Giants, dna and the Bible

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Introduction to the book “Giants, DNA and the Bible”

In this research study, I would like to draw your attention to the topic of Neandertal Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and related matters from the perspective of God’s Word, the Bible. The inspiration for this book came to me as a student of genetics, when I was introduced to the notion that Neandertal DNA is different from human DNA. It started me on a quest that took me through a journey of a greater understanding of human and non-human life.
The Bible is the foundation for every human endeavor, spiritual, mental or physical. New scientific discoveries need to be evaluated in light of what is written in the Bible, God’s Holy Word.
No other book or document in the world is self-consistent with true and accurate information, made with symmetry and structural beauty. God, who is the author of the Bible, gave revelation to many writers throughout history. Once you understand that God is the sole author of the Bible, you’ve then taken the first and most important step in biblical study. It is vital to take into account that the original manuscripts of the Bible were perfect at the time of revelation, but have since been diluted through multiple revisions and versions.
My purpose in this book is to show that science—in this instance, molecular biology, is in harmony with the Word of God, and that it can shed new light on the accuracy and symmetry of the Holy Scriptures.
We can evaluate recent genetic, anthropological and astronomical discoveries, and behold their consistence with information revealed in scripture. True science will always confirm God’s truth, and indeed genetics, archaeology, astronomy, and microbiology among others, were initially inspired by the desire to better understand God, just read Mendel, Newton, and Pasteur, among others.

Many theologians have attempted to write authoritatively on this subject-- but I have decided to rely first and foremost on the Holy Scriptures, and to let the word of God, speak for itself, showing the facts of recent findings. Scripture is our only court of appeal. In the notes are some other secondary considerations.

“Ozone holes” will be also reviewed biblically (at page 147), but we start our book with the question: If Neandertals were living contemporaries of humans, does the Bible say something about them? (Bible version used: King James Version (KJV) unless otherwise noticed).
E. W. Bullinger wrote: “All this does not affect us, who experimentally know and enjoy our position in Christ – the Mystery! But surely, it concerns us to have a right understanding as to all that God has written for our learning” (Bullinger, E. W. Things to Come, 12(2):23, February 1906).
I left these notes with two fellow christians to review them, however they never came back to me, so, I better put this online for free for all people to evaluate the information here presented, to correct it, update it, and improve it.
In Christ,
Fernando Castro-Chavez.

Houston, September 2003.



Giants, DNA and the Bible

Index


Introduction 1

Index 2


Chapter 1. Biblical accounts of strange and tall groups of people 3

References and Notes on Chapter 1 6


Chapter 2. Biblical accounts of strange and tall individuals 19


References and Notes on Chapter 2 22

Chapter 3. The Generations of Noah 31

Notes and References for Chapter 3 36

Chapter 4. The Canaanite tribes 48

Notes and References for Chapter 4 53

Chapter 5. They Shall not Rise 67

Notes and References for Chapter 5 71

Chapter 6. Neandertals were living side by side with humans 74

Notes and References for Chapter 6 78

Chapter 7. The two seeds 93

Notes and References for Chapter 7 101

Chapter 8. The Sons of God (The “Bene ha-Elohim”) 116

References and Notes on Chapter 8 119

Chapter 9. The Angels that left their own habitation 129

Note on Chapter 9 131

Chapter 10. The Angels that sinned as described in 2 Peter 133

Note on Chapter 10 135


Chapter 11. The Spirits in Prison as described in 1 Peter 137

Notes and Commentaries on Chapter 11 139


Chapter 12. The prison of the Abyss 143

Commentaries and Notes for Chapter 12 147

Chapter 13. Canaanites in Prehispanic America 151

References and Notes on Chapter 13 159


Chapter 14. Spiritual Beings Being Manifested on Earth 165

Note on Chapter 14 174

Chapter 15. Conclusion 175

Commentaries and Notes for Chapter 14 176

We know not how many got away



to other countries to escape the general destruction.

If this were recognized it would go far

to solve many problems connected with Anthropology.”
Ethelbert W. Bullinger.

The Companion Bible, 1922.
SKULLS OF GIANTS AND THEIR DNA
Chapter 1
Biblical accounts of strange and tall groups of people.

The earliest reference in the Bible of strange people, is found in Genesis 6:4. “…there were giants in the earth in those days” The English word “giants” is the Hebrew word Nephlim, which can be translated also as “the fallen ones ( 1-a ),” that full expression can be translated as: “there were fallen ones in the earth in those days”.

The word Nephlim does not denote tall people, it talks rather of a moral character of wickedness. Their presence on earth was an ever increasing “wickedness ( 2-a )” (Gen. 6:5) therefore, as we will see later, “they shall not rise” (they are not eligible for resurrection), they are “the fallen ones” from the beginning. However, the second Biblical usage of the word Nephlim is directly connected, not only with wicked men, but also to abnormally tall people, as we will see.
But why were the words Nephlim and Nephilim translated as “giants”?
The first usage of the Hebrew word “Nephilim” was translated as “gigantes” in the Greek of the Septuagint (LXX), or as “giants” in English, which literally means “earth-born” ( 3-a ). We must seek out its Biblical use by looking at other scriptures in the Bible that contain the word “Nephilim.” Such scripture can be found in Numbers 13:33, where it is recorded what twelve Israelite spies saw during their reconnaissance of the Cannanites,
“there we saw the giants (Nephilim, “fallen ones”), the sons of Anak, which come of the giants (Nephlim, “fallen ones”): and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight”.
If they were in their own sight “as grasshoppers” when compared with such tall people, then those tall people were accurately translated with the word “giants” in the books of Numbers and Genesis. By looking at other scriptural uses of this word, we see its meaning more clearly. Complementary information can be seen in the following scriptures: Deut.1:28, where it says that,

“our brethren have discouraged our heart, saying, The people is greater and taller than we; the cities are great and walled up to heaven; and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakims there,”

Deut. 9:2,
“A people great and tall, the children of the Anakims, whom thou knowest, and of whom thou hast heard say, Who can stand before the children of Anak!”
In this Biblical context, we can see that the Nephlim are identical to the Anakims, the children (decendants) of Anak ( 4-a ).
In Nm. 13:28 we can see that the spies define the people of that land as strong, and their city walls very great. These people are also referred in Nm. 13:32,
“the land, through which we have gone to search it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature.”
Here, ten of the twelve spies were saying that “all the people” that they saw were “men of a great stature,” and because of that report, the rest of the Israelites fell in unbelief against the Word of God, even though they were foretold that no matter how difficult the situation seemed, they would overcome the enemy. Israel did not believe God’s promise, therefore, their unbelief caused them to stay in the desert for forty years, until that unbelieving generation had passed away. Two of the twelve spies, Caleb and Joshua, were the only ones that believed the promise of God, and were rewarded by being permitted to enter the promised land. If the nation of Israel had believed what God told them, instead of listening to the ten spies’ fearful report, they would have been in the promised land just after the first year of their departure from Egypt!
There are scriptures that describe other groups of people associated or related to the Anakims, also related to the Nephilim. These people are known as the Rephaim, or “fearful ones ( 5-a ),” and can be found in Deut.2:10-12,

“The Emims dwelt therein in times past, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; Which also were accounted giants (Rephaim), as the Anakims; but the Moabites call them Emims. The Horims also dwelt in Seir beforetime; but the children of Esau succeeded them, when they had destroyed them from before them, and dwelt in their stead; as Israel did unto the land of his possession, which the LORD gave unto them.”

This is also indicated in Deut.2:20-23,

“That also was accounted a land of giants (Rephaim): giants (Rephaim) dwelt therein in old time; and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims; A people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; but the LORD destroyed them before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead: As he did to the children of Esau, which dwelt in Seir, when he destroyed the Horims from before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead even unto this day: And the Avims which dwelt in Hazerim, even unto Azzah, the Caphtorims, which came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed them, and dwelt in their stead.”

We now have four names to search. These have been identified with the Anakim, which are defined also as Nephilim or Rephaim. Other groups in the same category as the Anakim are: Horims ( 6-a ), Emims ( 7-a ), Zamzummims ( 8-a ) and Avims ( 9-a ).

This verse links the Amorites with the four previous groups:

“I have given into thine hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land: begin to possess it, and contend with him in battle” (Deut.2:24).

