Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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3.159. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father, the keeper of a gambling-house, a drunkard, he who is afflicted with a disease (in punishment of former) crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite, a seller of substances used for flavouring food,

xnu>£zra[a< ktaR c yz! c£A¢eidix;Upit>, imÇØug! *Ut£v&iÄz! c puÇ£AcayRs! twa£@v c. 3£160

3.160. A maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies with a brother's widow, the betrayer of a friend, one who subsists by gambling, he who learns (the Veda) from his son,

æamrI gNfmalI c iñÈywae ipzuns! twa, %NmÄae ANxz! c vJyaR> Syurœ vedinNdk @v c. 3£161

3.161. An epileptic man, who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands, one afflicted with white leprosy, an informer, a madman, a blind man, and he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided.

hiSt£gae£Añ£%ò+dmkae n]ÇErœ yz! c jIvit, pi][a< pae;kae yz! c yuÏacayRs! twa£@v c. 3£162

3.162. A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who teaches the use of arms,

öaetsa< -edkae yz! c te;a< c£Avr[e rt>, g&hs

3.163. He who diverts water-courses, and he who delights in obstructing them, an architect, a messenger, and he who plants trees (for money),

ñ³IfI ZyenjIvI c kNyaË;k @v c, ih<öae v&;l£v&iÄz! c g[ana< c£@v yajk>. 3£164

3.164. A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who defiles maidens, he who delights in injuring living creatures, he who gains his subsistence from Sudras, and he who offers sacrifices to the Ganas,

Aacar£hIn> ¬Ibz! c inTy< yacnks! twa, k«i;jIvI ðIpdI c siÑrœ iniNdt @v c. 3£165

3.165. He who does not follow the rule of conduct, a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch, one who constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured by virtuous men,

AaEriækae maihi;k> prpUvaRpits! twa, àetinyaRpkz! c£@v vjRnIya> àyÆt>. 3£166

3.166. A shepherd, a keeper of buffaloes, the husband of a remarried woman, and a carrier of dead bodies, (all these) must be carefully avoided.

@tan! ivgihRt£Acaran! Apa“eyan! iÖjaxman!, iÖjaitàvrae ivÖan! %-yÇ ivvjRyet!. 3£167

3.167. A Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at (sacrifices) both (to the gods and to the manes) these lowest of twice-born men, whose conduct is reprehensible, and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company (at a repast).

äaü[ae Tv! AnxIyans! t&[ai¶rœ #v zaMyit, tSmE hVy< n datVy< n ih -Smin øyte. 3£168

3.168. As a fire of dry grass is (unable to consume the offerings and is quickly) extinguished, even so (is it with) an unlearned Brahmana; sacrificial food must not be given to him, since it (would be) offered in ashes.

Apa“dane yae daturœ -vTyUXv¡ )l£%dy>, dEve hivi; ipÈye va t< àvKSyaMyze;t>. 3£169

3.169. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death, if he gives food, destined for the gods or manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in the company.

AìtErœ ydœ iÖjErœ -u­< pirvet&£Aidi-s! twa, Apa“eyErœ ydœ ANyEz! c tdœ vE r]a

3.170. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume (the food) eaten by Brahmanas who have not fulfilled the vow of studentship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and by other men not admissible into the company.

darai¶haeÇs piriviÄs! tu pUvRj>. 3£171

3.171. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother, but the latter as a Parivitti.

piriviÄ> pirveÄa yya c piriv*te, sveR te nrk< yaiNt dat&yajk£pÂma>. 3£172

3.172. The elder brother who marries after the younger, the younger brother who marries before the elder, the female with whom such a marriage is contracted, he who gives her away, and the sacrificing priest, as the fifth, all fall into hell.

æaturœ m&tSy -ayaRya< yae AnurJyet kamt>, xmeR[£Aip inyu­aya< s }eyae idix;Upit>. 3£173

3.173. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother, though she be appointed (to bear a child by him) in accordance with the sacred law, must be known to be a Didhishupati.

prdare;u jayete ÖaE sutaE k…{f£gaelkaE, pTyaE jIvit k…{f> Syan! m&te -tRir gaelk>. 3£174

3.174. Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men; (he who is born) while the husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he who is begotten) after the husband's death, a Golaka.

taE tu jataE pr]eÇe àai[naE àeTy c£#h c, dÄain hVy£kVyain nazyiNt àdaiynam!. 3£175

3.175. But those two creatures, who are born of wives of other men, cause to the giver the loss (of the rewards), both in this life and after death, for the food sacred to gods or manes which has been given (to them).

Apa'œ®yae yavt> p'œ®yan! -uÃanan! AnupZyit, tavta< n )l< tÇ data àaßaeit bailz>. 3£176

3.176. The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the reward for as many worthy guests as a man, inadmissible into company, can look on while they are feeding.

vIúy£ANxae nvte> ka[> ;òe> iñÇI ztSy tu, papraegI shöSy daturœ nazyte )lm!. 3£177

3.177. A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the feast) the loss of the reward for ninety (guests), a one-eyed man for sixty, one who suffers from white leprosy for a hundred, and one punished by a (terrible) disease for a thousand.

yavt> s, tavta< n -vedœ datu> )l< danSy paEitRkm!. 3£168

3.178. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the reward, due for such a non-sacrificial gift, for as many Brahmanas as a (guest) who sacrifices for Sudras may touch (during the meal) with his limbs.

