Georg Bühler's translation of Manusmrti, Oxford 1886


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izr>, n Sp&zec! c£@tdœ %i½òae n c õayadœ ivna tt>. 4£82

4.82. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined; let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe without (submerging) it.

kez¢han! àharaõatz! c tElen n£A¼< ik< icdœ Aip Sp&zet!. 4£83

4.83. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men's) hair, or to strike (himself or others) on the head. When he has bathed (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil.

n ra}> àitg&ŸIyadœ ArajNyàsUitt>, sUna£c³£Xvjvta< vezen£@v c jIvtam!. 4£84

4.84. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race, nor from butchers, oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes.

dzsUna£sm< c³< dzc³£smae Xvj>, dzXvj£smae vezae dzvez£smae n&p>. 4£85

4.85. One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels.

dz sU[ashöai[ yae vahyit saEink>, ten tuLy> Sm&tae raja "aers! tSy àit¢h>. 4£86

4.86. A king is declared to be equal (in wickedness) to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter-houses; to accept presents from him is a terrible (crime).

yae ra}> àitg&Ÿait luBxSy£%½aôvitRn>, s pyaRye[ yait£#man! nrkan! @kiv

4.87. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), will go in succession to the following twenty-one hells:

taimöm! ANxtaimö< mharaErv£raErvaE, nrk< kalsUÇ< c mhanrkm! @v c. 4£88

4.88. Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra hell, Mahanaraka,


4.89. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana, Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putimrittika,

laehz»‚m! \jI;< c pNwan< zaLmlI— ndIm!, AispÇvn< c£@v laehdarkm! @v c. 4£90

4.90. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (flaming) river, Salmala, Asipatravana, and Lohakaraka.

@tdœ ivdNtae ivÖa, n ra}> àitg&ŸiNt àeTy ïeyae Ai-ka'œi][>. 4£91

4.91. Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept presents from a king.

äaüe muøteR buXyet xmR£AwaER c£AnuicNtyet!, kay¬eza

4.92. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred to Brahman, and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom, and of the true meaning of the Veda.

%Tway£AvZyk< k«Tva k«t£zaEc> smaiht>, pUva¡ s

4.93. When he has risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself, let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (devotion).

\;yae dI"Rs, à}a< yzz! c kIit¡ c äüvcRsm! @v c. 4£94

4.94. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and excellence in Vedic knowledge.

ïav{ya< àaEóp*a< va£APyupak«Ty ywaivix, yu­z! cNda

4.95. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half.

pu:ye tu cNdsa< k…yaRdœ bihrœ %TsjRn< iÖj>, ma"zu¬Sy va àaÝe pUvaRŸe àwme Ahin. 4£96

4.96. When the Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come, a Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas.

ywazaô< tu k«Tva£@vm! %Tsg¡ cNdsa< bih>, ivrmet! pi][I— raiÇ< tdœ @v£@km! Ah£inRzm!. 4£97

4.97. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village), as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall stop reading during two days and the intervening night, or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) night.

At ^Xv¡ tu cNda pQet!, veda¼ain c svaRi[ k«:[p]e;u s

4.98. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights.

n£AivSpòm! AxIyIt n zUÔjnsiÚxaE, n inzaNte pirïaNtae äü£AxITy pun> Svpet!. 4£99

4.99. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep.

ywa£%idten ivixna inTy< cNdSk«t< pQet!, äü cNdSk«t< c£@v iÖjae yu­ae ýnapid, 4£100

4.100. According to the rule declared above, let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zealous Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita.

#man! inTym! AnXyayan! AxIyanae ivvjRyet!, AXyapn< c k…vaR[> iz:ya[a< ivixpUvRkm!. 4£101

4.101. Let him who studies always avoid (reading) on the following occasions when the Veda-study is forbidden, and (let) him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule (do it likewise).

k[Rïve Ainle raÇaE idva pa àc]te. 4£102

4.102. Those who know the (rules of) recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must be stopped on these two (occasions), when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time.

iv*ut! £ Stint£v;eR;u mha£%Lkana< c s

4.103. Manu has stated, that when lightning, thunder, and rain (are observed together), or when large fiery meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour (on the next day, counting from the occurrence of the event).


4.104. When one perceives these (phenomena) all together (in the twilight), after the sacred fires have been made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be forbidden, and also when clouds appear out of season.

in"aRte -Uimclne Jyaeit;a< c£%psjRne, @tan! Aakailkan! iv*adœ AnXyayan! \tav! Aip. 4£104

4.105. On (the occasion of) a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake, and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo, let him know that (the Veda-study must be) stopped until the same hour (on the next day), even if (these phenomena happen) in the (rainy) season.

àaÊ:k«te:v! Ai¶;u tu iv*ut! £ Stint£in>Svne, s£Jyaeit> Syadœ AnXyay> ze;e raÇaE ywa idva. 4£106

4.106. But when lightning and the roar of thunder (are observed) after the sacred fires have been made to blaze, the stoppage shall last as long as the light (of the sun or of the stars is visible); if the remaining (above-named phenomenon, rain, occurs, the reading shall cease), both in the day-time and at night.

inTy£AnXyay @v Syadœ ¢ame;u ngre;u c, xmRnEpu{y£kamana< pUitgNxe c svRda. 4£107

4.107. For those who wish to acquire exceedingiy great merit, a continual interruption of the Veda-study (is prescribed) in villages and in towns, and (the Veda-study must) always (cease) when any kind of foul smell (is perceptible).

ANtgRt£zve ¢ame v&;lSy c siÚxaE, AnXyayae é*mane smvaye jnSy c. 4£108

4.108. In a village where a corpse lies, in the presence of a (man who lives as unrighteously as a) Sudra, while (the sound of) weeping (is heard), and in a crowd of men the (recitation of the Veda must be) stopped.

%dke mXyraÇe c iv:£mUÇSy ivsjRne, %i½ò> ïaÏ-ukœ c£@v mnsa£Aip n icNtyet!,4£109

4.109. In water, during the middle part of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and after he has partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must not even think in his heart (of the sacred texts).

àitg&ý iÖjae ivÖan! @kaeiÎòSy ketnm!, Èyh< n kItRyedœ äü ra}ae rahaez! c sUtke. 4£110

4.110. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days, when he has accepted an invitation to a (funeral rite) in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure.

yavdœ @kanuidòSy gNxae lepz! c itóit, ivàSy ivÊ;ae dehe tavdœ äü n kItRyet!. 4£111

4.111. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a learned Brahmana, so long he must not recite the Veda.

zyan> àaEF£padz! c k«Tva c£@v£AvsiKwkam!, n£AxIyIt£Aim;< jGXva sUtkaÚa*m! @v c. 4£112

4.112. While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a death,

nIhare ba[zBde c s, AmavaSya£ctudRZyae> paE[RmaSY£Aòkasu c. 4£113

4.113. Nor during a fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during both the twilights, nor on the new-moon day, nor on the fourteenth and the eighth (days of each half-month), nor on the full-moon day.