Amos 2:9 also links the Amorites to the other “different” types of people,


“Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and he was strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed his fruit from above, and his roots from beneath.”
Now we can understand what is said in:
“(The Israelites)…took all his cities at that time, and utterly destroyed the men, and the women, and the little ones, of every city” (Deut.2:34).
The reason why they left none to remain, will be seen later, when we take into account spiritual and genetic factors, showing why it was so important to God to have Israel “utterly destroy” a people. Even if those words sound harsh, to utterly destroy “the women, and the little ones.” Why, according to God, who is all love, was it necessary to act in this way for the good of the same humanity that He Himself made? “This is difficult to justify without the insight of a 'gene pool' problem from the remaining Nephilim, Rephaim, etc., which seems to illuminate the difficulty” (Chuck Missler). “Their mothers possibly could be human, or their fathers, but certainly not both. The Old Testament demonstrates God ordering his people to kill every man, women, and CHILD of the Nephilim tribes whilst the New Testament clearly says that anybody who harms a child would be better off if he had never been born; thus, indicating that the Nephilim "children" mentioned in the O.T. were not human” (Patrick Casanova, Paraclete Forum Online posting on November 22, 2001, Re: The sons of God and the daughters of men).

Regarding these same people, we have earlier scriptures informing us of their rebellion against King Chedorlaomer,

“in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim (A city inhabited by the Rephaim, sacked by Chedorlaomer in the time of Abraham), and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, And the Horites in their mount Seir, unto Elparan, which is by the wilderness. And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar” (Gen 14:5-7).
Then, king Chedorlaomer and his three other confederates went against five other kings: Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar” (Gen 14:2).
The kings of Sodom ( 10-a ), Gomorrah ( 11-a ), Admah ( 12-a ), Zeboiim ( 13-a ), and Bela (which is Zoar ( 14-a )) are fighting on the same side of the Rephaims, as were the Zuzims ( 8-a , that are the Zamzummims), Emims (again), Horites (that are the Horims), Amalekites ( 15-a ) and Amorites ( 16-a ). The Anakim and the Avim are also as Rephaim (the section on “the Canaanites,” will give added detail).
The word Rephaim is also translated in other scriptures as “deceased,” making reference to them as already dead, as they are “fallen ones,” even if they were alive, they were referred to as “dead” in God’s eyes. It is written in Isaiah 26:14,
“They are dead, they are deceased [here the original reads: “they are Rephaim”], they shall not rise: therefore hast thou visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish” (further details in the section entitled “they shall not rise”).

The Rephaim have no part in the final and dual fate of humanity. That is, those who will be raised to life eternal, and those who will be raised in judgement only to suffer the second death.

The destiny of the Nephilim (sons of darkness), as well as of those people who take up their ways (cast their lot with them) is destruction,
"What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction" (Rom. 9:22).
All humans who come from Adam (the genuine “human race”, the “sons of man”) have the free option of salvation, unless they commit the sin that cannot be forgiven, because God wants,
"… all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the Truth" (1 Tim. 2:4).
Committing the unpardonable sin comes as a choice to reject the Grace and gift of God. There will be no reconciliation or resurrection for the Nephilim because they are not of him, while humans that have followed the ways of the Nepihlim will experience the second death,
"And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him" (Jude 14,15).
REFERENCES AND NOTES ON CHAPTER 1:

1-a. Nephilim = “fallen ones” (from Naphal, to fall) The Companion Bible, Great Britain, Kregel Publications, originally published in 1922 (Bullinger, E., W. (Ethelbert William), 1837-1913), Appendix 25. Nephilim = “fallen ones, fellers” (Gen. 6:4, Nm. 13:33 (twice)), Young, Robert, Analytical Concordance to the Bible, Wm, B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1980, Grand Rapids, Mich., p. 389 (originally published in 1879).

"giants" = Strong's number 5303 = "nef-eel'" = “bully” or “tyrant”.
What these beings were can be gathered only from Scripture. They were evidently great in size, as well as great in wickedness. They were superhuman, abnormal beings; and their destruction was necessary for the preservation of the human race, and for the faithfulness of Jehovah's Word (Genesis 3:15). This was why the Flood was brought "upon the world of the ungodly" (2Peter 2:5) as prophesied by Enoch (Jude 14). After the Flood, there was a second intrusion of these fallen angels, evidently smaller in number and more limited in area, for they were for the most part confined to Canaan. It was for the destruction of these, that the sword of Israel was necessary, as the Flood had been before. As to the date of this second intrusion, it was evidently soon after it became known that the seed was to come through Abraham; for, when he came out from Haran (Genesis 12:6) and entered Canaan, the significant fact is stated: "The Canaanite was then (that is to say, already) in the land" The Companion Bible, Appendix 25.
They represent an attempt on the part of demonic powers to derail the divine program of bringing a Redeemer into the world through the human race” (Ray Stedman).

Alexander Hislop, in his book “The Two Babylons” wrote: “Centaurus is represented as having been taken up to heaven (Dymock, "Ixion"), that is, as having been highly exalted through special favour of heaven; then, in that state of exaltation, he is said to have fallen in love with Nephele, who passed under the name of Juno, the "Queen of Heaven." The story here is intentionally confused, to mystify the vulgar, and the order of events seems changed, which can easily be accounted for. As Nephele in Greek signifies "a cloud," so the offspring of Centaurus are said to have been produced by a "cloud." But Nephele, in the language of the country where the fable was originally framed, signified "A fallen woman," and it is from that "fallen woman," therefore, that the Centaurs are really said to have sprung. Nephele was used, even in Greece, as the name of a woman, the degraded wife of Athamas being so called (Smith's, Class. Dict., "Athamas") Centaurus, for his presumption and pride, was smitten with lightning by the supreme God, and cast down to hell, Tartarus (Dymock, "Ixion")”.

“According to the “Descent of Ishtar” and other Sumero-Akkadian texts, the Annunaki are ruling gods in The Netherworld. Add to this the Sumero-Akkadian reptilian sculptures of the Annunaki” (Heiser, M. S., The Divine Council, Online edition).
The Israelites were guided by the five senses [sight being one of the senses] only and not by the promise of God, “the people that WE SAW in it are men of great stature. And there WE SAW the giants (Heb. Nephilim. See Gen. 6, (within) the Canaanitish nations); and we were in OUR OWN SIGHT as grasshoppers, and so we were in THEIR SIGHT (Num. 13:32,33)”. Compare the believing of Rahab, “For WE HAVE HEARD how the LORD dried up the water of the Red sea for you, when ye came out of Egypt; and what ye did unto the two kings of the Amorites, that were on the other side of Jordan, Sihon and Og, whom ye utterly destroyed. And as soon as WE HAD HEARD these things, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because of you: for the LORD your God, he is God in heaven above, and in earth beneath (Josh 2:10,11)”.
Nephilim, giants, "violent", or "causing to fall" (Genesis 6:4); these were the violent tyrants of those days, those who fell upon others. The word may also be derived from a root signifying "wonder," and hence "monsters" or "prodigies." In Numbers 13:33 this name is given to a Canaanitish tribe, a race of large stature, "the sons of Anak." The Revised Version, in these passages, simply transliterates the original, and reads "Nephilim," translating however the Hebrew gibborim, in Genesis 6:4 as "mighty men" (Easton, M.G., 1897, Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 3rd Edition, published by Thomas Nelson).

In Nm. 13:33 in Hebrew we read as follows: "NEPHILIM BENI ANAKIM NEPHLIM" – “Nephilim, sons of Anakim Nephlim”. Only one minor letter, an “i” in English between the “P” and the “H”, which corresponds to a small upper “yod” in Hebrew, between the letters “lamed” and “peh” differentiates two words (Nephlim and Nephilim), something easy to escape our eyes. The meaning of the second word, the word “NEPHLIM” (having only one “yod”) is "beings fallen". We find this meaning of the word in many Jewish traditions: in the Talmud Babylonian, in the Book of Zohar (Kabbalah), in the commentaries of Rashi, etc. “NEPHLIM” became manlike beings of great size. “NEPHILIM”, is only used once in the Bible (in Nm. 13:33), translated as Giant, and refers to the offspring of the “NEPHLIM”, “the fallen ones”. Anak, of the Nephlim conceived Nephilim in the days of Moses (Nm. 13:33). The offsprings were also men of great size and therefore, were called also giants.

