Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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3.77. As all living creatures subsist by receiving support from air, even so (the members of) all orders subsist by receiving support from the householder.

ySmat! Çyae APyaïim[ae }anen£AÚen c£ANvhm!, g&hSwen£@v xayRNte tSmaj! Jyeóaïmae g&hI. 3£78

3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order.

s s àyÆen SvgRm! A]ym! #½ta, suo< c£#h£#½ta£ATyNt< yae AxayaeR ÊbRl£#iNÔyE>. 3£79

3.79. (The duties of) this order, which cannot be practised by men with weak organs, must be carefully observed by him who desires imperishable (bliss in) heaven, and constant happiness in this (life).

\;y> iptrae deva -UtaNyitwys! twa, Aazaste k…quiMb_ys! te_y> kay¡ ivjanta. 3£80

3.80. The sages, the manes, the gods, the Bhutas, and guests ask the householders (for offerings and gifts); hence he who knows (the law), must give to them (what is due to each).

SvaXyayen£AcRyet£\;In! haemErœ devan! ywaivix, ipt¨n! £ ïaÏEz! c n¨n! AÚErœ -Utain bilkmR[a. 3£81

3.81. Let him worship, according to the rule, the sages by the private recitation of the Veda, the gods by burnt oblations, the manes by funeral offerings (Sraddha), men by (gifts of) food, and the Bhutas by the Bali offering.

k…yaRdœ Ah£ARh> ïaÏm! AÚa*en£%dken va, pyae£mUl£)lErœ va£Aip ipt&_y> àIitm! Aavhn!. 3£82

3.82. Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice with food, or with water, or also with milk, roots, and fruits, and (thus) please the manes.

@km! APyazyedœ ivà< ipt&£AweR paÂyi}ke, n c£@v£AÇ£Azyet! ik< icdœ vEñdev< àit iÖjm!. 3£83

3.83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha), which belongs to the five great sacrifices; but let him not feed on that (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering.

vEñdevSy isÏSy g&ýe A¶aE ivixpUvRkm!, Aa_y> k…yaRdœ devta_yae äaü[ae haemm! ANvhm!. 3£84

3.84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities:

A¶e> saemSy c£@v£AdaE tyaez! c£@v smStyae>, ivñe_yz! c£@v deve_yae xNvNtry @v c. 3£85

3.85. First to Agni, and (next) to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods (Visve Devah), and (then) to Dhanvantari,

k…þE c£@v£AnumTyE c àjapty @v c , sh *avap&iwVyaez! c twa iSvòk«te ANtt>. 3£86

3.86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice well).

@v< sMyGg! hivrœ ÷Tva svRid]u àdi][m!, #NÔ£ANtk£APpit£#NÊ_y> s£Anuge_yae bil< hret!. 3£87

3.87. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of these deities).

méÑ( #it tu Öair i]pedœ APSv! AÑ( #Tyip, vnSpit_y #Tyev< musl£%lUole hret!. 3£88

3.88. Saying, '(Adoration) to the Maruts,' he shall scatter (some food) near the door, and (some) in water, saying, '(Adoration to the waters;' he shall throw (some) on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, '(Adoration) to the trees.'

%½I;Rke iïyE k…yaRdœ -ÔkaLyE c padt>, äü£vaStae:pit_ya< tu vaStumXye bil< hret!. 3£89

3.89. Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an offering to Sri (fortune), and near the foot (of his bed) to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly.

ivñe_yz! c£@v deve_yae bilm! Aakaz %iT]pet!, idvacre_yae -Ute_yae n­

3.90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and (in the day-time one) for the goblins roaming about by day, (and in the evening one) for the goblins that walk at night.

p&óvaStuin k…vIRt bil< svaRTm-Utye, ipt&_yae bilze;< tu sv¡ di][tae hret!. 3£91

3.91. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains (from these offerings) in a southerly direction for the manes.

zUna< c pittana< c ñpca< pap£raeig[am!, vysana< k«mI[a< c znkErœ invRpedœ -uiv. 3£92

3.92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Kandalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.