AmavaSya gué< hiNt iz:y< hiNt ctudRzI, äü£Aòk£paE[RmaSyaE tSmat! ta> pirvjRyet!. 4£114

4.114. The new-moon day destroys the teacher, the fourteenth (day) the pupil, the eighth and the full-moon days (destroy all remembrance of) the Veda; let him therefore avoid (reading on) those (days).

pa. 4£115

4.115. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is preternaturally red, nor while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels (is heard), nor while (he is seated) in a company.

n£AxIyIt ZmzanaNte ¢amaNte gaeìje Aip va, visTva mEwun< vas> ïaiÏk< àitg&ý c. 4£116

4.116. Let him not study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment which he wore during conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice.

àai[ va yid va£Aàai[ yt! ik< ict! £ ïaiÏk< -vet!, tdœ Aal_y£APynXyay> pa{Y£ASyae ih iÖj> Sm&t>. 4£117

4.117. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth.

caerErœ %pÔ‚te ¢ame s<æme c£Ai¶kairte, Aakailkm! AnXyay< iv*at! svaRÑ‚te;u c. 4£118

4.118. When the village has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been raised by fire, let him know that (the Veda-study must be) interrupted until the same hour (on the next day), and on (the occurrence of) all portents.

%pakmRi[ c£%TsgeR iÇraÇ< ]ep[< Sm&tm!, Aòkasu Tv! AhaeraÇm! \TvNtasu c raiÇ;u. 4£119

4.119. On (the occasion of) the Upakarman and (of) the Vedotsarga an omission (of the Veda-study) for three days has been prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night.

n£AxIyIt£Añm! AaêFae n v&]< n c hiStnm!, n nav< n or< n£%ò+< n£#ir[Swae n yang>. 4£120

4.120. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat (or ship), nor on a donkey, nor on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a carriage,

n ivvade n klhe n senaya< n s

4.121. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor during a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle, nor when he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructations,

Aitiw< c£An! £ Anu}aPy maéte vait va -&zm!, éixre c öute gaÇat! £ zôe[ c pir]te. 4£122

4.122. Nor without receiving permission from a guest (who stays in his house), nor while the wind blows vehemently, nor while blood flows from his body, nor when he is wounded by a weapon.

samXvnav! \C£yju;I n£AxIyIt kda cn, vedSy£AxITy va£APyNtm! Aar{ykm! AxITy c. 4£123

4.123. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or the Yagur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard; (let him stop all Veda-study for a day and a night) after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka.

\Gvedae dev£dEvTyae yjuveRds! tu manu;>, samved> Sm&t> ipÈys! tSmat! tSy£Azuicrœ Xvin>. 4£124

4.124. The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the Yagur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda sacred to the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure (as it were).

@tdœ ivÖNtae ivÖa pUvRm! A_ySy píadœ vedm! AxIyte. 4£125

4.125. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three (Vedas) and afterwards the (text of the) Veda.

pzu£m{fªk£majaRr£ñ£spR£nk…l£Aoui->, ANtragmne iv*adœ AnXyaym! Ah£inRzm!. 4£126

4.126. Know that (the Veda-study must be) interrupted for a day and a night, when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a snake, an ichneumon, or a rat pass between (the teacher and his pupil).

Öav! @v vjRyen! inTym! AnXyayaE àyÆt>, SvaXyay-Uim< c£AzuÏm! AaTman< c£Azuic< iÖj>. 4£127

4.127. Let a twice-born man always carefully interrupt the Veda-study on two (occasions, viz.) when the place where he recites is impure, and when he himself is unpurified.

AmavaSyam! AòmI— c paE[RmasI— ctudRzIm!, äücarI -ven! inTym! APy&taE õatkae iÖj>. 4£128

4.128. A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar day of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper for conjugal intercourse).

n õanm! Aacredœ -u®va n£Aturae n mhainiz, n vasaei-> sh£Ajö< n£Aiv}ate jlazye. 4£129

4.129. Let him not bathe (immediately) after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the middle of the night, nor frequently dressed in all his garments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know.

devtana< gurae ra}> õatk£AcayRyaes! twa, n£A³amet! kamtz! caya< bæu[ae dIi]tSy c. 4£130

4.130. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka, of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacrifice (Dikshita).


4.131. At midday and at midnight, after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two twilights let him not stay long on a cross-road.

%ÖtRnm! Apõan< iv:£mUÇe r­m! @v c, ðeZm£inó(Ut£vaNtain n£Aixitóet! tu kamt>. 4£132

4.132. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or ordure, on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vomited.

vEir[< n£%psevet shay< c£@v vEir[>, AxaimRk< tSkr< c prSy£@v c yaei;t<. 4£133

4.133. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man, to a thief, or to the wife of another man.

n ih£$†zm! Anayu:y< laeke ik< cn iv*te, ya†z< pué;Sy£#h prdar£%psevnm!. 4£134

4.134. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man's wife.

]iÇy< c£@v sp¡ c äaü[< c b÷£ïutm!, n£AvmNyet vE -U:[u> k«zan! Aip kda cn. 4£135

4.135. Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be they ever so feeble.

@tt! Çy< ih pué;< indRhedœ Avmaintm!, tSmadœ @tt! Çy< inTy< n£AvmNyet buiÏman!. 4£136

4.136. Because these three, when treated with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise man must never despise them.

n£ATmanm! AvmNyet puvaRi-rœ Asm&iÏi->, Aa m&Tyae> iïym! AiNv½en! n£@na< mNyet Ê£lR-am!. 4£137

4.137. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures; until death let him seek fortune, nor despair of gaining it.

sTy< äUyat! iày< äUyan! n äUyat! sTym! Aiàym!, iày< c n£An&t< äUyadœ @; xmR> snatn>. 4£138

4.138. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter no disagreeable truth, and let him utter no agreeable falsehood; that is the eternal law.

-Ô< -Ôm! #it äUyadœ -Ôm! #Tyev va vdet!, zu:k£vEr< ivvad< c n k…yaRt! ken ict! sh. 4£139

4.139. (What is) well, let him call well, or let him say 'well' only; let him not engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody.

n£AitkLy< n£Aitsay< n£AitmXy sh. 4£140

4.140. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday (heat), nor with an unknown (companion), nor alone, nor with Sudras.

hIn£A¼an! Aitir­£A¼an! iv*a£hInan! vyae£Aixkan!. êp£Ôiv[£hIna

4.141. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs, nor those destitute of knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth.

n Sp&zet! pai[na£%i½òae ivàae gae£äaü[£Anla[!, n c£Aip pZyedœ Azuic> suSwae JyaeitgR[an! idva. 4£142

4.142. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or fire; nor, being in good health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while he is impure.