We find the word NEPHLIM (one “yod”), twice: in Genesis 6, 4 and in Nm. 13:33, while the word NEPIHLIM (with two “yods”) as we have said, is present only in Nm. 13:33. The two different words have been taken as if being one and the same word by all Bible Scholars, but even the context of Nm. 13:33 shows a clear difference between each of them. The 12 spies sent by Moses to investigate the Land reported: “the land… surely it floweth with milk and honey; and this is the fruit of it (a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it between two upon a staff; and of the pomegranates, and of the figs)” (Nm. 13:27, 23-24, 26), “Nevertheless the people be strong that dwell in the land, and the cities are walled, and very great: and moreover we saw the children of Anak there… they are stronger than we” (Nm. 13:28, 31b), “…The land… a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature” (Nm. 13:32). “…We saw the giants (Nephilim), the sons of Anak, which come of the giants (fallen ones, Nephlim): and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight” (Nm. 13:33,).

The Jewish Publishing Society translation (1996) of Genesis 6:4a is: “The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that…”; and of Nm. 13:33a “And there we saw the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, who come of the Nephilim…”, here the two different Hebrew words were transliterated with one and the same word: "Nephilim". The first word in Nm. 13:33 should be transliterated as "NEPHILIM", referring to the progeny itself, and the second as "NEPHLIM", referring to the progenitors of the NEPHILIM.” The Hebrew text reads in Genesis 6:4: "HA-NEPHLIM HAYU BA’ARETS BAIAMIM HAHEM VEGAM AHAREI-KEN" – “Nephlim there were in the earth in days those and also after that (As Well As Later, Rotherham)”. Anakim is another word or epithet for the “Nephlim”.

All of that suggests that the sons of God were the fathers of the Nephlim, if not the Nephlim themselves, and that the Nephlim, were the progenitors of the Anakim, and the Anakim of the Nephilim. So, the Nephlim and the Nephilim are not the same, they were highly similar, but not identical. The Anakim may have been one branch of the Nephlim, being the Rephaim another, etc.
Michael S. Heiser studied (in “The word "Nephilim" is formed / spelled TWO ways in the Old Testament Hebrew text”, Online edition) that “around the 6th century BC, Hebrew began to use certain CONSONANTS for vowel sounds... Among these… was the letter “yod”… The reason for this development was the preservation of correct pronunciation. Such "double duty" consonant-vowels are called matres lectiones (Latin for "mothers of reading" (consonant-vowels) – they were to guide the reader into correct reading / pronunciation). These letters preserved permanently LONG vowel sounds (in Hebrew, long “i”...)… AS A RESULT of this scribal spelling clue, we can do two things: 1) Weed out incorrect spelling alternatives – and the "root words" that go with them; and 2) Deduce the root words that may legitimately be behind "nephilim".
For Nephlim (with one “yod”) in Hebrew we have two options:
1) "those who fall upon" [the daughters of men]... "NEPHLIM" without the middle "yod"… [then] the consonants would be pointed (i.e., spelled with vowels... little dots) as what Hebrew grammar calls “a Qal plural participle”, like this: “Nophelim";

2) Some argue for a passive meaning, "those who are fallen (through some circumstance).” A passive verb is a verb that denotes the subject of the verb is acted UPON by an outside force. In Hebrew, if this were the meaning, the word would have to be pointed as “a Qal passive participle”, constructed like this: (“Nephulim") (but this adds a letter not in the original text – the “vav). The verdict, then, is that this meaning cannot be the meaning of Nephilim (in Hebrew). This meaning IS POSSIBLE, though, if the root word is NOT Hebrew, but Aramaic.

For Nephilim (with two “yods”) in Aramaic we have two options:
1. You could have a Naphal root, and the spelling would be "nephilin" – the "n" ending is the standard plural ending in Aramaic nouns (Aramaic was the language spoken in Babylon, where Israel was exiled in the 6th century BC– the SAME century in which the matres lectiones begin to appear). When Aramaic words were carried into the Hebrew Bible by those who wrote or edited the final form of the Hebrew Bible, the proper Hebrew "m" plural was substituted for the Aramaic "n" to "convert" the form to proper Hebrew (see any good reference grammar here; e.g., Jouon-Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, vol. 1, p. 271; and Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar, ed. Kautsch, p. 242). Once this word was incorporated into the Hebrew Bible and the above ending change affected, we have “nephilim” – the exact form we find in the Hebrew Bible at Numbers 13:33. If Aramaic "naphal" is the correct root behind "nephilim," then the ONLY thing this spelling can mean is "those who fell / were fallen.” The reason for this narrowness is that the spelling reflects the Aramaic passive “Pe-il” participle. This meaning is discussed by rabbis – that these offspring of the Genesis 6 cohabitation between human women and the sons of God were "spiritually fallen" (evil).

2. The spelling “nephilim” is also the plural for "giants". Once this word was incorporated into the Hebrew Bible, the above ending change (-m for –n) would also have taken place, producing “nephilim” - again the exact form we find in the Hebrew Bible at Numbers 13:33 [that] clearly establishes the “Nephilim” were in fact giants)… BOTH meanings work in tandem – the GIANTS produced by the cohabitation were EVIL / "FALLEN"],” and also “the Aramaic root of nephilim (which is nephila') shows up in an Aramaic translation of the book of Job discovered at Qumran. The word is used to translate "Orion" (the giant - what else?)… the Dead Sea Scrolls are a lot older than Rashi (a 12th Century jewish commentary)” (Heiser, M. S., “E. P.: Clueless but Courageous”, Online posting)

Some untidy writers confound the “Nephilim” with the “sons of God”, and even with God the creator himself! Then, in their untidiness, those writers attribute to the “Nephilim” the creation of Adam, without distinguishing that the Nephilim (i.e., the Neandertal) were a different breed clearly distinguishable from Adam (as their DNA clearly shows), an evil and fallen product (fallen from the very beginning, without any possibilities of redemption or resurrection, as Isaiah 26 clearly declares), a fallen product of the “sons of God”. Neither the Nephilim, nor the Anakim were God the creator himself. One of such writers even commits the blasphemy of saying that God is the same as the violent and covetous “gods” of Sumerian heathen paganism. However, the Bible warns us beforehand of “Jewish fables” (Tit 1:14), of “profane and old wives' fables” (1Tim 4:7), of “cunningly devised fables” (2Pet 1:16), and of people that will “turn away their ears from the truth… unto fables (myths)” (2Tim 4:4), so “neither give heed to fables… which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith” (1Tim 1:4), because such writers “professing themselves to be wise… became fools, and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man (ther “flesh and blood creators”)… Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen” (Rom 1:22-23a, 25), “But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel… let him be accursed" (Galatians 1:8)”.

“The etymology of Nephilim…first, may derive from the niphal of the verb pala, meaning "to be extraordinary," i.e., "extraordinary men." Second, it may be derived from the verb naphal, "to fall," in one of the following senses: (1) the "fallen ones" - from heaven, i.e., supernatural beings [Note: “as Agrest suggested”]; (2) morally "fallen men"; (3) "those who fall upon," in the sense of invaders or hostile, violent men; (4) "those who fell by" the sword (cf. Ezk. 32:20f.); (5) "unnaturally begotten men" or bastards (from cf. nepel, "abortion" or "miscarriage")”, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol. 3, pp. 518-519. “Aquila, rendered Nephilim as epipiptontev = “they who fall upon,” and Symmachus, biaioi = “powerful,” Leopold's Exposition of Genesis.”

“The Journal of Christopher Columbus, tr. by C. R. Markham (London, 1893)-October 14th, 1892: "They (the natives) asked us if we had come from heaven. One old man came into the boat . . . to come and see the men who had come from heaven.”
2-a. Regarding that “wickedness,” the next notes are significant: What happened before the flood was a foreshadowing of that outbreak of spiritual wickedness which will give character to the apostasy of the last days (It will be a state of things which will necessitate the intervention of God in judgment; it cannot be allowed to continue any more than the antediluvian state of things could be suffered [allowed] to continue). Men will get an unnatural, or perhaps one might say a supernatural, greatness in the days of the apostasy. The beast and the antichrist will be indeed men of renown, heroes in man’s eyes. But I believe the source of their being will be outside man; [outside the realm of mankind] wicked spirits who have been in the heavenlies—fallen angels—will endow them with their wonderful powers... that man would never have had naturally,” Coates, C. A., An Outline of the Book of Genesis, pp. 57 ff, in: Eclectic Notes (ENT), Anthology of Commentaries, Oct. 2001, compiled by J. Greenhalgh, Manchester, UK.

