyiNtk< vas< raecyet gurae> k…le, yu­> pircredœ @nm! Aa zrIrivmae][at!. 2£243

2.243. But if (a student) desires to pass his whole life in the teacher's house, he must diligently serve him, until he is freed from this body.

Aa smaÝe> zrIrSy ys! tu zuïU;te guém!, s g½TyÃsa ivàae äü[> sÒ zañtm!. 2£244

2.244. A Brahmana who serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body, reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman.

n pUv¡ gurve ik< icdœ %pk…vIRt xmRivt!, õaSy z®ya gué£AwRm! Aahret!. 2£245

2.245. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher before (the Samavartana); but when, with the permission of his teacher, he is about to take the (final) bath, let him procure (a present) for the venerable man according to his ability,

]eÇ< ihr{y< gam! Añ< cÇ£%panhm! Aasnm!, xaNy< zak< c vasa

2.246. (Viz.) a field, gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, (even) vegetables, (and thus) give pleasure to his teacher.

AacayeR tu olu àete guépuÇe gu[aiNvte, guédare sip{fe va guévdœ v&iÄm! Aacret!, 2£247

2.247. (A perpetual student) must, if his teacher dies, serve his son (provided he be) endowed with good qualities, or his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher.

@te:v! Aiv*mane;u Swan£Asn£ivharvan!, àyuÃanae Ai¶zuïU;a< saxyedœ dehm! AaTmn>. 2£248

2.248. Should none of these be alive, he must serve the sacred fire, standing (by day) and sitting (during the night), and thus finish his life.

@v< crit yae ivàae äücyRm! AivPlut>, s g½TyuÄmSwan< n c£#h jayte pun>. 2£249

2.249. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow, reaches (after death) the highest abode and will not be born again in this world.

Chapter 3

3.1. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time, or for a quarter, or until the (student) has perfectly learnt them.

vedan! AxITy vedaE va ved< va£Aip ywa³mm!, AivPlut£äücyaeR g&hSwaïmm! Aavset!. 3£02

3.2. (A student) who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the (rules of) studentship, shall enter the order of householders.

t< àtIt< SvxmeR[ äüdayhr< iptu>, öiGv[< tLp AasInm! AhRyet! àwm< gva. 3£03

3.3. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with (the present of) a cow (and the honey-mixture).

gué[anumt> õaTva smav&Äae ywaivix, %Öhet iÖjae -aya¡ s£v[a¡ l][aiNvtam!. 3£04

3.4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed according to the rule the Samavartana (the rite on returning home), a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious (bodily) marks.

Asip{fa c ya maturœ AsgaeÇa c ya iptu>, sa àzSta iÖjatIna< darkmRi[ mEwune. 3£05

3.5. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother's side, nor belongs to the same family on the father's side, is recommended to twice-born men for wedlock and conjugal union.

mhaNTyip sm&Ïain gae£Aj£Aiv£xn£xaNyt>, ôIs

3.6. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property,

hIn£i³y< in:£pué;< inZ£cNdae raemz£AzRsm!, ]y£AmyaVY£ApSmair£iñiÇ£k…ió£k…lain c. 3£07

3.7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy.

n£%Öhet! kipla< kNya< n£Aixka¼I— n raeig[Im!, n£A£laeimka< n£Ait£laema< n vacaqa< n ip¼lam!. 3£08

3.8. Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes),

n£ \]£v&]£ndI£naçI— n£ANTy£pvRt£naimkam!, n pi]£Aih£àe:y£naçI— n c -I;n£naimkam!. 3£09

3.9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.

AVy¼£A¼I— saEMy£naçI— h

3.10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs.

ySyas! tu n -vedœ æata n iv}ayet va ipta, n£%py½et ta< àa}> puiÇka£AxmRz»ya. 3£11

3.11. But a prudent man should not marry (a maiden) who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he should commit) sin.

sv[aR£A¢e iÖjatIna< àzSta darkmRi[, kamts! tu àv&Äanam! #ma> Syu> ³mzae Avra>. 3£12

3.12. For the first marriage of twice-born men (wives) of equal caste are recommended; but for those who through desire proceed (to marry again) the following females, (chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the castes), are most approved.

zUÔa£@v -ayaR zUÔSy sa c Sva c ivz> Sm&te, te c Sva c£@v ra}z! c taz! c Sva c£A¢£jNmn>. 3£13

3.13. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Brahmana.

n äaü[£]iÇyyaerœ Aap*ip ih itótae>, kiSm

3.14. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the (first) wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the (greatest) distress.

hInjait£iôy< maehadœ %ÖhNtae iÖjaty>, k…laNyev nyNTyazu s£sNtanain zUÔtam!. 3£15

3.15. Twice-born men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras.

zUÔavedI ptTyÇerœ %tWytnySy c, zaEnkSy sut£%TpÅya tdœ£ApTytya -&gae>. 3£16

3.16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female, alone).