Sp&òœva£@tan! Azuicrœ inTym! AiÑ> àa[an! %pSp&zet!, gaÇai[ c£@v svaRi[ nai-< pai[tlen tu. 4£143

4.143. If he has touched these, while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of sensation, all his limbs, and the navel.

An! £ Aatur> Svain oain n Sp&zedœ AinimÄt>, raemai[ c rhSyain svaR{yev ivvjRyet!. 4£144

4.144. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason, and he must avoid (to touch) the hair on the secret (parts).

m¼l£Acaryu­> Syat! àyt£ATma ijt£#iNÔy>, jpec! c ju÷yac! c£@v inTym! Ai¶m! AtiNÔt>. 4£145

4.145. Let him eagerly follow the (customs which are) auspicious and the rule of good conduct, be careful of purity, and control all his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily offer oblations in the fire.

m¼l£Acaryu­ana< inTy< c àyt£ATmnam!, jpta< juþta< c£@v ivinpatae n iv*te. 4£146

4.146. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct, to those who are always careful of purity, and to those who mutter (sacred texts) and offer burnt-oblations.

vedm! @v£A_ysen! inTy< ywakalm! AtiNÔt>, t< ýSy£A÷> pr< xmRm! %pxmaeR ANy %Cyte. 4£147

4.147. Let him, without tiring, daily mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare that to be one's highest duty; (all) other (observances) are called secondary duties.

veda_yasen stt< zaEcen tpsa£@v c, AÔaehe[ c -Utana< jait< Smrit paEivRkIm!. 4£148

4.148. By daily reciting the Veda, by (the observance of the rules of) purification, by (practising) austerities, and by doing no injury to created beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births.

paEivRkI— s, äüa_yasen c£Ajöm! AnNt< suom! Aîute. 4£149

4.149. He who, recollecting his former existences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda.

saivÇan! £ zaiNthaema, ipt¨

4.150. Let him always offer on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens, and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes.

Ëradœ Aavswan! mUÇ< Ërat! padavsecnm!, %i½:taÚ£in;ek< c Ëradœ @v smacret!. 4£151

4.151. Far from his dwelling let him remove urine (and ordure), far (let him remove) the water used for washing his feet, and far the remnants of food and the water from his bath.

mEÇ< àsaxn< õan< dNtxavnm! AÃnm!, pUvaRŸ @v k…vIRt devtana< c pUjnm!. 4£152

4.152. Early in the morning only let him void faeces, decorate (his body), bathe, clean his teeth, apply collyrium to his eyes, and worship the gods.

dEvtaNyi-g½et! tu xaimRka

4.153. But on the Parva-days let him go to visit the (images of the) gods, and virtuous Brahmanas, and the ruler (of the country), for the sake of protection, as well as his Gurus.

Ai-vadyedœ v&Ïa p&ótae AiNvyat!. 4£154

4.154. Let him reverentially salute venerable men (who visit him), give them his own seat, let him sit near them with joined hands and, when they leave, (accompany them), walking behind them.

ïuit£Sm&it£%idt< sMy'œ inbÏ< Sve;u kmRsu, xmRmUl< in;evet sdœ£Acarm! AtiNÔt>. 4£155

4.155. Let him, untired, follow the conduct of virtuous men, connected with his occupations, which has been fully declared in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition (Smriti) and is the root of the sacred law.

Aacarat! £ l-te ýayurœ Aacaradœ $iPsta> àja>, Aacaradœ xnm! A]Yym! Aacarae hNTyl][m!. 4£156

4.156. Through virtuous conduct he obtains long life, through virtuous conduct desirable offspring, through virtuous conduct imperishable wealth; virtuous conduct destroys (the effect of) inauspicious marks.

Ê£ARcarae ih pué;ae laeke -vit iniNdt>, Ê>o-agI c stt< Vyaixtae ALp£Ayurœ @v c. 4£157

4.157. For a man of bad conduct is blamed among people, constantly suffers misfortunes, is afflicted with diseases, and short-lived.

svRl][£hInae Aip y> sdacarvan! nr>, ïÎxanae An! £ AsUyz! c zt< v;aRi[ jIvit. 4£158

4.158. A man who follows the conduct of the virtuous, has faith and is free from envy, lives a hundred years, though he be entirely destitute of auspicious marks.

ydœ yt! prvz< kmR tt! tdœ yÆen vjRyet!. ydœ ydœ AaTmvz< tu Syat! tt! tt! sevet yÆt>,4£159

4.159. Let him carefully avoid all undertakings (the success of) which depends on others; but let him eagerly pursue that (the accomplishment of) which depends on himself.

sv¡ prvz< Ê>o< svRm! AaTmvz< suom!, @tdœ iv*at! smasen l][< suo£Ê>oyae>. 4£160

4.160. Everything that depends on others (gives) pain, everything that depends on oneself (gives) pleasure; know that this is the short definition of pleasure and pain.

yt! kmR k…vRtae ASy Syat! pirtae;ae ANtraTmn>, tt! àyÆen k…vIRt ivprIt< tu vjRyet!. 4£161

4.161. When the performance of an act gladdens his heart, let him perform it with diligence; but let him avoid the opposite.

Aacay¡ c àv­ar< iptr< matr< guém!, n ih. 4£162

4.162. Let him never offend the teacher who initiated him, nor him who explained the Veda, nor his father and mother, nor (any other) Guru, nor cows, nor Brahmanas, nor any men performing austerities.

naiStKy< vedinNda< c devtana< c k…Tsnm!, Öe;< dM-< c man< c ³aex< tEú{y< c vjRyet!. 4£163

4.163. Let him avoid atheism, cavilling at the Vedas, contempt of the gods, hatred, want of modesty, pride, anger, and harshness.

prSy d{f< n£%*½et! ³…Ïae n£@n< inpatyet!, ANyÇ puÇat! £ iz:yadœ va iziò£Aw¡ tafyet! tu taE. 4£164

4.164. Let him, when angry, not raise a stick against another man, nor strike (anybody) except a son or a pupil; those two he may beat in order to correct them.

äaü[ay£AvguyR£@v iÖjaitrœ vxkaMyya, zt< v;aRi[ taimöe nrke pirvtRte. 4£165

4.165. A twice-born man who has merely threatened a Brahmana with the intention of (doing him) a corporal injury, will wander about for a hundred years in the Tamisra hell.

tafiyTva t&[en£Aip s papyaein;u jayte. 4£166

4.166. Having intentionally struck him in anger, even with a blade of grass, he will be born during twenty-one existences in the wombs (of such beings where men are born in punishment of their) sins.