“The contact with the rebel angels, in the days of Noah… contributed to rampant paganism, rebellion, violence and occultism… Ceremonies and festivals honoring the "fallen angels pretending to be gods" have been preserved by being absorbed by institutionalised paganism” (Warren, Christopher C., The Nefilim, 2000, The New Covenant Church of God, Arvika, Sweden, Online edition): “Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens… in the time of their visitation they shall perish” (Jer 10:11, 15b; Jer 1:16, 7:6,9,18, 13:10, 16:11,13, 19:4, 13, 22:9, 25:6, 32:29, 35:15, 44:3,5,8,15-19, Hos 3:1); “Thou shalt have (worship) no (none) other gods before me” (Ex 20:3, Deut 5:7, Ex 34:14); “and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth” (Ex 23:13); “Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the people which are round about you” (Deut 6:14, 7:4, 8:19, 11:28, 13:2,13, 28:14,36,64, 29:26, 30:17, 31:18,20, Josh 23:16, 24:2,14-16, Judg 2:12-13,17,19, 10:13, 1Sam 8:8, 26:19, 1Kgs 9:6,9, 11:4-8,10, 14:9, 2Kgs 5:17, 17:7,35,37-38, 22:17, 2Chr 7:19,22, 28:25, 34:25, Pss 16:4); “Take heed to yourselves, that your heart be not deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them” (Deut 11:16); “…serve other gods… of the gods of the people which are round about you, nigh unto thee, or far off from thee, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; Thou shalt not consent…” (Deut 13:6-8); “And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded” (Deut 17:3); “But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die” (Deut 18:20); “…there is no other God that can deliver after this sort” (Dan 3:29b); “…an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one. For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him” (1Cor 8:4b-6)
On “host of heaven”: “We are told not to worship the heavenly host, and God is declared "The Lord of Hosts" over 200 times in the Bible. Unfortunately, modern theology almost always interprets the phrase "heavenly host" or "host of heaven" to mean the stars, planets, etc. ("array" or "starry hosts," in NIV), unless the context makes it absolutely unavoidable to do so”; “"I saw the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left...”, “And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said... " (1 Kings 22:19-22; 2 Chron. 18:18)” Guy Malone says: “This is the exact same word as in all references in this list, and cannot be mistaken here as "starry arrays" or "heavenly bodies," considering they stand around the throne and one of them answers the Lord's question to them (see also Job 1:6). Why would the exact same phrase be rendered so differently in other verses? The context makes it possible in some verses to imply stars, etc, but there are better, more clear words, in Hebrew for "stars" and "constellations" if that is what the writer truly meant”, and also “In this age, there is not a strong understanding of the Biblical mandate to NOT worship the heavenly hosts, therefore many today are being deceived into receiving false spiritual doctrines from wicked heavenly hosts”; “"all the host of heaven" could infer yet another category - angelic hosts occupying the heavenly realms”; “"Thou, even thou, art LORD alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee" (Nehemiah 9:6)”, “The second half of the Nehemiah verse cannot be rendered "stars," as worship is an act of will”; “"And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest and on earth peace, goodwill toward men" (Luke 2:13)”; “Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven..." (Acts 7:42)”. “So what is the "seeming cardinal rule" of modern interpretation? "If hosts probably means "good angels," then it definitely means angels. If hosts might mean "bad angels" - then it means heavenly bodies!" Sadly, modern translations, Bible dictionaries, seminaries and theology are still dominated by the faulty Sons of Seth explanation of Genesis 6 (introduced 4-500 AD). A modern understanding of the many references to angelic activity expressed in the Bible has been stolen from us. And because the church remains silent on these topics, a great number of New Age teachers and ufo cults have risen to fill the void… modern theology is locked into a 1500 year-old tradition of whitewashing the scriptural reality of wicked angelic hosts”; “by definition host specifically implies a military grouping: the very title, "The Lord of Hosts" (Strong's 6635: "a mass of persons or things especially organized for war, an army") is robbed of its majesty if angelic hosts (serving Him or not) are not ascribed to the meaning of the word. If ALL of the above passages are assumed to also have angelic connotation, their meaning is only expanded (but not innapropriately), and more glory given to God. But their meaning (and God's dominion) are actually diminished by "limiting" their meaning to celestial bodies. It would not hurt to leave them rendered simply "host of heaven" rather than dogmatically making the decision for us by over-interpreting them. This serves only to prevent personal study and revelation, and ultimately prevents effective Biblical teaching and ministry to the millions world-wide currently being contacted by these wicked hosts”: “"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall punish the host of the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth" (Isaiah 24:21)” (Malone, G., The Host of Heaven, Online edition).

3-a. Giant = “earth born,” American Tract Society Bible Dictionary, New York, American Tract society, 1859 (Rand, W. W. (William Wilberforce), 1816-1909, ed.). Giant = “earthborn,” Darby, John Nelson (1800-1882) Notes and Comments in 7 volumes, Vol. 1, p. 76 ff. In: Eclectic Notes (full ref. in 2-a).
“It was doubtless the mention of the great stature of these men, together with the Septuagint rendering “gigantes,” that suggested our translation “giants.” The roots of the Greek “gigas” have, however, no reference to great stature, but point to something very different. The word is merely another form of “geegenees”: it signifies “earth-born,” and was used of the Titans, or sons of Heaven and Earth—Coelus and Terra—because, though superior to the human race, they were, nevertheless, of partly terrestrial origin” (G.H. Pember, The Days of Noah, Extract from “Earth’s Earliest Ages”, 1975 edition, Kregel, Ch. 8 & 9, pp. 127-148).

Michael S. Heiser provides the next observations: “The ancient Greek version has the divine beings who commit this crime (Gen 6:1-4) as “the Titans.”The Greek word for “Titan” [Nephlim] is “Titanos”. “Titanos,” however, has a homonym in Greek – a word spelled in exactly the same way, but with a different meaning (like English, “lead” [noun] and “lead”[verb]). The other “Titanos” in Greek means “gray, whitish, chalky gray”. “Titanoomai” means “to be whitened or plastered”, and “Titanos” (also “Tetanos”) means “a white earth”, prob. Gypsum; also chalk, lime (a cause of insanity), tetanos = galbanus, also “marble-scrapings” (Perh. From the Thessalian place-name “Titanos”), etc. [Liddell-Scott Greek Lexicon (pp. 1798-1799)]
The Titans’ offspring (the counterpart to the biblical Nephilim / giants) were also referred to as “Titans” and tyrants (the Greek word here would be “Teitan,” translated “tyrant”). Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130-202), in Adversus haereses (Against Heresies), Book V, Chapter 30.3 wrote regarding the Antichrist and his Number (666): “Teitan… (TEITAN, the first syllable being written with the two Greek vowels e and i)… has in itself the predicted number, and is composed of six letters, each syllable containing three letters; and [the word itself] is ancient, and removed from ordinary use; for among our kings we find none bearing this name… nor have any of the idols which are worshipped in public among the Greeks and barbarians this appellation. Among many persons, too, this name is accounted divine… This word, too, contains a certain outward appearance of vengeance, and of one inflicting merited punishment because he (Antichrist) pretends that he vindicates the oppressed. And besides this, it is an ancient name, one worthy of credit, of royal dignity, and still further, a name belonging to a tyrant… We will not, however, incur the risk of pronouncing positively as to the name of Antichrist… 4. …we may avoid him, being aware who he is…” [The Numerical Value of Greek Letters – “Teitan”=666: T = 300, E = 5, I = 10, T = 300, A = 1, N = 50, TOTAL = 666 (Source = The History of Mathematics, D. E. Smith, University of Chicago Press), Heiser, M. S., Titans, Irenaeus, Online edition]. This is also echoed in “The Extant Works And Fragments Of Hippolytus. Part II.--Dogmatical And Historical. Treatise, On Christ And Antichrist. 50; and in the “Commentary On The Apocalypse Of The Blessed John, From The Thirteenth Chapter. 18”, by Victorinus who says,“…which name if you wish to turn into Latin, it is understood by the antiphrase DICLUX , which letters are reckoned in this manner: since D figures five hundred, I one, C a hundred, L fifty, V five, X ten,--which by the reckoning up of the letters makes similarly six hundred and sixty-six”, and also, “13. "And he shall make fire come down from heaven in the sight of men." Yes (as I also have said), in the sight of men. Magicians do these things, by the aid of the apostate angels, even to this day. He shall cause also that a golden image of Antichrist shall be placed in the temple at Jerusalem, and that the apostate angel should enter, and thence utter voices and oracles”, this last in “Antenicene Fathers” (3rd & 4th Centuries), Vol. VII.
4-a. Anak = “giant, long-necked,” Son of Arba, an ancestor of the Anakim (Nm. 13:22,28,33; Deut. 9:2; Josh. 15:13,14 (twice), 21:11; Judg. 1:20). Anakims = “giants,” Descendants of Arba, one of the descendants of Heth (Gen. 23:3), who, seven years before the building of Zoar in Egypt (Gen. 23:2; Nm. 13:22; Josh. 15:13,54), built Hebron, which was hence called Kiriath-arba (Kirjath-Arba, “tetrapolis”, i.e. “the city of Arba,” “the metropolis of the Anakim”, so LXX; AV makes the numeral “arba”, “four”, into a personal name, also known as “Hebron, “confederacy”, The highest town in Palestine, 3,040 feet above the level of the Mediterranean, 19 miles SSW of Jerusalem… in his [Abraham’s] days the resident population were the “sons of Heth” (Hittites), from whom Abraham brought the field of Machpelah with its cave to be a family burying-ground (Gn. 23)…The twelve spies [sent by Moses] to report on the land of Canaan [the promised land] explored the region of Hebron; at that time it was populated by the “children of Anak” (Nu. 13:22, 28, 33)… Hebron itself and the surrounding territory were conquered from the Anakim by Caleb and given to him as a family possession…” F. F. Bruce, The New Bible Dictionary, Douglas, J. D. (ed.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1962, Grand Rapids, Mich., pp. 516-517.