vedivdœ£c£Aip ivàae ASy lae-at! k«Tva àit¢hm!, ivnaz< ìjit i]àm! AampaÇm! #v£AM-is. 3£179

3.179. And if a Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through covetousness a gift from such (a man), he will quickly perish, like a vessel of unburnt clay in water.

saemiv³iy[e ivóa i-;je pUy£zaei[tm!, nò< devlke dÄm! Aàitó< tu vaxuR;aE. 3£180

3.180 (Food) given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, (that given) to a physician pus and blood, but (that presented) to a temple-priest is lost, and (that given) to a usurer finds no place (in the world of the gods).

yt! tu vai[jke dÄ< n£#h n£AmuÇ tdœ -vet!, -Smin£#v ÷t< ÔVy< twa paEn-Rve iÖje. 3£181

3.181. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not (useful) in this world and the next, and (a present) to a Brahmana born of a remarried woman (resembles) an oblation thrown into ashes.

#tre;u Tv! Apa'œ®ye;u ywa£%iÎòe:v! Asaxu;u, medae£As&'œ£ma.

3.182. But the wise declare that the food which (is offered) to other unholy, inadmissible men, enumerated above, (is turned into) adipose secretions, blood, flesh, marrow, and bone.

Apa'œ®y£%phta pi“> paVyte yErœ iÖjaeÄmE>, tan! inbaext kaTSNyeRn iÖja¢!(an! pi“pavnan!. 3£183

3.183. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by (the presence of) unworthy (guests) is purified, and the full (description of) the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

A¢!(a> sveR;u vede;u svRàvcne;u c, ïaeiÇyaNvyjaz! c£@v iv}eya> pi“pavna>. 3£184

3.184. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.

iÇ[aicket> p£Ai¶s! iÇsup[R> ;f¼ivt!, äüdeyaTmsNtanae Jyeósamg @v c. 3£185

3.185. A Trinakiketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Gyeshthasaman,

vedawR£ivt! àv­a c äücarI shöd>, ztayuz! c£@v iv}eya äaü[a> pi“pavna>. 3£186

3.186. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

pUveR*urœ Apre*urœ va ïaÏkmR{yupiSwte, inmÙyet Ç!Y£Avran! sMyg! ivàan! ywa£%idtan!. 3£187

3.187. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.

inmiÙtae iÖj> ipÈye inytaTma -vet! sda, n c cNda

3.188. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha (must act in the same manner).

inmiÙtan! ih iptr %pitóiNt tan! iÖjan!, vayuvt! £ c£Anug½iNt twa£AsInan! %paste. 3£189

3.189. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them (when they walk) like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.

keitts! tu ywaNyay< hVye kVye iÖjaeÄm>, kw< icdœ APyit³amn! pap> sUkrta< ìjet!. 3£190

3.190. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of a crime), and (in his next birth) a hog.

AamiÙts! tu y> ïaÏe v&zLya sh maedte, daturœ ydœ Ê:k«t< ik< ict! tt! sv¡ àitp*te. 3£191

3.191. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed.

A³aexna> zaEc£pra> stt< äücair[>, NySt£zôa mha£-aga> iptr> pUvRdevta>. 3£192

3.192. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.

ySmadœ %TpiÄrœ @te;a< sveR;am! APyze;t>, ye c yErœ %pcyaR> Syurœ inymEs! tan! inbaext. 3£193

3.193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.

mnaerœ hEr{yg-RSy ye mrIic£Ady> suta>, te;am! \;I[a< sveR;a< puÇa> ipt&g[a> Sm&ta>. 3£194

3.194. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Mariki and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.

ivraJ£suta> saemsd> saXyana< iptr> Sm&ta>, Ai¶:vaÄaz! c devana< marIca laekivïuta>. 3£195

3.195. The Somasads, the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, the children of Mariki, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.

dETy£danv£y]a[a< gNxvR£%rg£r]sam!, sup[R£ikÚra[a< c Sm&ta bihR;dae AiÇja>. 3£196

3.196. The Barhishads, born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities, Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,

saempa nam ivàa[a< ]iÇya[a< hiv-uRj>, vEZyanam! AaJypa nam zUÔa[a< tu sukailn>. 3£197

3.197. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.

saempas! tu kve> puÇa hiv:mNtae Ai¼r>suta>, pulSTySy£AJypa> puÇa visóSy sukailn>. 3£198

3.198. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.

Ai¶dGx£Ani¶dGxan! kaVyan! bihR;ds! twa, Ai¶:vaÄa

3.199. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.

y @te tu g[a muOya> ipt¨[a< pirkIitRta>, te;am! Aip£#h iv}ey< puÇ£paEÇm! AnNtkm!. 3£200

3.200. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.

\i;_y> iptrae jata> ipt&_yae dev£manva>, deve_ys! tu jgt! sv¡ cr< Swa{v! AnupUvRz>. 3£201

3.201. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.

rajtErœ -ajnErœ @;am! Awae va rjtaiNvtE>, vayRip ïÏya dÄm! A]yay£%pkLpte. 3£202

3.202. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).

dEvkayaRdœ iÖjatIna< ipt&kay¡ iviz:yte, dEv< ih ipt&kayRSy pUvRm! AaPyayn< Sm&tm!. 3£203

3.203. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas), has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the latter).

te;am! Aar]-Ut< tu pUv¡ dEv< inyaejyet!, rKsa

3.204. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.

dEv£A*Nt< tdœ $het ipt&£A*Nt< n tdœ -vet!, ipt&£A*Nt< Tv! $hman> i]à< nZyit s£ANvy>. 3£205

3.205. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.

zuic< dez< iviv­< c gaemyen£%plepyet!, di]na£àv[< c£@v àyÆen£%ppadyet!. 3£206

3.206. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.