@v< y> svR-Utain äaü[ae inTym! AcRit, s g½it pr< Swan< tejaemUitR> pwa£\juna. 3£93

3.93. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman).

k«Tva£@tdœ bilkmR£@vm! Aitiw< pUvRm! Aazyet!, i-]a< c i-]ve d*adœ ivixvdœ äücair[e. 3£94

3.94. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student.

yt! pu{y)lm! Aaßaeit ga< dÅva ivixvdœ gurae>, tt! pu{y)lm! Aaßaeit i-]a< dÅva iÖjae g&hI. 3£95

3.95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher.

i-]am! APyudpaÇ< va sTk«Ty ivixpUvRkm!, vedtÅvawRivÊ;e äaü[ay£%ppadyet!. 3£96

3.96. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even (a small portion of food as) alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished (the food with seasoning, or the pot with flowers and fruit).

nZyiNt hVy£kVyain nra[am! Aivjantam!, -SmI-Ute;u ivàe;u maehadœ dÄain dat&i->. 3£97

3.97. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes.

iv*a£tp>£sm&Ïe;u ÷t< ivàmuoai¶;u, inStaryit ÊgaRc! c mhtz! c£@v ikiLb;at!. 3£98

3.98. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt.

s<àaÝay Tv! Aitwye àd*adœ Aasn£%dke, AÚ< c£@v ywazi­ sTk«Ty ivixpUvRkm!. 3£99

3.99. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability.

izlan! APyuÂtae inTy< pÂa¶In! Aip juþt>, sv¡ suk«tm! AadÄe äaü[ae AnicRtae vsn!. 3£100

3.100. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires.

t&[ain -Uimrœ %dk< vakœ ctuwIR c sUn&ta, @taNyip sta< gehe n£%i½*Nte kda cn. 3£101

3.101. Grass, room (for resting), water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good men.

@kraÇ< tu invsÚ! Aitiwrœ äaü[> Sm&t>, AinTy< ih iSwtae ySmat! tSmadœ Aitiwrœ %Cyte. 3£102

3.102. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest).

n£@k¢amI[m! Aitiw< ivà< sa¼itk< twa, %piSwt< g&he iv*adœ -ayaR yÇ£A¶yae Aip va. 3£103

3.103. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where (there is) a wife, and where sacred fires (are kept).

%paste ye g&hSwa> prpakm! AbuÏy>, ten te àeTy pzuta< ìjNTyÚaiddaiyn>. 3£104

3.104. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food.

Aà[ae*ae Aitiw> say< sUyR£^Fae g&hmeixna, kale àaÝs! Tv! Akale va n£ASy£An! £ Aîn! g&he vset!. 3£105

3.105. A guest who is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; whether he have come at (supper-) time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment.

n vE Svy< tdœ AîIyadœ Aitiw< yn! n -aejyet!, xNy< yzSym! Aayu:y< SvGy¡ va£AitiwpUjnm!. 3£106

3.106. Let him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss.

Aasn£AvswaE zYyam! AnuìJyam! %pasnam!, %Äme;u£%Äm< k…yaRΉ hIne hIn< sme smm!. 3£107

3.107. Let him offer (to his guests) seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour (while they stay), to the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner.

vEñdeve tu inv&RÄe y*Nyae Aitiwrœ Aaìjet!, tSy£APyÚ< ywazi­ àd*an! n bil< hret!. 3£108

3.108. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, (the householder) must give him food according to his ability, (but) not repeat the Bali offering.

n -aejnaw¡ Sve ivà> k…l£gaeÇe invedyet!, -aejnaw¡ ih te z. 3£109

3.109. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin).

n äaü[Sy Tv! Aitiwrœ g&he rajNy %Cyte, vEZy£zUÔaE soa c£@v }atyae guérœ @v c. 3£110

3.110. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher.

yid Tv! AitiwxmeR[ ]iÇyae g&hm! Aaìjet!, -u­vTsu c ivàe;u kam< tm! Aip -aejyet!. 3£111

3.111. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.

vEZy£zUÔav! Aip àaÝaE k…quMbe Aitiw£ximR[aE. -aejyet! sh -&TyEs! tav! Aan&z

3.112. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition.