Anak, his [Arba’s] son (Josh. 15:13), had three leading, distinguished descendants [in Hebron] in the days of Moses and Joshua, B.C. 1490 (Nm. 13:22} [Josh. 15:14], whose names were Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, in whose presence the Israelites reckoned themselves only as grasshoppers (Nm. 13:28,33); this greatly disheartened Israel (Deut. 1:28); the Anakim were like the Emim, who were great, and many, and tall, but were dispossessed by Moab (Deut. 2:10,11,21)…and Joshua cut them off from the mountains, and from Hebron, Debir, and Anab, so that only a few were left in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod, cities of the Philistines (Josh. 11:21,22); they had great and fenced cities, the chief of which was Hebron…which city was afterwards assigned to the Kohathites for a possession (Josh. 21:11). The tribe [Anakims] lost its separate existence among the Philistines (Deut. 1:28, 2:10,11,21, 9:2; Josh. 11:21,22, 14:12,15), Young’s, p. 35 (full ref. in 1-a).

The Anakim, descendants of an eponymous ancestor Anak, were among the pre-Israelite inhabitants of Palestine. The name Anak occurs without the article only in Nu. 13:33 and Deut. 9:2, but elsewhere it appears in the form [of] “the Anak” (“ha anak”), where it is presumably to be taken as the collective, equivalent to Anakim. The stature and formidable nature of the Anakim was almost proverbial, for they were taken as a standard for comparison to stress the size of such other peoples as the Emim (Deut. 2:10) and the Rephaim (Deut. 2:21), and there was a saying, “who can stand before the sons of Anak?” (see Deut. 9:2)… [In] Deut. 1:28; The LXX renders “anakim” by “gigantes”…they are, as some scholars hold, among the peoples mentioned in the Egyptian 18th-century B.C. execration texts. Kohler-Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, 1953, p. 722; Ancient Near Eastern Texts (J. B. Pritchard), 1950, p. 328. quoted by T. C. Mitchell, The British Museum. In: The New Bible Dictionary, Douglas, J. D. (ed.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1962, Grand Rapids, Mich., pp. 34-35.
Anakim were a Cushite tribe of the same race as the Philistines and the Egyptian shepherd kings. David on several occasions encountered them (2 Samuel 21:15-22). From this race sprung Goliath (1 Samuel 17:4) (Easton, M.G., 1897, Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 3rd Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, online edition).

5-a. Rephaim = “strong,” a race dwelling around the S. of Jerusalem, and eastward beyond Jordan, in Bashan, Ammon and Moab, in Asteroth Karnaim and Shaveh Kiriathaim; variously called Zamzummim, Zuzim, and Emim; also Anakim (Gen. 14:5, 15:20). A valley S.W. of Jerusalem and N. of Bethlehem, now called el-Bukaa. This was the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:8, 2 Sam. 5:18,22, 23:13; 1 Chr. 11:15, 14:9, Isa. 17:5), Young’s, p. 808. Rephaim = “fearful one, giant” = rapha (Deut. 2:11,20 (twice), 3:11,13; Josh. 12:4, 13:12, 15:8, 17:15, 18:16; 1 Chr. 20:4,6,8), = raphah (2 Sam. 21:16,18,20,22). Young’s, p. 389. Rephaim = “Deceased, Shades, fearful ones” (Isa. 26:14 “they are Rephaim, they shall not rise”), Young’s, p. 237. Rephaim = “Dead” (Job 26:5, Ps. 88:10, Prov. 2:18, 9:18, 21:16, Isa. 14:9, 26:19) Young’s, p. 234. “Physician” = rapha (Gen. 50:2, 2 Chr. 16:12, Job 13:4, Jer. 8:22), Young’s, p. 752 (full ref. in 1-a).

Rephaim here, and in Pr 21:16 and Isa 14:9, is from a Hebrew root, meaning "to be weak," hence "deceased"; in Ge 14:5 it is applied to the Canaanite giants; perhaps in derision, to express their weakness, in spite of their gigantic size, as compared with Jehovah [Umbreit, in: Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Bible Commentary].
Rephaim are the aboriginal giants who inhabited Canaan, Edom, Moab, and Ammon. Rephaim, One of the pre-Israelite peoples of Palestine mentioned, together with the Zuzim and Emim, in the time of Abraham as having been defeated by Chedorlaomer (Gn. 14:5). They are also listed among the inhabitants of the land God promised to Abraham´s seed (Gn. 15:20). At the time of the conquest the Rephaim seem to have inhabited a wide area, but were known by different local names. In Moab the Moabites, who succeeded them there, called them Emim (Deut. 2:11), and likewise in Ammon, where they preceded the Ammonites, they were known as Zamzummim (Dt 2:20-21). They were a formidable people, being compared in stature with the Anakim (Dt 2:21), and LXX renders the name by “gigas”, “giant” in Gn. 14:5; Jos. 12:4, 13:12, and 1Ch. 11:15, 14:9, 20:4, a rendering adopted by AV in Dt 2:11, 20, 3:11, 13; Jos. 12:4, 13:12, 15:8, 17:15, 18:16; 1 Ch. 20:4 (LXX translates it “Titanes” in 2 Sa. 5:18, 22). It may be that the forms of “rapa” (2 Sa. 21:16, 18, 20, 22; 1Ch. 20:6, 8), which are rendered “giant” in English versions (LXX gigas in 2 Sa. 21:22, 1 Ch. 20:6), are variant forms of the name rephaim, the context of these occurrences in connection with Philistines… (Bibliography. J. Gray, “The Rephaim”, PEQ, LXXX1, 1949, pp. 127-139, and LXXXIV, 1952, pp. 39-41; H. W. F. Saggs, “Faith and Thought”, XC, 1958, pp. 170-172; quoted by T. C. M. “The New Bible Dictionary” pp. 1084-5.