Avkaze;u cae]e;u jltIre;u c£@v ih, iviv­e;u c tu:yiNt dÄen iptr> sda. 3£207

3.207. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.

Aasne;u£%pK¦œÝe;u bihR:mTsu p&wK£p&wkœ, %pSp&ò£%dkan! sMyg! ivàa

3.208. The (sacrificer) shall make the (invited) Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.

%pveZy tu tan! ivàan! Aasne:v! AjuguiPstan!, gNx£maLyE> suri-i-rœ AcRyedœ dEvpUvRkm!. 3£209

3.209. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with (those who are invited in honour of) the gods.

te;am! %dkm! AanIy s£pivÇa sh. 3£210

3.210. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana (sacrificer) shall offer (oblations) in the sacred fire, after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the Brahmana (guests) conjointly.

A¶e> saem£yma_ya< c k«Tva£APyaynm! Aaidt>, hivdaRnen ivixvt! píat! s

3.211. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting (the Sraddha), oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.

Ai¶£A-ave tu ivàSy pa[av! @v£%ppadyet!, yae ýi¶> s iÖjae ivàErœ mÙdizRi-rœ %Cyte. 3£212

3.212. But if no (sacred) fire (is available), he shall place (the offerings) into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, 'What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.'

A³aexnan! su£àsadan! vdNTyetan! puratnan!, laekSy£APyayne yu­an! ïaÏ£devan! iÖjaeÄman!. 3£213

3.213. They (also) call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.

ApsVym! A¶aE k«Tva svRm! Aav&Ty iv³mm!, ApsVyen hSten invRpedœ %dk< -uiv. 3£214

3.214. After he has performed (the oblations) in the fire, (and) the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot (where the cakes are to be placed).

ÇI—s! tu tSmaΉ hiv>ze;at! ip{fan! k«Tva smaiht>, AaEdken£@v ivixna invRpedœ di][a£muo>. 3£215

3.215. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which (he poured out the libations of) water.

NyuPy ip{fa

3.216. Having offered those cakes according to the (prescribed) rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wipings (lepa).

AacMy£%dKprav&Ty iÇrœ AayMy znErœ AsUn!, ;fœ \tU

3.217. Having (next) sipped water, turned round (towards the north), and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, (the sacrificer) who knows the sacred texts shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons and the manes.

%dk< innyet! £ ze;< znE> ip{faiNtke pun>, Avijºec! c tan! ip{fan! ywaNyuÝan! smaiht>. 3£218

3.218. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).

ip{fe_ys! Tv! AiLpka< maÇa< smaday£AnupUvRz>, tan! @v ivàan! AasInan! ivixvt! pUvRm! Aazyet!. 3£219

3.219. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).

iØyma[e tu iptir pUveR;am! @v invRpet!, ivàvdœ va£Aip t< ïaÏe Svk< iptrm! Aazyet!. 3£220

3.220. But if the (sacrificer's) father is living, he must offer (the cakes) to three remoter (ancestors); or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as (one of the) Brahmana (guests).

ipta ySy inv&Ä> Syaj! jIvec! c£Aip iptamh>, iptu> s nam s»ITyR kItRyet! àiptamhm!. 3£221

3.221. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father's name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.

iptamhae va tt! £ ïaÏ< -uÃIt£#TyävIn! mnu>, kam< va smnu}at> Svym! @v smacret!. 3£222

3.222. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha (as a guest), or (the grandson) having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.

te;a< dÅva tu hSte;u s£pivÇ< itl£%dkm!, tiTp{fa¢< ày½et Svxa£@;am! ASTv! #it äuvn!. 3£223

3.223. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the (guests), he shall give (to each) that (above-mentioned) portion of the cake, saying, 'To those, Svadha!'

pai[_ya< tu£%ps

3.224. But carrying (the vessel) filled with food with both hands, the (sacrificer) himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.

%-yaerœ hStyaerœ mu­< ydœ AÚm! %pnIyte, tdœ ivàluMpNTysura> shsa Êò£cets>. 3£225

3.225. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.

gu[a pUv¡ -Umav! @v smaiht>. 3£226

3.226. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,

-úy< -aeJy< c ivivx< mUlain c )lain c, ù*ain c£@v ma

3.227. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.

%pnIy tu tt! sv¡ znkE> susmaiht>, pirve;yet àytae gu[an! svaRn! àcaedyn!. 3£228

3.228. All this he shall present (to his guests), being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each (dish), proclaiming its qualities.

n£Aöm! Aapatyej! jatu n k…Pyen! n£An&t< vdet!, n paden Sp&zedœ AÚ< n c£@tdœ AvxUnyet!. 3£229

3.229. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.

Aö< gmyit àetan! kaepae ArIn! An&t< zun>, padSpzRs! tu r]a

3.230. A tear sends the (food) to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.

ydœ ydœ raecet ivàe_ys! tt! tdœ d*adœ AmTsr>, äüae*az! c kwa> k…yaRt! ipt¨[am! @tdœ $iPstm!. 3£231

3.231. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.

SvaXyay< ïavyet! ipÈye xmRzaôai[ c£@v ih, AaOyanain£#ithasa

3.232. At a (sacrifice in honour) of the manes, he must let (his guests) hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.

h;Ryedœ äaü[a£znE>, AÚa*en£Ask«c! c£@tan! gu[Ez! c pircaedyet!. 3£233

3.233. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly (of each dish), and repeatedly invite (them to eat) by (offering) the food and (praising) its qualities.