AyuXymanSy£%Tpa* äaü[Sy£As&g! A¼t>, Ê>o< sumhdœ Aaßaeit àeTy£Aàa}tya nr>. 4£167

4.167. A man who in his folly caused blood to flow from the body of a Brahmana who does not attack him, will suffer after death exceedingly great pain.

zaei[t< yavt> pa zaei[t£%Tpadkae A*te. 4£168

4.168. As many particles of dust as the blood takes up from the ground, during so many years the spiller of the blood will be devoured by other (animals) in the next world.

n kda icdœ iÖje tSmadœ ivÖan! Avguredœ Aip, n tafyet! t&[en£Aip n gaÇat! öavyedœ As&kœ. 4£169

4.169. A wise man should therefore never threaten a Brahmana, nor strike him even with a blade of grass, nor cause his blood to flow.

AxaimRkae nrae yae ih ySy c£APyn&t< xnm!, ih

4.170. Neither a man who (lives) unrighteously, nor he who (acquires) wealth (by telling) falsehoods, nor he who always delights in doing injury, ever attain happiness in this world.

n sIdÚ! Aip xmeR[ mnae AxmeR invezyet!, AxaimRkana< papanam! Aazu pZyn! ivpyRym!. 4£171

4.171. Let him, though suffering in consequence of his righteousness, never turn his heart to unrighteousness; for he will see the speedy overthrow of unrighteous, wicked men.

n£AxmRz! cirtae laeke s*> )lit gaErœ #v, znErœ AavTyRmans! tu ktuRrœ mUlain k«Ntit. 4£172

4.172. Unrighteousness, practised in this world, does not at once produce its fruit, like a cow; but, advancing slowly, it cuts off the roots of him who committed it.

yid n£ATmin puÇe;u n cet! puÇe;u nÝ&;u, n Tv! @v tu k«tae AxmR> ktuRrœ -vit in:£)l>. 4£173

4.173. If (the punishment falls) not on (the offender) himself, (it falls) on his sons, if not on the sons, (at least) on his grandsons; but an iniquity (once) committed, never fails to produce fruit to him who wrought it.

AxmeR[£@xte tavt! ttae -Ôai[ pZyit, tt> spÆan! jyit s£mUls! tu ivnZyit. 4£174

4.174. He prospers for a while through unrighteousness, then he gains great good fortune, next he conquers his enemies, but (at last) he perishes (branch and) root.

sTy£xmR£AyRv&Äe;u zaEce c£@v£Armet! sda, iz:ya. 4£175

4.175. Let him always delight in truthfulness, (obedience to) the sacred law, conduct worthy of an Aryan, and purity; let him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law; let him keep his speech, his arms, and his belly under control.

pirTyjedœ AwR£kamaE yaE Syata< xmRvijRtaE, xm¡ c£APysuo£%dk¡ laeks<³…òm! @v c. 4£176

4.176. Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires, if they are opposed to the sacred law, and even lawful acts which may cause pain in the future or are offensive to men.

n pai[£pad£cplae n neÇ£cplae An! £ \ju>, n Syadœ vaK£cplz! c£@v n prÔaehkmR£xI>. 4£177

4.177. Let him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet, or with his eyes, nor crooked (in his ways), nor talk idly, nor injure others by deeds or even think of it.

yen£ASy iptrae yata yen yata> iptamha>, ten yayat! sta< mag¡ ten g½n! n ir:yit. 4£178

4.178. Let him walk in that path of holy men which his fathers and his grandfathers followed; while he walks in that, he will not suffer harm.

\iTvK£puraeiht£AcayERrœ matul£Aitiws, bal£v&Ï£AturErœ vE*Erœ }ait£s. 4£179

4.179. With an officiating or a domestic priest, with a teacher, with a maternal uncle, a guest and a dependant, with infants, aged and sick men, with learned men, with his paternal relatives, connexions by marriage and maternal relatives,

mata£ipt&_ya< jamIi-rœ æaÇa puÇe[ -ayRya, ÊihÇa dasvgeR[ ivvad< n smacret!. 4£180

4.180. With his father and his mother, with female relatives, with a brother, with his son and his wife, with his daughter and with his slaves, let him not have quarrels.

@tErœ ivvadan! s àmuCyte, @tErœ ijtEz! c jyit svaRn! £ laekan! #man! g&hI. 4£181

4.181. If he avoids quarrels with these persons, he will be freed from all sins, and by suppressing (all) such (quarrels) a householder conquers all the following worlds.

AacayaeR äülaek£$z> àajapTye ipta à-u>, Aitiws! Tv! #NÔlaek£$zae devlaekSy c£\iTvj>. 4£182

4.182. The teacher is the lord of the world of Brahman, the father has power over the world of the Lord of created beings (Pragapati), a guest rules over the world of Indra, and the priests over the world of the gods.

jamyae APsrsam! laeke vEñdevSy baNxva>, s

4.183. The female relatives (have power) over the world of the Apsarases, the maternal relatives over that of the Visve Devas, the connexions by marriage over that of the waters, the mother and the maternal uncle over the earth.

Aakaz£$zas! tu iv}eya bal£v&Ï£k«z£Atura>, æata Jyeó> sm> ipÇa -ayaR puÇ> Svka tnu>. 4£184

4.184. Infants, aged, poor and sick men must be considered as rulers of the middle sphere, the eldest brother as equal to one's father, one's wife and one's son as one's own body,

caya Svae dasvgRz! c Êihta k«p[< prm!, tSmadœ @tErœ Aixi]Ý> shet£A£s sda. 4£185

4.185. One's slaves as one's shadow, one's daughter as the highest object of tenderness; hence if one is offended by (any one of) these, one must bear it without resentment.

àit¢hsmwaeR Aip às¼< tÇ vjRyet!, àit¢he[ ýSy£Azu äaü< tej> àzaMyit. 4£186

4.186. Though (by his learning and sanctity) he may be entitled to accept presents, let him not attach himself (too much) to that (habit); for through his accepting (many) presents the divine light in him is soon extinguished.

n ÔVya[am! Aiv}ay ivix< xMy¡ àit¢he, àa}> àit¢h< k…yaRdœ AvsIdÚ! Aip ]uxa. 4£187

4.187. Without a full knowledge of the rules, prescribed by the sacred law for the acceptance of presents, a wise man should not take anything, even though he may pine with hunger.

ihr{y< -Uimm! Añ< gam! AÚ< vass! itlan! "&tm!, àitg&ŸÚ! AivÖa

4.188. But an ignorant (man) who accepts gold, land, a horse, a cow, food, a dress, sesamum-grains, (or) clarified butter, is reduced to ashes like (a piece of) wood.

ihr{ym! Aayurœ AÚ< c -Urœ gaEz! c£APyae;ts! tnum!, Añz! c]us! Tvc< vasae "&t< tejs! itlahœ àja>. 4£189

4.189. Gold and food destroy his longevity, land and a cow his body, a horse his eye (sight), a garment his skin, clarified butter his energy, sesamum-grains his offspring.