The principal locality of the Rephiam was Astoreth Karnaim, and the Ermin were in the plain of Kirathaim. In The Strong’s/Englishman’s Hebrew Bible Dicitonary (and in the New Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew- English Lexicon or in any other using Strong’s Numbers) there are separate Strongs numberings for EXACTLY THE SAME HEBREW WORD! Strong’s word # 07496 (rapha' (raw-faw') is translated “dead” 7 times, and “deceased” once, as well as “ghosts of the dead, shades, or spirits.” In other versions, word # 07497 (rapha' raw-faw or raphah raw-faw') is translated giant 17 times, Rephaim 8 times, which in actual Hebrew remains as the proper name Rephaim. Once this inspired word is retained as a proper name, the various verses in which it appears become clearer (see also Strong’s Numbers 07498 and 07495). “The man that wandereth out of the way of understanding [meaning he once had it] shall remain in the congregation of the dead [Rephaim]" (Prov. 21:16).
6-a. Horim, Horites = “troglodytes,” the aboriginal inhabitants of Mount Seir, probably related to the Emim and Rephaim. Their excavated dwellings are still found in hundreds in the sandstone cliffs and mountains of Edom (Idumea, Idumaea, Adumea), but especially at Petra. Perhaps they are referred to in Job 30:6,7 (Gen. 14:6, 36:20,21,29; Deut. 2:12,22), Young’s, p. 491 (full ref. in 1-a; also: Bienkowski P., New caves for old: Beduin architecture in Petra (Ethnoarchaeology), 1985, World Archaeology, 17(2):149-160; Glueck N., The Bible in the light of modern archaeological disvoveries, 1954, The Journal of Educational Sociology (Israel), 27(8):360-368). Horites were the ancient inhabitants of Edom, defeated by Chedorlaomer (Gn. 14:6) and were formerly considered to be cave-dwellers (horim, cf. Is. 42:22), a view recently revived by Dossin who considers them to be miners. Esau himself seems to have married the daughter of a Horite chief, Anah (Gn. 36:25). The Horites (Heb. Hori, Gk. chorraios) also occupied some places in central Palestine, including Shechem (Gn. 34:2) and Gilgal (Jos. 9:6,7), as the LXX read ‘Horite’ in both passages [the AV reads ‘Hivite’, Heb. Hiwwi, Gk. Heuaios, one of the sons of Canaan, (Gn. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15), an early inhabitant of Syria and Palestine, in association with the Arkites, known to have dwelt in Lebanon (Gn. 10:17) and the Hermon range, as far as the valley leading to Hamath (Jos. 11:3). Some read ‘Hittite’ (hitti) for ‘Hivite’ in Josh. 11:3; Judg. 3:3 (also Gn. 36:20-30, Gn. 34:2, Josh. 9:7). See “the Canaanites”]. Others equate them with the Egypt Hurru, a designation of Syro-Palestine, named with Israel in the Merenptah stele c. 1220 B.C. These were the non-Semitic Hurrians who already formed part of the indigenous population of Syria (Alalah) and occupied the area called Subaru (Euphrates-Habur-Tigris region). Bibliography: I. J. Gelb, Hurrians and Subarinas, 1944; E. A. Speiser, Introduction to Hurrian, 1941; Journal of world History, I, 1953, pp. 311-327. D. J. Wiseman, University of London. In: The New Bible Dictionary, pp. 537,528-529 (full reference in 4-a).

7-a. Emims = “the terrible,” Early inhabitants of Moab, who were smitten in the plain of Kiriathaim by Chedorlaomer in the time of Abraham (Gn. 14:5). They were described by Moses as a great and numerous people, to be compared in stature to the Anakim (Deut. 2:10). They were evidently considered to belong to the peoples known as Rephaim, but were called “emim”, “terrifying beings”, by the Moabites who followed them in the area (Deut. 2:11) [T.C.M., “The New Bible Dictionary”]. A race of gigantic stature originally dwelling on the E. of the Salt Sea. Anciently the whole country was held by a race of giants – the Rephaim on the N.; next, the Zuzim; and next the Emim; then the Horim on the S. Afterwards the kingdom of Bashan embraced the territories of the Rephaim; the Ammonites that of the Zuzim; the Moabites that of the Emim; while Edom embraced the mountains of the Horim. The Emim were related to the Anakim, and generally called by the same name; but their conquerors, the Moabites, called them Emim – “The Terrible” (Gen. 14:5, Deut.2:10,11), Young’s, p. 297 (full ref. in 1-a).

8-a. Zamzummim = “powerful, vigorous,” A tribe of the Rephaim dwelling in the region afterwards occupied by the Ammonites; called Zuzim in Gen. 14:5 (Deut. 2:20), Young’s, p. 1086. Zuzims = “prominent, strong, giant” A primitive race in the country afterwards possessed by the children of Ammon (Gen. 14:5), Young’s, p. 1090 (full ref. in 1-a). Zuzim, Gk. ethne ischyra, “strong peoples” their principal city, Ham, is probably to be identified with the modern village of the same name north-east of Gilboa Mts. in N. Jordan. Tristram (Moab, pp. 182 ff.) and others, however, have sought to identify them with the Moabite village of Ziza, between Bozra and Lejun. Because the Zuzim are mentioned in parallel with the Rephaim and Emim, it may be that it is descriptive of the inhabitants (so LXX) rather than a tribal name. For this reason some equate them with Zamzummim who are identified with, or described as, Rephaim (Deut. 2:20), whose territory was later overrun by Ammonites. D. J. Wiseman, Professor of Assyriology, University of London. “Zuzim, were smitten by Chedorlaomer in the time of Abraham (Gn. 14:5). Their city, whose name was “Ham” is probably somewhere in Transjordan, whose territory lay east of Jordan (Gn, 15:5).” T.C.Mitchell, The British Museum. In: The New Bible Dictionary, pp. 500,1361 (full reference in 4-a).
9-a. Avim, Avites = “villagers,” 1. A tribe destroyed before the time of Moses (Deut. 2:23, Josh. 13:3); 2. A city of Benjamin, near Beth-el (the definite article is here prefixed in the Hebrew). Now Et-tell (Josh. 18:23); 3. A tribe transported to Samaria, B.C. 678 (2 Ki. 17:31), Young’s, p. 63 (full ref. In 1-a).

10-a. Sodom, Sodoma = “place of lime,” a city on the shore of the Salt Sea south of Engedi; destroyed in the days of Abraham and Lot along with Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim. B.C. 1900 (Gen. 10:19, 13:10-13; 14:2,8, 10-12,17,21-22; 18:16,20,22,26; 19:1 (twice),4,24,28; Deut. 29:23, 32:32; Isa. 1:9-10, 3:9, 13:19; Jer. 23:14, 49:18, 50:40; Lam. 4:6; Eze. 16:46,48-49,53,55-56; Amos 4:11; Zeph. 2:9; Mt. 10:15, 11:23-24; Mark 6:11; Luke 10:12, 17:29; Rom. 9:29; 2 Pe. 2:6; Jude 7; Rev. 11:8), Young’s, p. 904 (full ref. In 1-a). Cities of the Plain. The cities may lie buried beneath the shallow waters of the southern tip of the Dead Sea, as archaeological investigation shows that about 2000 B.C. (G.E. Wright, Westminster Historical Atlas, 1945, pp. 26,65,66; Biblical Archaeology, 1957, p.50; D. J. Wiseman, Illustrations from Biblical Archaeology, 1958, p. 30) there was a catastrophe (release and explosion of gaseous deposits?) which emptied the area of settled occupation for 600 years. Biblically, and fundamentally, it was God’s judgment, remembered again and again throughout the Bible (Deut. 29:13; Is. 1:9; Jer. 49:18; La. 4:6; Am. 4:11; Lk. 17:29; 2 Pe. 2:6); and Sodom became synonymous with brazen sin (Is. 3:9; La. 4:6; Jude 7). Whereas Eze. 16:49 lists the sins of Sodom as “pride, prosperous complacency, and "abomination,” Gen. 19:4, 5 concentrates on “sexual perversion, particularly homosexuality.” J. A. Motyer, Clifton Theological College, Bristol. In: The New Bible Dictionary, p. 1003 (full reference in 4-a).

11-a. Gomorrah = “fissure, submersion,” one of the five “cities of the plain” or “vale of Siddim” that were plundered by Chedorlaomer and his allies. All these cities save Zoar were afterwards destroyed with fire from heaven (Gen. 10:19, 13:10; 14:2,8, 10-11; 18: 20; 19: 24,28; Deut. 29:23, 32:32; Isa. 1:9-10, 13:19; Jer. 23:14, 49:18, 50:40; Amos 4:11; Zeph. 2:9; Mt. 10:15; Mark 6:11; Rom. 9:29; 2 Pe. 2:6; Jude 7), Young’s, p. 426 (full ref. In 1-a).