ìtSwm! Aip daEihÇ< ïaÏe yÆen -aejyet!, k…tp< c£Asn< d*at! itlEz! c ivikren! mhIm!. 3£234

3.234. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter's son, though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.

ÇIi[ ïaÏe pivÇai[ daEihÇ> k…tps! itla>, ÇIi[ c£AÇ àz

3.235. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter's son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.

ATyu:[< svRm! AÚ< Syadœ -uÃIr, n c iÖjatyae äUyurœ daÇa p&òa hivguR[an!. 3£236

3.236. All the food must be very hot, and the (guests) shall eat in silence; (even though) asked by the giver (of the feast), the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.

yavdœ %:ma -vTyÚ< yavdœ AîiNt vaGyta>, iptrs! tavdœ AîiNt yavt! £ n£%­a hivguR[a>. 3£237

3.237. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake (of it).

ydœ veiòt£izra -u“e ydœ -u“e di][a£muo>, s£%panTkz! c ydœ -u“e tdœ vE r]a

3.238. What (a guest) eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on (his feet), that the Rakshasas consume.

ca{falz! c vrahz! c k…Š…q> ña twa£@v c, rjSvla c ;{Fz! c n£$]erÚ! Aîtae iÖjan!. 3£239

3.239. A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.

haeme àdane -aeJye c ydœ @i-rœ Ai-vIúyte, dEve hivi; ipÈye va tdœ g½Tyywatwm!. 3£240

3.240. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.

ºa[en sUkrae hiNt p]vaten k…Š…q>, ña tu †iòinpaten SpzeR[£Avrv[Rj>. 3£241

3.241. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).

oÃae va yid va ka[ae datu> àe:yae Aip va -vet!, hIn£Aitir­£gaÇae va tm! APypnyet! pun>. 3£242

3.242. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).

äaü[< i-]uk< va£Aip -aejnawRm! %piSwtm!, äaü[Erœ A_ynu}at> zi­t> àitpUjyet!. 3£243

3.243. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.

savRvi[Rkm! AÚa*< s

3.244. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.

As. 3£245

3.245. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.

%½e;[a< -Uimgtm! AijüSy£A£zQSy c, dasvgRSy tt! ipÈye -agxey< àc]te. 3£246

3.246. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.

Aa£sip{fi³yakmR iÖjate> s

3.247. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.

ship{fi³yaya< tu k«tayam! ASy xmRt>, Anya£@v£Av&ta kay¡ ip{finvRpn< sutE>. 3£248

3.248. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)

ïaÏ< -u®va y %i½ò< v&;lay ày½it, s mUFae nrk< yait kalsUÇm! Avai]ra>. 3£249

3.249. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.

ïaÏ-ug! v&;lItLp< tdœ Ahrœ yae Aixg½it, tSya> purI;e t< mas< iptrs! tSy zerte. 3£250

3.250. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.

p&òœva Svidtm! #Tyev< t&Ýan! Aacamyet! tt>, AacaNta

3.251. Having addressed the question, 'Have you dined well?' (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) 'Rest either (here or at home)!'

Svxa£ASTv! #Tyev t< äUyurœ äaü[as! tdnNtrm!, Svxakar> pra ýa;I> sveR;u ipt&kmRsu. 3£252

3.252. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, 'Let there be Svadha;' for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.

ttae -u­vta< te;am! AÚze;< invedyet!, ywa äUyus! twa k…yaRdœ Anu}ats! ttae iÖjE>. 3£253

3.253. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct.

ipÈye Svidtm! #Tyev vaCy< gaeóe tu suz&tm!, s

3.254. At a (Sraddha) in honour of the manes one must use (in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the word) svaditam; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the word) susrutam; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam; and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam.

ApraŸs! twa d-aR vaStus

, s&iòrœ m&iòrœ iÖjaz! c£A¢!(a> ïaÏkmRsu s
. 3£255

3.255. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices.

d-aR> pivÇ< pUvaRŸae hiv:yai[ c svRz>, pivÇ< yc! c pUvR£%­< iv}eya hVys

. 3£256

3.256. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods.

muin£AÚain py> saemae ma

3.257. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food.

ivs&Jy äaü[a zuic>, di][a< idzm! Aaka'œ]n! yacet£#man! vran! ipt¨n!. 3£258

3.258. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes:

datarae nae Ai-vxRNta< veda> s

3.259. 'May liberal men abound with us! May (our knowledge of) the Vedas and (our) progeny increase! May faith not forsake us! May we have much to give (to the needy)!'

@v< invRp[< k«Tva ip{fa

3.260. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water.

ip{finvRp[< ke ict! prStadœ @v k…vRte, vyaei-> oadyNTyNye ài]pNTynle APsu va. 3£261

3.261. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water.

pit£ìta xmRpÆI ipt&pUjn£tTpra, mXym< tu tt> ip{fm! A*at! sMykœ sutaiwRnI. 3£262

3.262. The (sacrificer's) first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, (if she be) desirous of bearing a son.

Aayu:mNt< sut< sUte yzae£mexasmiNvtm!, xnvNt< àjavNt< saiÅvk< xaimRk< twa. 3£263

3.263. (Thus) she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with (the quality of) goodness, and righteous.