Atpas! Tv! AnxIyan> àit¢h£éicrœ iÖj>, AM-SyZmPlven£#v sh ten£@v m¾it. 4£190

4.190. A Brahmana who neither performs austerities nor studies the Veda, yet delights in accepting gifts, sinks with the (donor into hell), just as (he who attempts to cross over in) a boat made of stone (is submerged) in the water.

tSmadœ AivÖan! ibi-yadœ ySmat! tSmat! àit¢hat!, SvLpken£APyivÖan! ih p»e gaErœ #v sIdit. 4£191

4.191. Hence an ignorant (man) should be afraid of accepting any presents; for by reason of a very small (gift) even a fool sinks (into hell) as a cow into a morass.

n vayRip ày½et! tu bEfalìitke iÖje, n bkìitke pape n£A£vedivid xmRivt!. 4£192

4.192. (A man) who knows the law should not offer even water to a Brahmana who acts like a cat, nor to a Brahmana who acts like a heron, nor to one who is unacquainted with the Veda.

iÇ:v! APyete;u dÄ< ih ivixna£APyijRt< xnm!, daturœ -vTynwaRy prÇ£Adaturœ @v c. 4£193

4.193. For property, though earned in accordance with prescribed rules, which is given to these three (persons), causes in the next world misery both to the giver and to the recipient.

ywa Plven£Aplen inm¾Tyudke trn!, twa inm¾tae AxStadœ A}aE dat&£àtI½kaE. 4£194

4.194. As he who (attempts to) cross water in a boat of stone sinks (to the bottom), even so an ignorant donor and an ignorant donee sink low.

xmRXvjI sda luBxz! caiÒkae laekdM-k>. bEfalìitkae }eyae ih<ö> svaRi-s. 4£195

4.195. (A man) who, ever covetous, displays the flag of virtue, (who is) a hypocrite, a deceiver of the people, intent on doing injury, (and) a detractor (from the merits) of all men, one must know to be one who acts like a cat.

Axae£†iòrœ nE:k«itk> SvawRsaxn£tTpr>, zQae imWyaivnItz! c bkìtcrae iÖj>. 4£196

4.196. That Brahmana, who with downcast look, of a cruel disposition, is solely intent on attaining his own ends, dishonest and falsely gentle, is one who acts like a heron.

ye bkìitnae ivàa ye c majaRrili¼n>, te ptNTyNxtaimöe ten papen kmR[a. 4£197

4.197. Those Brahmanas who act like herons, and those who display the characteristics of cats, fall in consequence of that wicked mode of acting into (the hell called) Andhatamisra.

n xmRSy£Apdezen pap< k«Tva ìt< cret!, ìten pap< à½a* k…vRn! ôI£zUÔ£dM-nm!. 4£198

4.198. When he has committed a sin, let him not perform a penance under the pretence (that the act is intended to gain) spiritual merit, (thus) hiding his sin under (the pretext of) a vow and deceiving women and Sudras.

àeTy£#h c£$†za ivàa gýRNte äüvaidi->, cÒna cirt< yc! c ìt< r]a

4.199. Such Brahmanas are reprehended after death and in this (life) by those who expound the Veda, and a vow, performed under a false pretence, goes to the Rakshasas.

Ail¼I ili¼ve;e[ yae v&iÄm! %pjIvit, s ili¼na< hrTyens! ityRGyaenaE c jayte. 4£200

4.200. He who, without being a student, gains his livelihood by (wearing) the dress of a student, takes upon himself the guilt of (all) students and is born again in the womb of an animal.

prkIyinpane;u n õayaΉ ih kda cn, inpanktuR> õaTva tu Ê:k«ta

4.201. Let him never bathe in tanks belonging to other men; if he bathes (in such a one), he is tainted by a portion of the guilt of him who made the tank.

yan£zYya£AsnaNySy kªp£%*an£g&hai[ c, AdÄaNyupyuÃan @ns> Syat! turIy£-akœ. 4£202

4.202. He who uses without permission a carriage, a bed, a seat, a well, a garden or a house belonging to an (other man), takes upon himself one fourth of (the owner's) guilt.

ndI;u devoate;u tfage;u sr>su c, õan< smacren! inTy< gtR£àöv[e;u c. 4£203

4.203. Let him always bathe in rivers, in ponds, dug by the gods (themselves), in lakes, and in waterholes or springs.

yman! sevet stt< n inTy< inyman! bux>, yman! ptTyk…vaR[ae inyman! kevlan! -jn!. 4£204

4.204. A wise man should constantly discharge the paramount duties (called yama), but not always the minor ones (called niyama); for he who does not discharge the former, while he obeys the latter alone, becomes an outcast.

n£AïaeiÇytte y}e ¢amyaijk«te twa, iôya ¬Iben c ÷te -uÃIt äaü[> Kv ict!. 4£205

4.205. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice that is offered by one who is not a Srotriya, by one who sacrifices for a multitude of men, by a woman, or by a eunuch.

AðIkm! @tt! saxUna< yÇ juþTymI hiv>, àtIpm! @tdœ devana< tSmat! tt! pirvjRyet!. 4£206

4.206. When those persons offer sacrificial viands in the fire, it is unlucky for holy (men) it displeases the gods; let him therefore avoid it.

mÄ£³…Ï£Atura[a< c n -uÃIt kda cn, kez£kIqavpÚ< c pda Sp&ò< c kamt>. 4£207

4.207. Let him never eat (food given) by intoxicated, angry, or sick (men), nor that in which hair or insects are found, nor what has been touched intentionally with the foot,

æU[¹£Avei]t< c£@v s

4.208. Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brahmana has looked, nor that which has been touched by a menstruating woman, nor that which has been pecked at by birds or touched by a dog,

gva c£AÚm! %pºat< "uòaÚ< c ivze;t>, g[aÚ< gi[kaÚ< c ivÊ;a c juguiPstm!. 4£209

4.209. Nor food at which a cow has smelt, nor particularly that which has been offered by an invitation to all comers, nor that (given) by a multitude or by harlots, nor that which is declared to be had by a learned (man),

Sten£gaynyaez! c£AÚ< tú[ae vaxuRi;kSy c, dIi]tSy kdyRSy bÏSy ingfSy c. 4£210

4.210. Nor the food (given) by a thief, a musician, a carpenter, a usurer, one who has been initiated (for the performance of a Srauta sacrifice), a miser, one bound with fetters,