12-a. Admah = “earthwork, fortress,” a town in the vale of Siddim which was destroyed with Sodom, Gomorrah, Zeboim, B. C. 1897 (Gen. 10:19, 14:2,8; Deut. 29:23; Hos. 11:8), Young’s, p. 14 (full ref. In 1-a). One of the Cities of the Plain, linked specially with Zeboiim in Ho. 11:8. The association with Gaza (Gen. 10:19) suggests the correctness of the modern locating of the pentapolis as submerged beneath the southern waters of the Dead Sea. J. A. Motyer. Clifton Theological College, Bristol. In: The New Bible Dictionary, p. 14 (full reference in 4-a).
13-a. Zeboim, Zeboiim = “wild place,” 1. One of the five cities in the valley of Siddim, and destroyed with Sodom and Gomorrah. B.C. 1898 (Gen. 10:19, 14:2,8; Deut. 29:23; Hos. 11:8), 2. A city and valley in Benjamin sloping eastward to the Jordan plain; perhaps the Shug ed Dubba or Wady Abu-l-Dda-baa (Wadi Abu Daba) (1 Sam. 13:18; Neh. 11:34), Young’s, p. 14 (full ref. In 1-a). 3. A Benjamite town of post-exilic times, near Lydda (Neh. 11:34). The Heb. phrase means ‘ravine of hyenas’ (ge seboim). D. F. Payne, University of Sheffield. In: The New Bible Dictionary, p. 1354 (full reference in 4-a).
14-a. Bela, Belah = “consumption,” which is Zoar = “little,” a small city (once called Bela) at the S. E. corner of Salt Sea, afterwards reckoned to Moab, into which Lot and his two daughters fled when Sodom was destroyed; now called Ziara (Gen. 13:10, 14:2,8, 19:22-23,30 (twice); Deut. 34:3; Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:34), Young’s, p. 1090 (full ref. In 1-a).