#tran! Aip sio£AdIn! sMàITya g&hm! Aagtan!, àk«Ty£AÚ< ywazi­ -aejyet! sh -ayRya. 3£113

3.113. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give food, garnished (with seasoning) according to his ability, (at the same time) with his wife.

suvaisnI> k…marIz! c raeig[ae gi-R[I> iôy>, Aitiw_yae A¢ @v£@tan! -aejyedœ Aivcaryn!. 3£114

3.114. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly-married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.

AdÅva tu y @te_y> pUv¡ -u“e A£ivc][>, s -uÃanae n janait ñ£g&ØErœ jiGxm! AaTmn>. 3£115

3.115. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures.

-u­vTSv! Aw ivàe;u Sve;u -&Tye;u c£@v ih, -uÃIyata< tt> píadœ Avizò< tu dMptI. 3£116

3.116. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains.

devan! \;In! mnu:ya, pUjiyTva tt> píadœ g&hSw> ze;-ug! -vet!. 3£117

3.117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.

A"< s kevl< -u“e y> pcTyaTmkar[at!, y}izòazn< ýett! stam! AÚ< ivxIyte. 3£118

3.118. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men.

raj£\iTvJ£õatk£guên! iày£ñzur£matulan!, AhRyen! mxupkeR[ pirs. 3£119

3.119. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit).

raja c ïaeiÇyz! c£@v y}kmR{yupiSwtaE, mxupkeR[ s
. 3£120

3.120. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, must be honoured with the honey-mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being performed; that is a settled rule.

say< Tv! AÚSy isÏSy pTNymÙ< bil< hret!, vEñdev< ih nam£@tt! say< àatrœ ivxIyte. 3£121

3.121. But the wife shall offer in the evening (a portion) of the dressed food as a Bali-oblation, without (the recitation of) sacred formulas; for that (rite which is called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning and the evening.

ipt&y}< tu invRTyR ivàz! cNÔ]ye Ai¶man!, ip{faNvahayRk< ïaÏ< k…yaRn! mas£Anumaiskm!. 3£122

3.122. After performing the Pitriyagna, a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire shall offer, month by month, on the new-moon day, the funeral sacrifice (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka.

ipt¨[a< maisk< ïaÏm! ANvahay¡ ivÊrœ buxa>, tc! c£Aim;e[a ktRVy< àzSten àyÆt>. 3£123

3.123. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to be offered after the cakes), and that must be carefully performed with the approved (sorts of) flesh (mentioned below).

tÇ ye -aejnIya> Syurœ ye c vJyaR iÖjaeÄma>, yavNtz! c£@v yEz! c£AÚEs! tan! àvúyaMyze;t>. 3£124

3.124. I will fully declare what and how many (Brahmanas) must be fed on that (occasion), who must be avoided, and on what kinds of food (they shall dine).

ÖaE dEve ipt&kayeR ÇIn! @kEkm! %-yÇ va, -aejyet! su£sm&Ïae Aip n às¾et ivStre. 3£125

3.125. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three at the offering to the manes, or one only on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company.

siT³ya< dez£kalaE c zaEc< äaü[s
, p£@tan! ivStrae hiNt tSman! n£$het ivStrm!. 3£126

3.126. A large company destroys these five (advantages) the respectful treatment (of the invited, the propriety of) place and time, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brahmana (guests); he therefore shall not seek (to entertain) a large company.

àiwta àetk«Tya£@;a ipÈy< nam ivxu]ye, tiSmn! yu­Sy£@it inTy< àetk«Tya£@v laEikkI. 3£127

3.127. Famed is this rite for the dead, called (the sacrifice sacred to the manes (and performed) on the new-moon day; if a man is diligent in (performing) that, (the reward of) the rite for the dead, which is performed according to Smarta rules, reaches him constantly.

ïaeiÇyay£@v deyain hVy£kVyain dat&i->, AhRÄmay ivàay tSmE dÄ< mha)lm!. 3£128

3.128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone; what is given to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward.

@kEkm! Aip ivÖa

3.129. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacrifice) to the gods, and one at (the sacrifice) to the manes; (thus) he will gain a rich reward, not (if he entertains) many who are unacquainted with the Veda.