zUÔa< zynm! AaraePy äaü[ae yaTyxaegitm!, jniyTva sut< tSya< äaü{yadœ @v hIyte. 3£17

3.17. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana.

dEv£ipÈy£Aitweyain tt! £ àxanain ySy tu, n£AîiNt ipt&£devas! tn! n c Svg¡ s g½it. 3£18

3.18. The manes and the gods will not eat the (offerings) of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a (Sudra wife's) assistance, and such (a man) will not go to heaven.

v&;lI)en£pItSy in>ñas£%phtSy c, tSya< c£@v àsUtSy in:k«itrœ n ivxIyte. 3£19

3.19. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra's lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.

ctu[aRm! Aip v[aRn< àeTy c£#h iht£Aihtan!, Aòav! #man! smasen ôIivvahan! inbaext. 3£20

3.20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

äaüae dEvs! twa£@v£A;R> àajapTys! twa£Asur>, gaNxvaeR ra]sz! c£@v pEzacz! c£Aòmae Axm>. 3£21

3.21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).

yae ySy xMyaeR v[RSy gu[£dae;aE c ySy yaE, tdœ v> sv¡ àvúyaim àsve c gu[£Agu[an!. 3£22

3.22. Which is lawful for each caste (varna) and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring.

;fœ AanupUVyaR ivàSy ]ÇSy cturae Avran!, ivZ£zUÔyaes! tu tan! @v iv*adœ xMyaRn! Ara]san!. 3£23

3.23. One may know that the first six according to the order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra.

cturae äaü[Sy£A*an! àzStan! kvyae ivÊ>, ra]s< ]iÇySy£@km! Aasur< vEZy£zUÔyae>. 3£24

3.24. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa (rite in the case) of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra.

pÂana< tu Çyae xMyaR Öav! AxMyaER Sm&tav! #h, pEzacz! c£Asurz! c£@v n ktRVyaE kda cn. 3£25

3.25. But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used.

p&wkœ p&wg! va imïaE va ivvahaE pUvRcaeidtaE, gaNxvaeR ra]sz! c£@v xMyaER ]ÇSy taE Sm&taE. 3£26

3.26. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition.

Aa½a* c£AcRiyTva c ïut£zIlvte Svym!, Aaøy dan< kNyaya äaüae xmR> àkIitRt>. 3£27

3.27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.

y}e tu ivtte sMyg! \iTvje kmR k…vRte, Al»¯Ty sutadan< dEv< xm¡ àc]te. 3£28

3.28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.

@k< gaeimwun< Öe va vradœ Aaday xmRt>, kNyaàdan< ivixvdœ Aa;aeR xmR> s %Cyte. 3£29

3.29. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.

sh£%-aE crta< xmRm! #it vaca£Anu-a:y c, kNyaàdanm! A_yCyR àajapTyae ivix> Sm&t>. 3£30

3.30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, 'May both of you perform together your duties,' and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.

}ait_yae Ôiv[< dÅva kNyayE c£@v zi­t>, kNyaàdan< Sva½N*adœ Aasurae xmR %Cyte. 3£31

3.31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.

#½ya£ANyaeNys kNyayaz! c vrSy c, gaNxvR> s tu iv}eyae mEwuNy> kam£s<-v>. 3£32

3.32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

hTva icÅva c i-Åva c ³aezNtI— édNtI— g&hat!, àsý kNyahr[< ra]sae ivixrœ %Cyte. 3£33

3.33. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.

suÝa< mÄa< àmÄa< va rhae yÇ£%pg½it, s paipóae ivvahana< pEzacz! c£Aòmae Axm>. 3£34

3.34. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.

AiÑrœ @v iÖj£A¢!(a[a< kNyadan< iviz:yte, #tre;a< tu v[aRnam! #tretrkaMyya. 3£35

3.35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water; but in the case of other castes (it may be performed) by (the expression of) mutual consent.

yae ySy£@;a< ivvahana< mnuna kIitRtae gu[>, sv¡ z&[ut t< ivàa> sv¡ kItRytae mm. 3£36

3.36. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites.

dz pUvaRn! pran! v suk«tk«t! £ maecyTyens> ipt¨n!. 3£37

3.37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first.

dEv£^Faj> sutz! c£@v sÝ sÝ pr£Avran!, Aa;R£^Faj> suts! ÇI—s! ÇIn! ;qœ ;qœ kay£^Fj> sut>. 3£38

3.38. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line).

äaü£Aid;u ivvahe;u ctu:V @v£AnupUvRz>, äüvcRiSvn> puÇa jayNte izòsMmta>. 3£39

3.39. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men).