15-a. Amalekite = “belonging to Amalek;” and Amalek = “warlike, dweller in the vale,” the name of a people and country smitten by Chedorlaomer and his confederates in the days of Abraham, B.C. 1917 (Gen. 14:7). Without any provocation they came and attacked the rear of Israel as they were journeying through the wilderness, but were defeated by Joshua at Rephidim (Exod. 17:8-16), and in consequence of this assault a perpetual war was declared against them by Jehovah; they dwelt on the land of the S. of Judah (Nm. 13:29), and in the valley (Nm. 14:25); along with the Canaanites they defeated the rash attack of Israel, and drove them even unto Hormah (Nm. 14:43-45). From Exodus onwards, Amalekites were to be found in the Negeb, but for a time they gained a foothold in Ephraim (Jdg. 12:15). Balaam, the foreign prophet, looked away to their lands from his vantage-point in Moab, and described them as “the first of the nations,” or Goyim (Nm. 24:20). Israel was henceforth required to “remember” their treacherous attack (Deut. 25:17-19). They, along with the children of Ammon, joined with Eglon, king of Moab (B.C. 1354), to attack Israel, and took Jericho (Judg. 3:13); they were successfully opposed by the Ephraimites in the conflict with Jabin, king of Hazor, B.C. 1296 (Judg. 5:14); they joined with the Midianites and the children of the East (or Kedem) in the days of Gideon, B.C. 1256 (Judg. 6:3), but were defeated by him in the valley of Jezreel (Judg. 6:33, 7:12-22); they are mentioned among the oppressors of Israel (Judg. 10:12); they were smitten by Saul, B.C. 1086 (1 Sam. 14:48); again by him, B.C. 1079, throughout their whole country “from Havilah to Shur,” on the border of Egypt, when Agag their king was cut in pieces (1 Sam. 15:2-33); they were invaded and destroyed by David (1 Sam. 27:8-10); their previous non-destruction by Saul was the cause of his rejection (1 Sam. 28:18); in David’s absence they invaded and plundered Ziklag, B.C. 1056, and carried off his two wives and others as captives, but they were pursued, overtaken, and defeated by David (1 Sam. 30:1-31); one of their nation accusing himself of Saul’s death was put to death by David (2 Sam. 1:1-16), by whom their silver and gold was dedicated to Jehovah (2 Sam. 8:12; 1 Chr. 18:11); they were again smitten in the days of Hezekiah, B.C. 726-693, by five hundred men of the tribe of Simeon, who thereafter dwelt in their place, at the east of the valley of Gedor, or Gerar (1 Chr. 4:39-43); they are mentioned with Ammon and the Philistines as among the enemies of Israel (Psa. 83:7). They are not again noticed in Scripture, except Haman the Agagite be reckoned one of their nation, which is not improbable (Esth. 3:1), etc. Comp Nm. 24:7 (Gen. 14:7; Nm. 13:29, 14:25,43,45; Judg. 6:3,33, 7:12, 10:12, 12:15; 1 Sam. 14:48, 15:6 (twice)-8,15,18,20,32, 27:8, 30:1,13,18; 2 Sam. 1:1,8,13; 1 Chr. 4:43), Young’s, p. 31. Agagite = “belonging to Agag;” and Agag = “high, warlike,” a poetic name of Amalek, derived from a particular dynasty (Nm. 24:7; 1 Sam. 15:8-9,20,32 (thrice)-33), the Agagites were an Amalekite tribe (Esth. 3:1,10, 8:5, 9:24), Young’s, p. 19. (full ref. In 1-a). Young says that Amalekites are “erroneously supposed by some to be the descendants of Amalek, son of Eliphaz (eldest son of Esau, Gen. 36:10-16; 1 Chr. 1:36), by his concubine Timna.” J. A. T. says: “Some writers distinguish the nomadic Amalekites normally found in the Negeb and Sinai area, from the descendants of Esau, because Gen. 14:7, which pre-dates Esau, refers to ‘the country of the Amalekites’. The distinction is unnecessary if we regard the phrase as a later editorial description.” (F. M. Abel, Geographie de la Palestine, II, 1933, pp.270-273), J. A. Thompson, Baptist Theological College of New South Wales. In: The New Bible Dictionary, pp. 28,29 (full reference in 4-a). We expand the Bible verses as Young provides them in p. 19: Amalek, son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau, B.C. 1680 (Gen. 36:12,16; 1 Chr. 1:36), name also applied to his descendants, who are, however, generally called Amalekites (Ex. 17:8-11,13-14,16; Nm. 24:20 (twice); Deut. 25:17,19: Judg. 3:13, 5:14; 1 Sam. 15:2-3,5,20, 28:18; 2 Sam. 8:12; 1 Chr. 18:11; Ps. 83:7). They attacked Israel at Rephidim in the wilderness of Sinai (Ex. 17:8-13; Deut. 25:17, 18)…A year later, after the report of the spies, Israel ignored Moses command and sought to enter southern Palestine. The Amalekites defeated them at Hormah (Nu. 14:43, 45). The Amalekites also assisted Eglon, king of Moad, to attack Israelite territory (Jdg. 3:13), and later combined forces with the Midianites and the children of the East to raid Israelite crops and flocks. Gideon drove them out (Jdg. 6:3-5, 33; 7:12; 10:12). Samuel commanded Saul to destroy the Amalekites in the area south of Telaim. Booty was forbidden. Saul pursued them from Havilah to Shur but captured their king alive. Later, Samuel slew Agag and rebuked Saul (1 Sa. 15). David founght the amalekites in the area of Ziklag which Achish, king of Gath, had given him (1 Sa. 27:6; 30:1-20). The Amalekites declined later, and in Hezekiah´s days the sons of Simeon attacked “the remnant of the Amalekites that escaped”, taking their stronghold in Mount Seir (1 Ch. 4:43)”.
16-a. Amorite = “mountaineer,” a race or tribe descended from Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, the younger son of Noah; it is mentioned after the Jebusite and before the Girgashite (Gen. 10:16; 1 Chr. 1:13), some of them dwelt in Hazezon-tamar (Hazazon-tamar), or Engedi, on the W. of the Salt Sea, and were smitten by Chedorlaomer, in the days of Abraham, B.C. 1913 (Gen. 14:7); three of their chiefs, Mamre, Eschol and Aner, were confederates of Abraham (Gen. 14:13); the iniquity of the tribe (as the representative of the Canaanites generally) was not yet full (Gen. 15:16,21); they seem to have contended unsuccessfully with Jacob (48:22); they are mentioned between the Hittites and Perizzites, as inhabitants of Canaan (Exod. 3:8,17; Judg. 3:5; Neh. 9:1); between the Hittites (Hittite, Heb. Hittim, ‘the children of Heth’ (Gn. 23:3, etc.), a son of Canaan (Gn. 10:15). In Gen. 23 they are a resident population of Hebron (‘the people of the land’), among whom Abraham lives as ‘a stranger and a sojourner’ and from whom he buys the field of Machpelah. Esau grived his parents by marrying two ‘daughters of Heth… daughters of the land’ (Gn. 27:46, cf. 26:34 f.) – apparently in the Beersheba region. Jerusalem had a mixed Hittite and Amorite foundation (Ezek. 16:3,45). Uriah the Hittite was one of David’s ‘mighty men’ (2Sa. 23:39), another was Ahimelech (1Sa. 26:6). The last reference to Hittites is in Solomon’s reign (2Chr. 8:7-8); thereafter the were merged in the general population of the land. F. F. Bruce, University of Manchester), and the Hivites (Exod. 13:5); before the other tribes (Exod. 23:23); between the Canaanite and the Hittite (Exod. 33:2; Josh. 11:3); before the Canaanite and the other tribes (Exod. 34:11); as dwelling in the mountains of Judah (Nm. 13:29); as having the river Arnon as their dividing line from Moab (Nm. 21:13); as having a king named Sihon, B.C. 1452, who not only refused to let Israel pass, but came and attacked them at Jahaz, when he was defeated and his land taken possession of by Israel (Nm. 21:21-32); it was given to the two-and-a-half tribes (Nm. 32:33); the chief city of the south portion of the tribe was Heshbon (Deut. 1:4); the “mount of the Amorites” was apparently another name for Canaan (Deut. 1:7,19-20); Israel was afraid of them (Deut. 1:27); and was beaten by them in Seir, even unto Hormah (Deut. 1:44); their land was to be possessed by Israel (Deut. 3:2), even from the river Arnon to Mount Hermon, including the land of Og, who reigned in Edrei in Bashan (Deut. 3:8-9, 4:46-47); mentioned between the Girgashites and the Canaanites (Deut. 7:1); between the Hittites and the Canaanites (Deut. 20:17; Josh. 9:1, 12:8); their fate seems to have terrified the other peoples (Josh. 2:10, 9:10); mentioned between the Girgashites and the Jebusites (Josh. 3:10); mentioned along with the Canaanites as the sole inhabitants of the land W. of the Jordan (Jos. 5:1); alone mentioned as such (Josh. 7:7); five of their kings besiege Gibeon, but are defeated (Josh. 10:5-12). They had a variety of gods (Josh. 24:15; Judg. 6:10); they forced the children of Dan into the mountain (Judg. 1:34); they were reduced to tribute by the house of Joseph (Judg. 1:35); their border was from the ascent of Akrabbim northward (Judg. 1:36); they were at peace with Israel in the days of Samuel, B.C. 1171-1061 (1 Sam. 7:14); the Gibeonites were a remnant of them (2 Sam. 21:2); Geber, the son of Uri, was over their land E. of the Jordan in the days of Solomon, B.C. 1014 (1 Ki. 4:19); their remnant was reduced to servitude by Solomon (1 Ki. 9:20-21; 2 Chr. 8:7); their idol worship was followed by Ahab, B.C. 899 (1 Ki. 21:26); also by Manasseh (1 Ki. 21:11); their abominations by the Jews under Ezra (9:8). The overthrow of Og and Sihon was celebrated (Ps. 135:11, 136:19); Judah, because of her sins, is represented as having an Amorite for a father, a Hittite for a mother, and Samaria and Sodom for sisters (Eze. 16:3,45); the Amorite is represented as tall and strong, yet destroyed before Israel, to whom his land was promised (Amos 2:9-10) (Gen. 10:16, 14:7,13; 15:16,21, 48:22; Exod. 3:8,17, 13:5, 23:23, 33:2, 34:11; Nm. 13:29, 21:13 (twice),21,25-26,29,31-32,34, 22:2, 32:33,39; Deut. 1:4,7,19-20,27,44, 2:24, 3:2,8,9, 4:46-47, 7:1, 20:17, 31:4; Josh. 2:10, 2:10, 5:1, 7:7, 9:1,10, 10:5-6,12, 11:3, 12:2,8; 13:4,10,21, 24:8,11-12,15,18, Judg. 1:34-36, 3:5, 6:10, 10:8,11, 11:19,21-23; 1 Sam. 7:14; 2 Sam. 21:2; 1 Ki. 4:19, 9:20, 21:26; 2 Ki. 21:11; 1 Chr. 1:14; 2 Chr. 8:7; Ezra 9:1; Neh. 9:8; Ps. 135:11, 136:19; Eze. 16:3,45; Amos 2:9-10), Young’s, p. 34-35. (full ref. In 1-a). Amorites, “A people of Canaan (Gn 10:16) often listed with the Hittites, Perizzites, etc. as opponents of Israel (Ex. 33:2)…At the time of the Israelite invasion of Palestine, Amorite kings (Sihon of Heshbon and Og of Bashan) ruled most of Transjordan (Jos 12:1-6, Jdg. 1:36). The conquest of these two kings was the first stage of the possession of the Promised Land and was looked upon as a most important event in Israelite history (Am 2:9; Pss. 135:11, 136:19). Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh occupied this territory (Nu. 32:33)”. During the latter half of the third millennium B.C., summerian and Akkadian inscriptions refer to the Amorites (Sum. mar-tu, Akkad. amurru) as a desert people unacquainted with civilized life, grain, houses, cities, and government. Their headquarters were in the mountain of Basar, probably Jebel Bishri north of Palmyra (nomadic tribes in Syria, Mare-Yamina, or possibly Bene-Yamina). About 200 B.C. these people, who had been infiltrating for centuries, moved into Babylonia in force. They were partly responsible for the collapse of the powerful 3rd Dynasty of Ur and took over the rule of several towns (e.g. Larsa). An ‘Amorite’ dynasty was established at Babylon, and its most powerful king, Hammurabi, conquered the two other important ‘Amorite’ states of Assur and Mari (c. 1750 B.C.). 20,000 texts were found at Mari, written in Akkadian with many west-Semitic features. Including the description of another group settled in the Lebanon and engaged in the trading of horses. This kingdom survived into the period of the Amarna letters and the 19th Dynasty of Egypt, when tribute is recorded from the state of Amor. The capital of this seems to have been the port of Sumur (modern Tell Simiriyan) south of Arvad. This is the country mentioned in Jos. 13:4. The men of Ai are called Amorites (Josh. 7:7) and Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon were Amorite principalities which Israel overcame (Josh. 10:1-27). Ezekiel well indicates the mixed population of Palestine (caused largely by the continuous infiltrations of desert dweller), describing Jerusalem as the offspring of Amorite and Hittite. Jerusalem had a mixed Hittite and Amorite foundation (Eze. 16:3,45). After the land was settled, the Amorites became menials and were gradually absorbed (1 Ki. 21:26; 2 Ki. 21:11; cf. Gen. 15:16). S. Moscati, The Semites in Ancient History, 1959; J.R. Kupper, Les Nomades en Mesopotamie au temps des Rois de Mari, 1957; review by A. Goetze, Journal of Semitic Studies, IV, 1959, pp. 142-147; I. J. Gelb, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, XV, 1961, pp. 24-47. A. R. Millard, Tyndale House, Cambridge. In The New Bible Dictionary, pp. 28,29, 528-529 (full ref. in 4-a).

[Goliath’s] stature is confirmed by the discovery


in Palestine of skeletons of similar stature,

and of roughly the same period.”
J. D. Douglas, Christianity Today.

The New Bible Dictionary, 1962, p. 481.
Neandertals…were about 30% larger than an average modern man, and of great muscular strength.”

Tomas Lindahl, Imperial Cancer Research Fund.

Cell, Vol. 90:1, 1997, pp. 1-3.



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