Ai-zStSy ;{FSy pu<íLya daiM-kSy c, zu­< pyuRi;t< c£@v zUÔSy£%i½òm! @v c. 4£211

4.211. By one accused of a mortal sin (Abhisasta), a hermaphrodite, an unchaste woman, or a hypocrite, nor (any sweet thing) that has turned sour, nor what has been kept a whole night, nor (the food) of a Sudra, nor the leavings (of another man),

icikTskSy m&gyae> ³ªrSy£%i½ò£-aeijn>, %¢aÚ< sUitkaÚ< c pyaRcaNtm! AindRzm!. 4£212

4.212. Nor (the food given) by a physician, a hunter, a cruel man, one who eats the fragments (of another's meal), nor the food of an Ugra, nor that prepared for a woman in childbed, nor that (given at a dinner) where (a guest rises) prematurely (and) sips water, nor that (given by a woman) whose ten days of impurity have not elapsed,

An! £ AicRt< v&wama, iÖ;dÚ< ngrI£AÚ< pittaÚm! Av]utm!. 4£213

4.213. Nor (food) given without due respect, nor (that which contains) meat eaten for no sacred purpose, nor (that given) by a female who has no male (relatives), nor the food of an enemy, nor that (given) by the lord of a town, nor that (given) by outcasts, nor that on which anybody has sneezed;

ipzun£An&itnaez! c£AÚ< ³tuiv³iy[s! twa. , zElU;£tuÚvay£AÚ< k«t¹Sy£AÚm! @v c. 4£214

4.214. Nor the food (given) by an informer, by one who habitually tells falsehoods, or by one who sells (the rewards for) sacrifices, nor the food (given) by an actor, a tailor, or an ungrateful (man),

kmaRrSy in;adSy r¼avtarkSy c, suv[RktuRrœ ve[Sy zôiv³iy[s! twa. 4£215

4.215. By a blacksmith, a Nishada, a stage-player, a goldsmith, a basket-maker, or a dealer in weapons,

ñvta< zaEi{fkana< c cEl£in[eRjkSy c, rÃkSy n&z

4.216. By trainers of hunting dogs, publicans, a washerman, a dyer, a pitiless (man), and a man in whose house (lives) a paramour (of his wife),

m&:yiNt ye c£%ppit< ôIijtanam! c svRz>, AindRz< c àetaÚm! Atuiòkrm! @v c. 4£217

4.217. Nor (the food given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours (of their wives), and by those who in all matters are ruled by women, nor food (given by men) whose ten days of impurity on account of a death have not passed, nor that which is unpalatable.

rajaÚ< tej AadÄe zUÔaÚ< äüvcRsm!, Aayu> suv[RkaraÚ< yzz! cmaRvkitRn>. 4£218

4.218. The food of a king impairs his vigour, the food of a Sudra his excellence in sacred learning, the food of a goldsmith his longevity, that of a leather-cutter his fame;

kaékaÚ< àja< hiNt bl< in[eRjkSy c, g[aÚ< gi[kaÚ< c laeke_y> pirk«Ntit. 4£219

4.219. The food of an artisan destroys his offspring, that of a washerman his (bodily) strength; the food of a multitude and of harlots excludes him from (the higher) worlds.

pUy< icikTskSy£AÚ< pu<íLyas! Tv! AÚm! #iNÔym!, ivóa vaxuRi;kSy£AÚ< zôiv³iy[ae mlm!. 4£220

4.220. The food of a physician (is as vile as) pus, that of an unchaste woman (equal to) semen, that of a usurer (as vile as) ordure, and that of a dealer in weapons (as bad as) dirt.

y @te ANye Tv! A-aeJy£AÚa> ³mz> pirkIitRta>, te;a< TvG£AiSw£raemai[ vdNTyÚ< mnIi;[>. 4£221

4.221. The food of those other persons who have been successively enumerated as such whose food must not be eaten, the wise declare (to be as impure as) skin, bones, and hair.

-u®va£Atae ANytm! ASy£AÚm! AmTya ]p[< Èyhm!, mTya -u®va£Acret! k«½!r< retS£iv:£mUÇm! @v c. 4£222

4.222. If he has unwittingly eaten the food of one of those, (he must) fast for three days; if he has eaten it intentionally, or (has swallowed) semen, ordure, or urine, he must perform a Krikkhra penance.

n£A*at! £ zUÔSy pKvaÚ< ivÖan! AïaiÏnae iÖj>, AaddIt£Amm! @v£ASmadœ Av&Äav! @kraiÇkm!,4£223

4.223. A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked food (given) by a Sudra who performs no Sraddhas; but, on failure of (other) means of subsistence, he may accept raw (grain), sufficient for one night (and day).

ïaeiÇySy kdyRSy vdaNySy c vaxuR;e>, mIma smm! AÚm! AkLpyn!. 4£224

4.224. The gods, having considered (the respective merits) of a niggardly Srotriya and of a liberal usurer, declared the food of both to be equal (in quality).

tan! àjapitrœ Aah£@Ty ma k«Xv< iv;m< smm!, ïÏapUt< vdaNySy htm! AïÏya£#trt!. 4£225

4.225. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) came and spake to them, 'Do not make that equal, which is unequal. The food of that liberal (usurer) is purified by faith; (that of the) of the) other (man) is defiled by a want of faith.'

ïÏya£#ò< c pUt¡ c inTy< k…yaRdœ AtiNÔt>, ïÏak«te ý]ye te -vt> SvagtErœ xnE>. 4£226

4.226. Let him, without tiring, always offer sacrifices and perform works of charity with faith; for offerings and charitable works made with faith and with lawfully-earned money, (procure) endless rewards.

danxm¡ in;evet inTym! @eiòk£paEitRkm!, pirtuòen -aven paÇm! Aasa* zi­t>. 4£227

4.227. Let him always practise, according to his ability, with a cheerful heart, the duty of liberality, both by sacrifices and by charitable works, if he finds a worthy recipient (for his gifts.)

yt! ik< icdœ Aip datVy< yaicten£An! £ AsUyya, %TpTSyte ih tt! paÇ< yt! taryit svRt>. 4£228

4.228. If he is asked, let him always give something, be it ever so little, without grudging; for a worthy recipient will (perhaps) be found who saves him from all (guilt).

vairds! t&iÝm! Aaßaeit suom! A]Yym! AÚd>, itlàd> àjam! #òa< dIpdz! c]urœ %Ämm!. 4£229

4.229. A giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and thirst), a giver of food imperishable happiness, a giver of sesamum desirable offspring, a giver of a lamp a most excellent eyesight.