êp£sÅv£gu[£%peta xnvNtae yziSvn>, pyaRÝ£-aega ximRóa jIviNt c zt< sma>. 3£40

3.40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.

#tre;u tu izòe;u n&z, jayNte ÊivRvahe;u äü£xmR£iÖ;> suta>. 3£41

3.41. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.

AiniNdtE> ôIivvahErœ AinN*a -vit àja, iniNdtErœ iniNdta n¨[a< tSman! inN*an! ivvjRyet!. 3£42

3.42. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage).

pai[¢h[s s£v[aRsu£%pidZyte, Asv[aRSv! Ay< }eyae ivixrœ %ÖahkmRi[. 3£43

3.43. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).

zr> ]iÇyya ¢aý> àtaedae vEZykNyya, vsnSy dza ¢aýa zUÔya£%Tk«òvedne. 3£44

3.44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the (bridegroom's) garment.

\tukalai-gamI Syat! Svdarinrt> sda, pvRvj¡ ìjec! c£@na< tdœ£ìtae ritkaMyya. 3£45

3.45. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season, being constantly satisfied with her (alone); he may also, being intent on pleasing her, approach her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the Parvans.

\tu> Sva-aivk> ôI[a< raÇy> ;aefz Sm&ta>, ctui-Rrœ #trE> saxRm! Ahaei-> siÖgihRtE>. 3£46

3.46. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including four days which differ from the rest and are censured by the virtuous, (are called) the natural season of women.

tasam! Aa*az! ctös! tu iniNdta£@kadzI c ya, ÇyaedzI c ze;as! tu àzSta dzraÇy>. 3£47

3.47. But among these the first four, the eleventh and the thirteenth are (declared to be) forbidden; the remaining nights are recommended.

yuGmasu puÇa jayNte iôyae AyuGmasu raiÇ;u, tSmadœ yuGmasu puÇawIR s

3.48. On the even nights sons are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones; hence a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife in due season on the even (nights).

puman! pu, sme Apuman! pu<£iôyaE va ]I[e ALpe c ivpyRy>. 3£49

3.49. A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female child by the prevalence of the female; if (both are) equal, a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl; if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity, a failure of conception (results).

inN*aSv! Aòasu c£ANyasu iôyae raiÇ;u vjRyn!, äücayeRv -vit yÇ tÇ£Aïme vsn!. 3£50

3.50. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights and on eight others, is (equal in chastity to) a student, in whichever order he may live.

n kNyaya> ipta ivÖan! g&ŸIyat! £ zuLkm! A[u£Aip, g&Ÿn! £ zuLk< ih lae-en Syan! nrae ApTyiv³yI. 3£51

3.51. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his daughter; for a man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity, is a seller of his offspring.

ôIxnain tu ye maehadœ %pjIviNt baNxva>, narI yanain vô< va te papa yaNTyxaegitm!. 3£52

3.52. But those (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate property of women, (e.g. appropriate) the beasts of burden, carriages, and clothes of women, commit sin and will sink into hell.

Aa;eR gaeimwun< zuLk< ke icdœ Aa÷rœ m&;a£@v tt!, ALpae APyev< mhan! va£Aip iv³ys! tavdœ @v s>. 3£53

3.53. Some call the cow and the bull (given) at an Arsha wedding 'a gratuity;' (but) that is wrong, since (the acceptance of) a fee, be it small or great, is a sale (of the daughter).

yasa< n£Addte zuLk< }atyae n s iv³y>, AhR[< tt! k…marI[am! Aan&z

3.54. When the relatives do not appropriate (for their use) the gratuity (given), it is not a sale; (in that case) the (gift) is only a token of respect and of kindness towards the maidens.

ipt&i-rœ æat&i-z! c£@ta> piti-rœ devrEs! twa, pUJya -U;iytVyaz! c b÷kLya[m! $Psui->. 3£55

3.55. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare.

yÇ nayRs! tu pUJyNte rmNte tÇ devta>, yÇ£@tas! tu n pUJyNte svaRs! tÇ£A£)la> i³ya>. 3£56

3.56. Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased; but where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards.

zaeciNt jamyae yÇ ivnZyTyazu tt! k…lm!, n zaeciNt tu yÇ£@ta vxRte tΉ ih svRda. 3£57

3.57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers.

jamyae yain gehain zpNTyàitpUijta>. tain k«Tyahtain£#v ivnZyiNt smNtt>. 3£58

3.58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honoured, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic.

tSmadœ @ta> sda pUJya -U;[£A½adn£AznE>, -Uit£kamErœ nrErœ inTy< sTkre;u£%Tsve;u c,,3£59

3.59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food.