Ëradœ @v prI]et äaü[< vedpargm!, tIw¡ tΉ hVy£kVyana< àdane sae Aitiw> Sm&t>. 3£130

3.130. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ancestors of) a Brahmana who has studied an entire (recension of the) Veda; (if descended from a virtuous race) such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts (consisting) of food offered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared (to procure as great rewards as) a guest (atithi).

shö< ih shöa[am! An&ca< yÇ -uÃte, @ks! tan! mÙivt! àIt> svaRn! AhRit xmRt>. 3£131

3.131. Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Rikas, were to dine at a (funeral sacrifice), yet a single man, learned in the Veda, who is satisfied (with his entertainment), is worth them all as far as the (production of) spiritual merit (is concerned).

}an£%Tk«òay deyain kVyain c hvI—i; c, n ih hStav! As&iGdGxaE éixre[£@v zuXyt>. 3£132

3.132. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man distinguished by sacred knowledge; for hands, smeared with blood, cannot be cleansed with blood.

yavtae ¢ste ¢asan! hVy£kVye:v! AmÙivt!, tavtae ¢ste àetae dIÝzUl£\iò£Ayaegufan!. 3£133

3.133. As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice to the gods or to the manes, so many red-hot spikes, spears, and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow after death.

}aninóa iÖja> ke ict! tpaeinóas! twa£Apre, tp>£SvaXyayinóaz! c kmRinóas! twa£Apre. 3£134

3.134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the pursuit of) knowledge, and others to (the performance of) austerities; some to austerities and to the recitation of the Veda, and others to (the performance of) sacred rites.

}aninóe;u kVyain àitóaPyain yÆt>, hVyain tu ywaNyay< sveR:v! @v ctu:V Aip. 3£135

3.135. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those devoted to knowledge, but offerings to the gods, in accordance with the reason (of the sacred law), to (men of) all the four (above-mentioned classes).

AïaeiÇy> ipta ySy puÇ> Syadœ vedparg>, AïaeiÇyae va puÇ> Syat! ipta Syadœ vedparg>. 3£136

3.136. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and the Angas,

Jyaya ipta, mÙs

3.137. Know that he whose father knows the Veda, is the more venerable one (of the two); yet the other one is worthy of honour, because respect is due to the Veda (which he has learned).

n ïaÏe -aejyen! imÇ< xnE> kayaeR ASy s<¢h>, nair< n imÇ< y< iv*at! t< ïaÏe -aejyedœ iÖjm!. 3£138

3.138. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice; he may gain his affection by (other) valuable gifts; let him feed at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend.

ySy imÇ£àxanain ïaÏain c hvI—i; c, tSy àeTy )l< n£AiSt ïaÏe;u c hiv>;u c. 3£139

3.139. He who performs funeral sacrifices and offerings to the gods chiefly for the sake of (gaining) friends, reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and sacrifices.

y> s, s SvgaRc! Cyvte laekat! £ ïaÏ£imÇae iÖjaxm>. 3£140

3.140. That meanest among twice-born men who in his folly contracts friendships through a funeral sacrifice, loses heaven, because he performed a Sraddha for the sake of friendship.

s<-aejain sa£Ai-ihta pEzacI di][a iÖjE>, #h£@v£ASte tu sa laeke gaErœ ANxa£#v£@kveZmin. 3£141

3.141. A gift (of food) by twice-born men, consumed with (friends and relatives), is said to be offered to the Pisakas; it remains in this (world) alone like a blind cow in one stable.

ywa£#ir[e bIjm! %Þva n vÝa l-te )lm!, twa£An! £ \ce hivrœ dÅva n data l-te )lm!. 3£142

3.142. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren soil, even so the giver of sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas.

dat¨n! àit¢hIt¨, ivÊ;e di][a< dÅva ivixvt! àeTy c£#h c. 3£143

3.143. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this (life) and after death.

kam< ïaÏe AcRyen! imÇ< n£Ai-êpm! Aip Tv! Airm!. iÖ;ta ih hivrœ -u­< -vit àeTy in:£)lm!. 3£144

3.144. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand), he may rather honour a (virtuous) friend than an enemy, though the latter may be qualified (by learning and so forth); for sacrificial food, eaten by a foe, bears no reward after death.

yÆen -aejyet! £ ïaÏe bþ¯c< vedpargm!, zaoaNtgm! Aw£AXvyu¡ cNdaeg< tu smaiÝkm!. 3£145

3.145. Let him (take) pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-veda who has studied one entire (recension of that) Veda, or a follower of the Yagur-veda who has finished one Sakha, or a singer of Samans who (likewise) has completed (the study of an entire recension).