-Uimdae -Uimm! Aaßaeit dI"Rm! Aayurœ ihr{yd>, g&hdae A¢!(ai[ veZmain êPydae êpm! %Ämm!. 4£230

4.230. A giver of land obtains land, a giver of gold long life, a giver of a house most excellent mansions, a giver of silver (rupya) exquisite beauty (rupa),

vasaedz! cNÔsalaeKym! AiñsalaeKym! Añd>, Anfuh> iïy< puòa< gaedae ä×Sy ivòpm!. 4£231

4.231. A giver of a garment a place in the world of the moon, a giver of a horse (asva) a place in the world of the Asvins, a giver of a draught-ox great good fortune, a giver of a cow the world of the sun;

yan£zYyaàdae -ayaRm! @eñyRm! A-yàd>, xaNyd> zañt< saEOy< äüdae äüsaiòRtam!. 4£232

4.232. A giver of a carriage or of a bed a wife, a giver of protection supreme dominion, a giver of grain eternal bliss, a giver of the Veda (brahman) union with Brahman;

sveR;am! @v danana< äüdan< iviz:yte, vair£AÚ£gae£mhI£vasS£itl£kaÂn£sipR;am!. 4£233

4.233. The gift of the Veda surpasses all other gifts, water, food, cows, land, clothes, sesamum, gold, and clarified butter.

yen yen tu -aven ydœ ydœ dan< ày½it, tt! tt! ten£@v -aven àaßaeit àitpUijt>. 4£234

4.234. For whatever purpose (a man) bestows any gift, for that same purpose he receives (in his next birth) with due honour its (reward).

yae AicRt< àitg&Ÿait ddaTyicRtm! @v va, tav! %-aE g½t> Svg¡ nrk< tu ivpyRye. 4£235

4.235. Both he who respectfully receives (a gift), and he who respectfully bestows it, go to heaven; in the contrary case (they both fall) into hell.

n ivSmyet tpsa vdedœ #òœva c n£An&tm!, n£AtaeR APypvdedœ ivàan! n dÅva pirkItRyet!. 4£236

4.236. Let him not be proud of his austerities; let him not utter a falsehood after he has offered a sacrifice; let him not speak ill of Brahmanas, though he be tormented (by them); when he has bestowed (a gift), let him not boast of it.

y}ae An&ten ]rit tp> ]rit ivSmyat!, Aayurœ ivàapvaden dan< c pirkItRnat!. 4£237

4.237. By falsehood a sacrifice becomes vain, by self-complacency (the reward for) austerities is lost, longevity by speaking evil of Brahmanas, and (the reward of) a gift by boasting.

xm¡ znE> s, prlaekshayaw¡ svR-UtaNypIfyn!. 4£238

4.238. Giving no pain to any creature, let him slowly accumulate spiritual merit, for the sake (of acquiring) a companion to the next world, just as the white ant (gradually raises its) hill.

n£AmuÇ ih shayaw¡ ipta mata c itót>, n puÇdar< n }aitrœ xmRs! itóit kevl>. 4£239

4.239. For in the next world neither father, nor mother, nor wife, nor sons, nor relations stay to be his companions; spiritual merit alone remains (with him).

@k> àjayte jNturœ @k @v àlIyte, @kae Anu-u“e suk«tm! @k @v c Ê:k«tm!. 4£240

4.240. Single is each being born; single it dies; single it enjoys (the reward of its) virtue; single (it suffers the punishment of its) sin.

m&t< zrIrm! %Ts&Jy kaó£laeòsm< i]taE, ivmuoa baNxva yaiNt xmRs! tm! Anug½it. 4£241

4.241. Leaving the dead body on the ground like a log of wood, or a clod of earth, the relatives depart with averted faces; but spiritual merit follows the (soul).

tSmadœ xm¡ shayaw¡ inTy< s, xmeR[ ih shayen tms! trit ÊStrm!. 4£242

4.242. Let him therefore always slowly accumulate spiritual merit, in order (that it may be his) companion (after death); for with merit as his companion he will traverse a gloom difficult to traverse.

xmR£àxan< pué;< tpsa ht£ikiLb;m!, prlaek< nyTyazu -aSvNt< o£zrIir[m!. 4£243

4.243. (That companion) speedily conducts the man who is devoted to duty and effaces his sins by austerities, to the next world, radiant and clothed with an ethereal body.

%ÄmErœ %ÄmErœ inTy< s k…lm! %Tk;Rm! Axman! Axma

4.244. Let him, who desires to raise his race, ever form connexions with the most excellent (men), and shun all low ones.

%Äman! %Äman! @v g½n! hIna ïeótam! @it àTyvayen zUÔtam!. 4£245

4.245. A Brahmana who always connects himself with the most excellent (ones), and shuns all inferior ones, (himself) becomes most distinguished; by an opposite conduct he becomes a Sudra.

†FkarI m&Êrœ daNt> ³ªr£AcarErœ As. 4£246

4.246. He who is persevering, gentle, (and) patient, shuns the company of men of cruel conduct, and does no injury (to living creatures), gains, if he constantly lives in that manner, by controlling his organs and by liberality, heavenly bliss.

@x£%dk< mUl£)lm! AÚm! A_yu*t< c yt!, svRt> àitg&ŸIyat! £ mxu£Aw£A-ydi][am!. 4£247

4.247. He may accept from any (man), fuel, water, roots, fruit, food offered without asking, and honey, likewise a gift (which consists in) a promise of protection.

Aaùt£A_yu*ta< i-]a< purStadœ Aàcaeidtam!, mene àjapitrœ ¢aýam! Aip Ê:k«t£kmR[>. 4£248

4.248. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) has declared that alms freely offered and brought (by the giver himself) may be accepted even from a sinful man, provided (the gift) had not been (asked for or) promised beforehand.

n£AîiNt iptrs! tSy dzv;aRi[ p c. n c hVy< vhTyi¶rœ ys! tam! A_yvmNyte. 4£249

4.249. During fifteen years the manes do not eat (the food) of that man who disdains a (freely-offered gift), nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).

zYya< g&han! k…zan! gNxan! Ap> pu:p< m[In! dix, xana mTSyan! pyae ma

4.250. A couch, a house, Kusa grass, perfumes, water, flowers, jewels, sour milk, grain, fish, sweet milk, meat, and vegetables let him not reject, (if they are voluntarily offered.)

guên! -&Tya àitg&ŸIyan! n tu t&Pyet! Svy< tt>. 4£251

4.251. He who desires to relieve his Gurus and those whom he is bound to maintain, or wishes to honour the gods and guests, may accept (gifts) from anybody; but he must not satisfy his (own hunger) with such (presents).

gué;u Tv! A_ytIte;u ivna va tErœ g&he vsn!, AaTmnae v&iÄm! AiNv½n! g&ŸIyat! saxut> sda. 4£252

4.252. But if his Gurus are dead, or if he lives separate from them in (another) house, let him, when he seeks a subsistence, accept (presents) from good men alone.