àKsaLy hStav! AacaMy }aitàay< àkLpyet!, }ait_y> sTk«t< dÅva baNxvan! Aip -aejyet!. 3£264

3.264. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also.

%½e;[< tu tt! itóedœ yavdœ ivàa ivsijRta>, ttae g&hbil< k…yaRdœ #it xmaeR VyviSwt>. 3£265

3.265. But the remnants shall be left (where they lie) until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the (daily) domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law.

hivrœ yc! icrraÇay yc! c£AnNTyay kLpte, ipt&_yae ivixvdœ dÄ< tt! àvúyaMyze;t>. 3£266

3.266. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity.

itlErœ ìIih£yvErœ ma;Erœ AiÑrœ mUl£)len va, dÄen mas< t&PyiNt ivixvt! iptrae n&nam!. 3£267

3.267. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule,

ÖaE masaE mTSyma zak…nen£Aw p vE. 3£268

3.268. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds,


3.269. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru,

dzmasa, zz£kªmRyaes! tu ma

3.270. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises,


3.271. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years.

kalzak< mhazLka> o¼£laehaim;< mxu, AanNTyay£@v kLPyNte muin£AÚain c svRz>. 3£272

3.272. The (vegetable called) Kalasaka, (the fish called) Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time.

yt! ik< icn! mxuna imï< àd*at! tu ÇyaedzIm!, tdœ APy]ym! @v Syadœ v;aRsu c m"asu c. 3£273

3.273. Whatever (food), mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless (satisfaction).

Aip n> s k…le -Uyadœ yae nae d*at! ÇyaedzIm!, pays< mxu£sipR_ya¡ àakœ caye k…ÃrSy c. 3£274

3.274. 'May such a man (the manes say) be born in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and (in the afternoon) when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'

ydœ ydœ ddait ivixvt! sMykœ ïÏasmiNvt>, tt! tt! ipt¨[a< -vit prÇ£AnNtm! A]ym!. 3£275

3.275. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes.

k«:[p]e dzMyadaE vjRiyTva ctudRzIm!, ïaÏe àzStas! itwyae ywa£@ta n twa£#tra>. 3£276

3.276. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not thus (with) the others.

yu]u k…vRn! idn£\]e;u svaRn! kaman! smîute, Ayu]u tu ipt¨n! svaRn! àja< àaßaeit pu:klam!. 3£277

3.277. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished offspring.

ywa c£@v£Apr> p]> pUvRp]adœ iviz:yte, twa ïaÏSy pUvaRŸadœ ApraŸae iviz:yte. 3£278

3.278. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon.

àacInavIitna sMyg! ApsVym! AtiNÔ[a, ipÈym! Aa inxnat! kay¡ ivixvdœ d-R£pai[na. 3£279

3.279. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony).

raÇaE ïaÏ< n k…vIRt ra]sI kIitRta ih sa, s

3.280. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen.

Anen ivixna ïaÏ< iÇrœ ABdSy£#h invRpet!, hemNt£¢I:m£v;aRsu paÂyi}km! ANvhm!. 3£281

3.281. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every day.

n pEt&yi}yae haemae laEikke A¶aE ivxIyte, n dzeRn ivna ïaÏm! Aaiht£A¶erœ iÖjNmn>. 3£282

3.282. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day.

ydœ @v tpRyTyiÑ> ipt¨n! õaTva iÖjaeÄm>, ten£@v k«Tõm! Aaßaeit ipt&y}i³ya)lm!. 3£283

3.283. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the (daily) Sraddha.

vsUn! vdiNt tu ipt¨n! éÔa

3.284. They call (the manes of) fathers Vasus, (those of) grandfathers Rudras, and (those of) great-grandfathers Adityas; thus (speaks) the eternal Veda.

iv"sazI -ven! inTy< inTy< va£Am&t£-aejn>, iv"sae -u­ze;< tu y}ze;< twa£Am&tm!. 3£285

3.285. Let him daily partake of the vighasa and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from the meal (of Brahmana guests) and the remainder of a sacrifice (is called) amrita.

@tdœ vae Ai-iht< sv¡ ivxan< paÂyi}km!, iÖjaitmuOyv&ÄIna< ivxan< ïUytam! #it. 3£286

3.286. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five (daily great) sacrifices have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas.

Chapter 4
ctuwRm! Aayu;ae -agm! %i;Tva£A*< guraE iÖja> , iÖtIym! Aayu;ae -ag< k«t£darae g&he vset!. 4£01

4.1. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth part of (a man's) life, a Brahmana shall live during the second quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he has wedded a wife.

AÔaehe[£@v -Utanam! ALpÔaehe[ va pun>, ya v&iÄs! ta< smaSway ivàae jIvedœ Anapid. 4£02

4.2. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain (to others), and live (by that) except in times of distress.

yaÇamaÇàisiÏ£Aw¡ SvE> kmRi-rœ AgihRtE>, A¬ezen zrIrSy k…vIRt xns

4.3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by (following those) irreproachable occupations (which are prescribed for) his (caste), without (unduly) fatiguing his body.