@;am! ANytmae ySy -uÃIt ïaÏm! AicRt>, ipt¨[a< tSy t&iÝ> Syat! £ zañtI saÝpaEé;I. 3£146

3.146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice, the ancestors of him (who gives the feast), as far as the seventh person, will be satisfied for a very long time.

@; vE àwm> kLp> àdane hVy£kVyyae>, AnukLps! Tv! Ay< }ey> sda siÑrœ Anuiót>. 3£147

3.147. This is the chief rule (to be followed) in offering sacrifices to the gods and manes; know that the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary rule.

matamh< matul< c SvöIy< ñzur< guém!, daEihÇ< ivqœpit< bNxum! \iTvg! yaJyaE c -aejyet!. 3£148

3.148. One may also entertain (on such occasions) one's maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a sister's son, a father-in-law, one's teacher, a daughter's son, a daughter's husband, a cognate kinsman, one's own officiating priest or a man for whom one offers sacrifices.

n äaü[< prI]et dEve kmRi[ xmRivt!, ipÈye kmRi[ tu àaÝe prI]et àyÆt>. 3£149

3.149. For a rite sacred to the gods, he who knows the law will not make (too close) inquiries regarding an (invited) Brahmana; but when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes, one must carefully examine (the qualities and parentage of the guest).

ye Sten£pitt£¬Iba ye c naiStkv&Äy>, tan! hVy£kVyyaerœ ivàan! AnhaRn! mnurœ AävIt!. 3£150

3.150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods and manes.

jiql< c£AnxIyan< ÊbaRl< iktv< twa, yajyiNt c ye pUga

3.151. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a student), one who has not studied (the Veda), one afflicted with a skin-disease, a gambler, nor those who sacrifice for a multitude (of sacrificers).

icikTskan! devlkan! ma Syurœ hVy£kVyyae>. 3£152

3.152. Physicians, temple-priests, sellers of meat, and those who subsist by shop-keeping must be avoided at sacrifices offered to the gods and to the manes.

àe:yae ¢amSy ra}z! c k…noI ZyavdNtk>, àitraeÏa guraez! c£@v Ty­£Ai¶rœ vaxuRi;s! twa. 3£153

3.153. A paid servant of a village or of a king, man with deformed nails or black teeth, one who opposes his teacher, one who has forsaken the sacred fire, and a usurer;

yúmI c pzupalz! c pirveÄa inrak«it>, äüiÖ:£ piriviÄz! c g[a_yNtr @v c. 3£154

3.154. One suffering from consumption, one who subsists by tending cattle, a younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder, one who neglects the five great sacrifices, an enemy of the Brahmana race, an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger, and one who belongs to a company or corporation,

k…zIlvae AvkI[IR c v&;lIpitrœ @v c, paEn-Rvz! c ka[z! c ySy c£%ppitrœ g&he. 3£155

3.155. An actor or singer, one who has broken the vow of studentship, one whose (only or first) wife is a Sudra female, the son of a remarried woman, a one-eyed man, and he in whose house a paramour of his wife (resides);

-&tkaXyapkae yz! c -&tkaXyaipts! twa, zUÔ£iz:yae guéz! c£@v vaGÊò> k…{f£gaelkaE. 3£156

3.156. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition, he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Sudra, he who speaks rudely, the son of an adulteress, and the son of a widow,

Akar[e pirTy­a mata£ipÇaerœ guraes! twa, äaüErœ yaEnEz! c s s. 3£157

3.157. He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher without a (sufficient) reason, he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts either through the Veda or through a marriage,

AgardahI grd> k…{fazI saemiv³yI, smuÔyayI bNdI c tEilk> kªqkark>. 3£158

3.158. An incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by the son of an adulteress, a seller of Soma, he who undertakes voyages by sea, a bard, an oil-man, a suborner to perjury,

ipÇa ivvdmanz! c iktvae m*ps! twa, papraeGyi-zStz! c daiM-kae rsiv³yI. 3£159

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