AaixRk> k…limÇ< c gaepalae das£naiptaE, @te zUÔe;u -aeJy£AÚa yaz! c£ATman< invedyet!. 4£253

4.253. His labourer in tillage, a friend of his family, his cow-herd, his slave, and his barber are, among Sudras, those whose food he may eat, likewise (a poor man) who offers himself (to be his slave).

ya†zae ASy -vedœ AaTma ya†z< c ickIi;Rtm!, ywa c£%pcredœ @n< twa£ATman< invedyet!. 4£254

4.254. As his character is, as the work is which he desires to perform, and as the manner is in which he means to serve, even so (a voluntary slave) must offer himself.

yae ANywa sNtm! AaTmanm! ANywa sTsu -a;te, s papk«Ämae laeke Sten AaTm£Aphark>. 4£255

4.255. He who describes himself to virtuous (men), in a manner contrary to truth, is the most sinful (wretch) in this world; he is a thief who makes away with his own self.

vaCywaR inyta> sveR vaC£mUla vaC£ivin>s&ta>, ta Stenyedœ vac< s svRSteyk«t! £ nr>. 4£256

4.256. All things (have their nature) determined by speech; speech is their root, and from speech they proceed; but he who is dishonest with respect to speech, is dishonest in everything.

mhi;R£ipt&£devana< gTva£An&{y< ywaivix, puÇe sv¡ smasJy vsen! maXySWym! AaiSït>. 4£257

4.257. When he has paid, according to the law, his debts to the great sages, to the manes, and to the gods, let him make over everything to his son and dwell (in his house), not caring for any worldly concerns.

@kakI icNtyen! inTy< iviv­e ihtm! AaTmn>, @kakI icNtyanae ih pr< ïeyae Aixg½it. 4£258

4.258. Alone let him constantly meditate in solitude on that which is salutary for his soul; for he who meditates in solitude attains supreme bliss.

@;a£%idta g&hSwSy v&iÄrœ ivàSy zañtI, õatkìtkLpz! c sÅvv&iÏkr> zu->. 4£259

4.259. Thus have been declared the means by which a Brahmana householder must always subsist, and the summary of the ordinances for a Snataka, which cause an increase of holiness and are praiseworthy.

Anen ivàae v&Äen vtRyn! ved£zaôivt!, Vypet£kLm;ae inTy< äülaeke mhIyte. 4£260

4.260. A Brahmana who, being learned in the lore of the Vedas, conducts himself in this manner and daily destroys his sins, will be exalted in Brahman's world.

Chapter 5
ïuTva£@tan! \;yae xmaRn! õatkSy ywa£%idtan!, #dm! ^curœ mhaTmanm! Anl£à-v< -&gum!. 5£01

5.1. The sages, having heard the duties of a Snataka thus declared, spoke to great-souled Bhrigu, who sprang from fire:

@v< ywa£%­< ivàa[a< SvxmRm! Anuitótam!, kw< m&Tyu> à-vit ved£zaôivda< à-ae. 5£02

5.2. 'How can Death have power over Brahmanas who know the sacred science, the Veda, (and) who fulfil their duties as they have been explained (by thee), O Lord? '

s tan! %vac xmR£ATma mh;IRn! manvae -&gu>, ïUyta< yen dae;e[ m&Tyurœ ivàan! ij"a

5.3. Righteous Bhrigu, the son of Manu, (thus) answered the great sages: 'Hear, (in punishment) of what faults Death seeks to shorten the lives of Brahmanas!'

An_yasen vedanam! AacarSy c vjRnat!, AalSyadœ AÚdae;ac! c m&Tyurœ ivàa|! ij"a

5.4. 'Through neglect of the Veda-study, through deviation from the rule of conduct, through remissness (in the fulfilment of duties), and through faults (committed by eating forbidden) food, Death becomes eager to shorten the lives of Brahmanas.'

lzun< g&Ãn< c£@v pla{fu< kvkain c, A-úyai[ iÖjatInam! AmeXy£à-vain c. 5£05

5.5. Garlic, leeks and onions, mushrooms and (all plants), springing from impure (substances), are unfit to be eaten by twice-born men.

laeihtan! v&]inyaRsan! v&ín£à-va

5.6. One should carefully avoid red exudations from trees and (juices) flowing from incisions, the Selu (fruit), and the thickened milk of a cow (which she gives after calving).

v&wa k«sr£s

5.7. Rice boiled with sesamum, wheat mixed with butter, milk and sugar, milk-rice and flour-cakes which are not prepared for a sacrifice, meat which has not been sprinkled with water while sacred texts were recited, food offered to the gods and sacrificial viands,

AindRzaya gae> ]Irm! AaEò+m! @ekz)< twa, Aaivk< s py>. 5£08

5.8. The milk of a cow (or other female animal) within ten days after her calving, that of camels, of one-hoofed animals, of sheep, of a cow in heat, or of one that has no calf with her,

Aar{yana< c sveR;a< m&ga[a< maih;< ivna, ôI]Ir< c£@v vJyaRin svRzu­ain c£@v ih. 5£09

5.9. (The milk) of all wild animals excepting buffalo-cows, that of women, and all (substances turned) sour must be avoided.

dix -úy< c zu­e;u sv¡ c dix£s<-vm!, yain c£@v£Ai-;UyNte pu:p£mUl£)lE> zu-E>. 5£10

5.10. Among (things turned) sour, sour milk, and all (food) prepared of it may be eaten, likewise what is extracted from pure flowers, roots, and fruit.

³Vyada|! zk…nan! svaRn! £ twa ¢aminvaisn>, AinidRòa

5.11. Let him avoid all carnivorous birds and those living in villages, and one-hoofed animals which are not specially permitted (to be eaten), and the Tittibha (Parra Jacana),

kliv»< Plv< h

5.12. The sparrow, the Plava, the Hamsa, the Brahmani duck, the village-cock, the Sarasa crane, the Raggudala, the woodpecker, the parrot, and the starling,

àtuda|! jalpada

5.13. Those which feed striking with their beaks, web-footed birds, the Koyashti, those which scratch with their toes, those which dive and live on fish, meat from a slaughter-house and dried meat,

bk< c£@v blaka< c kakael< oÃrIqkm!, mTSyadan! ivfœvraha. 5£14

5.14. The Baka and the Balaka crane, the raven, the Khangaritaka, (animals) that eat fish, village-pigs, and all kinds of fishes.

yae ySy ma svRma

5.15. He who eats the flesh of any (animal) is called the eater of the flesh of that (particular creature), he who eats fish is an eater of every (kind of) flesh; let him therefore avoid fish.

paQIn£raeihtav! Aa*aE inyu­aE hVy£kVyyae>, rajIvan! is

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