\t£Am&ta_ya< jIvet! tu m&ten àm&ten va, sTy£An&ta_yam! Aip va n ñv&Åya kda cn. 4£04

4.4. He may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti (a dog's mode of life).

\tm! %£izl< }eym! Am&t< Syadœ Ayaictm!, m&t< tu yaict< -E]< àm&t< k;R[< Sm&tm!. 4£05

4.5. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked; by Mrita, food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita.

sTy£An&t< tu vai[Jy< ten c£@v£Aip jIVyte, seva ñv&iÄrœ AaOyata tSmat! ta< pirvjRyet!. 4£06

4.6. But trade and (money-lending) are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist. Service is called Svavritti; therefore one should avoid it.

k…sUl£xaNykae va Syat! k…M-I£xaNyk @v va, Èyh£@ihkae va£Aip -vedœ AñStink @v va. 4£07

4.7. He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices for three days, or make no provision for the morrow.

ctu[aRm! Aip c£@te;a< iÖjana< g&hmeixnam!, Jyayan! pr> prae }eyae xmRtae laekijÄm>. 4£08

4.8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later-(named) must be considered more distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely.

;qœ£kmR£@kae -vTye;a< iÇi-rœ ANy> àvtRte, Öa_yam! @kz! ctuwRs! tu äüsTÇe[ jIvit. 4£09

4.9. One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra.

vtRy, #òI> pavaRy[aNtIya> kevla invRpet! sda. 4£10

4.10. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices.

n laekv&Ä< vteRt v&iÄhetae> kw< cn, Aijüam! Azwa< zuÏam! jIvedœ äaü[jIivkam!. 4£11

4.11. Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana.

so£mUl< ivpyRy>. 4£12

4.12. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).

Atae ANytmya v&Åya jIv, SvgR£Ayu:y£yzSyain ìtai[£#main xaryet!. 4£13

4.13. A Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above-mentioned) modes of life, must discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and fame.

ved£%idt< Svk< kmR inTy< k…yaRdœ AtiNÔt>, tΉ ih k…vRn! ywazi­ àaßaeit prma< gitm!. 4£14

4.14. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those according to his ability, attains to the highest state.

n£$het£AwaRn! às¼en n ivéÏen kmR[a, n iv*mane:v! AweR;u n£ATyaRm! Aip yts! tt>. 4£15

4.15. Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor by forbidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be).

#iNÔyaweR;u sveR;u n àsJyet kamt>, Aitàsi­< c£@te;a< mnsa s

4.16. Let him not, out of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual pleasures, and let him carefully obviate an excessive attachment to them, by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart.

svaRn! pirTyjedœ AwaRn! SvaXyaySy ivraeixn>, ywa twa£AXyapy

4.17. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let him maintain himself) anyhow, but study, because that (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of his aims.

vys> kmR[ae AwRSy ïutSy£Ai-jnSy c, ve;£vaC£buiÏ£saêPym! Aacrn! ivcredœ #h. 4£18

4.18. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his age, his occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and his race.

buiÏ£v&iÏ£kra{yazu xNyain c ihtain c, inTy< zaôa{yve]et ingma

4.19. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which teach the acquisition of wealth, those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the Nigamas which explain the Veda.

ywa ywa ih pué;> zaô< smixg½it, twa twa ivjanait iv}an< c£ASy raecte. 4£20

4.20. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the more he fully understands (them), and his great learning shines brightly.

\i;y}< devy}< -Uty}< c svRda, n&y}< ipt&y}< c ywazi­ n hapyet!. 4£21

4.21. Let him never, if he is able (to perform them), neglect the sacrifices to the sages, to the gods, to the Bhutas, to men, and to the manes.

@tan! @ke mhay}an! y}zaôivdae jna>, AnIhmana> sttm! #iNÔye:v! @v juþit. 4£22

4.22. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites, always offer these great sacrifices in their organs (of sensation), without any (external) effort.

vaCyeke juþit àa[< àa[e vac< c svRda, vaic àa[e c pZyNtae y}inv&RiÄm! A]yam!. 4£23

4.23. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice in their speech and their breath yields imperishable (rewards), some always offer their breath in their speech, and their speech in their breath.

}anen£@v£Apre ivàa yjNTyetErœ moE> sda, }an£mUlam! i³yam! @;a< pZyNtae }anc]u;a. 4£24

4.24. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for its root, always perform them through knowledge alone.

Ai¶haeÇ< c ju÷yadœ Aaid£ANte *u£inzae> sda, dzeRn c£AxRmasaNte paE[aRmasen c£@v ih. 4£25

4.25. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half-month,

sSyaNte nvsSy£#ò(a twa£\tu£ANte iÖjae AXvrE>, pzuna Tv! AynSy£AdaE smaNte saEimkErœ moE>. 4£26

4.26. When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain, at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya-) sacrifices, at the solstices an animal (sacrifice), at the end of the year Soma-offerings.

n£An! £ #òœva nvsSy£#ò(a pzuna c£Ai¶man! iÖj>, nvaÚm! A*at! £ ma. 4£27

4.27. A Brahmana, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacrifice).

nven£An! £ AicRta ýSy pzuhVyen c£A¶y>, àa[an! @v£AÄum! #½iNt nvaÚ£Aim;gixRn>. 4£28

4.28. For his fires, not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal, seek to devour his vital spirits, (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh.