3.60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting.

yid ih ôI n raecet puma pu àjn< n àvtRte. 3£61

3.61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her husband; but if she has no attractions for him, no children will be born.

iôya< tu raecmanaya< sv¡ tdœ raecte k…l<, tSya< Tv! Araecmanaya< svRm! @v n raecte. 3£62

3.62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if she is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal.

k…£ivvahE> i³ya£laepErœ vedanXyynen c, k…laNyk…lta< yaiNt äaü[ait³me[ c. 3£63

3.63. By low marriages, by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites, by neglecting the study of the Veda, and by irreverence towards Brahmanas, (great) families sink low.

izLpen Vyvhare[ zUÔapTyEz! c kevlE>, gaei-rœ AñEz! c yanEz! c k«:ya raj£%psevya. 3£64

3.64. By (practising) handicrafts, by pecuniary transactions, by (begetting) children on Sudra females only, by (trading in) cows, horses, and carriages, by (the pursuit of) agriculture and by taking service under a king,

AyaJyyajnEz! c£@v naiStKyen c kmR[am!, k…laNyazu ivnZyiNt yain hInain mÙt>. 3£65

3.65. By sacrificing for men unworthy to offer sacrifices and by denying (the future rewards for good) works, families, deficient in the (knowledge of the) Veda, quickly perish.

mÙts! tu sm&Ïain k…laNyLp£xnaNyip, k…ls. 3£66

3.66. But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda, though possessing little wealth, are numbered among the great, and acquire great fame.

vEvaihke A¶aE k…vIRt g&ý< kmR ywaivix, pÂy}ivxan< c pi­< c£ANvaihkI— g&hI. 3£67

3.67. With the sacred fire, kindled at the wedding, a householder shall perform according to the law the domestic ceremonies and the five (great) sacrifices, and (with that) he shall daily cook his food.

p sUna g&hSwSy cu‘I pe;{yupSkr>, k{fnI c£%dk…M-z! c bXyte yas! tu vahyn!. 3£68

3.68. A householder has five slaughter-houses (as it were, viz.) the hearth, the grinding-stone, the broom, the pestle and mortar, the water-vessel, by using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin).

tasa< ³me[ svaRsa< in:k«Tyw¡ mhi;Ri->, p K¦œÝa mhay}a> àTyh< g&hmeixnam!. 3£69

3.69. In order to successively expiate (the offences committed by means) of all these (five) the great sages have prescribed for householders the daily (performance of the five) great sacrifices.

AXyapn< äüy}> ipt&y}s! tu tpR[m!, haemae dEvae bilrœ -aEtae n&y}ae AitiwpUjnm!. 3£70

3.70. Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice (offered) to Brahman, the (offerings of water and food called) Tarpana the sacrifice to the manes, the burnt oblation the sacrifice offered to the gods, the Bali offering that offered to the Bhutas, and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men.

p£@tan! yae mhay}an! n hapyit zi­t>, s g&he Aip vsn! inTy< sUnadae;Erœ n ilPyte 3£71

3.71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices, while he is able (to perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders).

devta£Aitiw£-&Tyana< ipt¨[am! AaTmnz! c y>, n invRpit pÂanam! %½!vsn! n s jIvit. 3£72

3.72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom he is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not, though he breathes.

A÷t< c ÷t< c£@v twa à÷tm! @v c, äaü(< ÷t< àaizt< c pÂy}an! àc]te. 3£73

3.73. They call (these) five sacrifices also, Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmya-huta, and Prasita.

jpae A÷tae ÷tae haem> à÷tae -aEitkae bil>, äaü(< ÷t< iÖja¢!(acaR àaizt< ipt&tpR[m!. 3£74

3.74. Ahuta (not offered in the fire) is the muttering (of Vedic texts), Huta the burnt oblation (offered to the gods), Prahuta (offered by scattering it on the ground) the Bali offering given to the Bhutas, Brahmya-huta (offered in the digestive fire of Brahmanas), the respectful reception of Brahmana (guests), and Prasita (eaten) the (daily oblation to the manes, called) Tarpana.

SvaXyaye inTyyu­> Syadœ dEve c£@v£#h kmRi[, dEvkmRi[ yu­ae ih ib-itR£#d< cr£Acrm!. 3£75

3.75. Let (every man) in this (second order, at least) daily apply himself to the private recitation of the Veda, and also to the performance of the offering to the gods; for he who is diligent in the performance of sacrifices, supports both the movable and the immovable creation.

A¶aE àaSta£A÷it> sMyg! AaidTym! %pitóte, AaidTyaj! jayte v&i:trœ v&:terœ AÚ< tt> àja>. 3£76

3.76. An oblation duly thrown into the fire, reaches the sun; from the sun comes rain, from rain food, therefrom the living creatures (derive their subsistence).

ywa vayu< smaiïTy vtRNte svRjNtv>, twa g&hSwm! AaiïTy vtRNte svR Aaïma>. 3£77

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