Aasn£Azn£zYyai-rœ AiÑrœ mUl£)len va, n£ASy kz! icdœ vsedœ gehe zi­tae An! £ AicRtae Aitiw>. 4£29

4.29. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured, according to his ability, with a seat, food, a couch, water, or roots and fruits.

pa;ai{fnae ivkmRSwan! bEfal£ìitkan! £ zQan!, hEtukan! bk£v&ÄI—z! c vaC£maÇe[£Aip n£AcRyet!. 4£30

4.30. Let him not honour, even by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occupations, men who live like cats, rogues, logicians, (arguing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons.

vediv*a£ìt£õatan! £ ïaeiÇyan! g&hmeixn>, pUjyeΉ hVy£kVyen ivprIta

4.31. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) householders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must avoid those who are different.

zi­tae A£pcmane_yae datVy< g&hmeixna, s ktRVyae An! £ %praext>. 4£32

4.32. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves, and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one's own interest).

rajtae xnm! AiNv½et! s ]uxa, yaJy£ANtevaisnaerœ va£Aip n Tv! ANyt #it iSwit>. 4£33

4.33. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth of a king, of one for whom he sacrifices, and of a pupil, but not of others; that is a settled rule.

n sIdet! õatkae ivà> ]uxa z­> kw< cn, n jI[R£mlvdœ£vasa -vec! c iv-ve sit. 4£34

4.34. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger, nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes, if he possesses property.

K¦œÝkez£no£Zmïurœ daNt> zu¬£AMbr> zuic>, SvaXyaye c£@v yu­> Syan! inTym! AaTmihte;u c. 4£35

4.35. Keeping his hair, nails, and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities, wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure, he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to his welfare.

vE[vI— xaryedœ yiò< s£%dk< c km{flum!, y}aepvIt< ved< c zu-< raEKme c k…{fle. 4£36

4.36. He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) two bright golden ear-rings.

n£$]et£%*Ntm! AaidTy< n£ASt< yaNt< kda cn, n£%ps&ò< n vairSw< n mXy< n-sae gtm!. 4£37

4.37. Let him never look at the sun, when he sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in water, or stands in the middle of the sky.

n l'œ"yedœ vTstÙI— n àxavec! c v;Rit, n c£%dke inrI]et Svêpm! #it xar[a. 4£38

4.38. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains, and let him not look at his own image in water; that is a settled rule.

m&d< ga< dEvt< ivà< "&t< mxu ctu:pwm!, àdi][ain k…vIRt à}ata

4.39. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified butter, honey, a crossway, and well-known trees, turning his right hand towards them.

n£%pg½et! àmÄae Aip iôym! AatRvdzRne, smanzyne c£@v n zyIt tya sh. 4£40

4.40. Let him, though mad with desire, not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let him sleep with her in the same bed.

rjsa£Ai-Pluta< narI— nrSy ýupg½t>, à}a tejae bl< c]urœ Aayuz! c£@v àhIyte. 4£41

4.41. For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions, utterly perish.

ta< ivvjRyts! tSy rjsa smi-Plutam!, à}a tejae bl< c]urœ Aayuz! c£@v àvxRte. 4£42

4.42. If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality will increase.

n£AîIyadœ -ayRya sax¡ n£@nam! $]et c£AîtIm!, ]uvtI— j&M-ma[a< va n c£AsIna< ywasuom!. 4£43

4.43. Let him not eat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease.

n£AÃyNtI— Svke neÇe n c£A_y­am! Anav&tam!, n pZyet! àsvNtI— c tejS£kamae iÖjaeÄm>. 4£44

4.44. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at (a woman) who applies collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth (a child).

n£AÚm! A*adœ @kvasa n n¶> õanm! Aacret!, n mUÇ< piw k…vIRt n -Smin n gaeìje. 4£45

4.45. Let him not eat, dressed with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen,

n )alk«òe n jle n icTya< n c pvRte, n jI[Rdevaytne n vLmIke kda cn. 4£46

4.46. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an ant-hill,

n s£sÅve;u gteR;u n g½Ú! Aip n iSwt>, n ndItIrm! Aasa* n c pvRtmStke. 4£47

4.47. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a river, nor on the top of a mountain.

vayu£Ai¶£ivàm! AaidTym! Ap> pZy, n kda cn k…vIRt iv:£mUÇSy ivsjRnm!. 4£48

4.48. Let him never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water, or cows.

iˆOtrSk«Ty£%½ret! kaó£laeó£pÇ£t&[aidna, ˆo! inyMy àytae vac< s. 4£49

4.49. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head.

ˆOmUÇ£%½ar£smuTsg¡ idva k…yaRdœ %d'œ£muo>, ˆo! di][a£Ai-muoae raÇaE s

4.50. Let him void faeces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day.

ˆOcayayam! ANxkare va raÇav! Ahin va iÖj>, ˆo! ywasuo£muo> k…yaRt! àa[bax£-ye;u c. 4£51

4.51. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.

ˆOàit£Ai¶< àit£sUy¡ c àit£saem£%dk£iÖjm!, ˆo! àit£gu àit£vat< c à}a nZyit meht>. 4£52

4.52. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes.

n£Ai¶< muoen£%pxmen! n¶a< n£$]et c iôym!, n£AmeXy< ài]pedœ A¶aE n c padaE àtapyet!. 4£53

4.53. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth; let him not look at a naked woman; let him not throw any impure substance into the fire, and let him not warm his feet at it.

AxStan! n£%pdXyac! c n c£@nm! Ai-l'œ"yet!, n c£@n< padt> k…yaRn! n àa[£Abaxm! Aacret!. 4£54

4.54. Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like); nor step over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot-(end of his bed); let him not torment living creatures.

n£AîIyat! s

4.55. Let him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight; let him not scratch the ground; let him not take off his garland.

n£APsu mUÇ< purI;< va óIvn< va smuTs&jet!, AmeXyilÝm! ANydœ va laeiht< va iv;ai[ va, 4£56

4.56. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances, nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poisonous things.

n£@k> suPyat! £ zUNygehe n ïeya. 4£57

4.57. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping; let him not converse with a menstruating woman; nor let him go to a sacrifice, if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest).

AGNygare gva< gaeóe äaü[ana< c s

4.58. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept, in a cow-pen, in the presence of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of the Veda, and at meals.

n varyedœ ga< xyNtI— n c£Ac]It kSy ict!, n idiv£#NÔayux< †òœva kSy icdœ dzRyedœ bux>. 4£59

4.59. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise man, if he sees a rainbow in the sky, must not point it out to anybody.

n£AximRke vsedœ ¢ame n Vyaix£b÷le -&zm!, n£@k> àp*et£AXvan< n icr< pvRte vset!. 4£60

4.60. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where diseases are endemic; let him not go alone on a journey, nor reside long on a mountain.

n zUÔraJye invsen! n£AxaimRkjnav&te, n pa;i{fg[a³aNte n£%pS;&qe ANTyjErœ n&i->. 4£61

4.61. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men, nor in one which has become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes.

n -uÃIt£%ϯt£õeh< n£AitsaEihTym! Aacret!. n£Aitàge n£Aitsay< n say< àat£ARizt>. 4£62

4.62. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be a glutton; let him not eat very early (in the morning), nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the evening, if he has eaten (his fill) in the morning.

n k…vIRt v&waceòa< n vayRÃilna ipbet!, n£%Ts¼e -]yedœ -úyan! n jatu Syat! k…tUhlI. 4£63

4.63. Let him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not drink water out of his joined palms; let him not eat food (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity.

n n&Tyedœ Aw va gayen! n vaidÇai[ vadyeT, n£AS)aeqyen! n c úvefen! n c r­ae ivravyet!. 4£64

4.64. Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instruments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion.

n padaE xavyet! ka

4.65. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass; let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled.

%panhaE c vasz! c x&tm! ANyErœ n xaryet!, %pvItm! Al»ar< öj< krkm! @v c. 4£66

4.66. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string, ornaments, a garland, or a water-vessel which have been used by others.

n£A£ivnItErœ -jedœ xuyERrœ n c ]uX£Vyaix£pIiftE>, n i-Ú£z&¼£Ai]£ourErœ n valixivêiptE>. 4£67

4.67. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs have been injured, or whose tails have been disfigured.

ivnItEs! tu ìjen! inTym! AazugErœ l][aiNvtE>, v[R£êp£%ps
àtaeden£Atudn! -&zm!. 4£68

4.68. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and perfect in colour and form, without urging them much with the goad.

balatp> àetxUmae vJy¡ i-Ú< twa£Asnm!, n icN*an! no£raemai[ dNtErœ n£%Tpaqyen! noan!. 4£69

4.69. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided. Let him not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails with his teeth.

n m&t! £ laeó< c m&ÐIyan! n icN*at! krjEs! t&[m!, n kmR in:)l< k…yaRn! n£AyTyam! Asuo£%dym!. 4£70

4.70. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor tear off grass with his nails; let him not do anything that is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future.

laeómdIR t&[½edI nooadI c yae nr>, s ivnaz< ìjTyazu sUcka£Azuicrœ @v c. 4£71

4.71. A man who crushes clods, tears off grass, or bites his nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer and he who neglects (the rules of) purification.

n ivgýR kwa< k…yaRdœ bihrœ maLy< n xaryet!, gva< c yan< p&óen svRwa£@v ivgihRtm!. 4£72

4.72. Let him not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair). To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a blamable act.

AÖare[ c n£AtIyadœ ¢am< va veZm va£Av&tm!, raÇaE c v&]mUlain Ërt> pirvjRyet!. 4£73

4.73. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a long distance from the roots of trees.

n£A]Erœ dIVyet! kda ict! tu Svy< n£%panhaE hret!, zynSwae n -uÃIt n pai[Sw< n c£Asne. 4£74

4.74. Let him never play with dice, nor himself take off his shoes; let him not eat, lying on a bed, nor what has been placed in his hand or on a seat.

sv¡ c itls zyIt£#h n c£%i½ò> Kv icdœ ìjet!. 4£75

4.75. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked, nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals).

AaÔR£pads! tu -uÃIt n£AÔR£pads! tu s

4.76. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but let him not go to bed with wet feet. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life.

Ac]uivR;y< Êg¡ n àp*et kihR ict!, n iv:£mUÇm! %dI]et n ba÷_ya< ndI— tret!. 4£77

4.77. Let him never enter a place, difficult of access, which is impervious to his eye; let him not look at urine or ordure, nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms.

Aixitóen! n keza, n kapaRs£AiSw n tu;an! dI"Rm! Aayurœ ijjIiv;u>. 4£78

4.78. Let him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seed or chaff, if he desires long life.

n s, n mUoERrœ n£AvilÝEz! c n£ANTyErœ n£ANTyavsaiyi->. 4£79

4.79. Let him not stay together with outcasts, nor with Kandalas, nor with Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with overbearing men, nor with low-caste men, nor with Antyavasayins.

n zUÔay mit< d*an! n£%i½ò< n hiv:k«tm!, n c£ASy£%pidzedœ xm¡ n c£ASy ìtm! Aaidzet!. 4£80

4.80. Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance.

yae ýSy xmRm! Aacòe yz! c£@v£Aidzit ìtm!, sae As sh ten£@v m¾it. 4£81

4.81. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita.

n s

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