In the last years we become witnesses of thrilling worldwide events. Wars with their tragic consequences, the unequal distribution of wealth on the planet, the economical crises and globalization, the political conflicts have accumulated problems, such as immigration, trafficking, infringement of human rights etc. The last two decades in Greece, Literature, and especially Children’s Literature, has been the sensible intellectual area in which similar social and intercultural problems have constituted a matter and subject of work and creation. The particular nature of the poetic language, the language of literature put these problems in a different way of looking and brought them into notice in the conscience and the writing of many authors. Some writers, from the point of view of a social realism, wanting to communicate with the young and adolescent readers, brought into notice the subject of the cultural identity and diversity, spoken with their own manner about the existence of these problems in nowadays societies in which the multicultural composition is historically given. Differences of culture, peoples, economical and social classes are given in European as well as American, Asian and African societies.
Children’s Literature, an intentional literature, has, between others themes, family and friendship, immigration and diversity caused by war, poverty and unemployment.In this paper I will work out especially from a number of modern Greek novels for young and adolescent readers, like “Dreams of Silk”, “Sometimes the Hunter”, the characters of heroes who reflect all the social and political situations which I have had described. The heroes of the novels were created in a realistic way express ideologically the situations of immigration and the diversity, which is its consequence. Furthermore, they symbolize values and examples (modes) of culture that give an impulse to perspectives of exceeding the above problems.
The active way of forming imaginary characters from the writers, and the dynamic perception of the above social situations from readers and authors constitutes a dialectics very useful for creating consciences in our present multicultural societies.
Certainly, consciences, not of the opposition and exclusion of the “other”, but, on the contrary, of the approbation and the relationship (symbiosis), which are the main demand in our time. INTRODUCTION
The field of our study is the literature of the modern Greek prose fiction of childhood and adolescence (novel and novelette). This research is based mainly on the study of 14 prose books about immigration and, totally, of 23 prose books about immigration and cultural diversity which have been published between 1982-2004.
All the books, implicitly or explicitly, are referred to war, social conflict, poverty and unemployment. All the writers consciously believe that the situations, which are taken place in their stories, are the tragic consequences of the economical, political and social conditions. In the Greek Children’s Literature, these facts are reflected and signified by considering the stories as social-historical testimonies.
The purpose of the research is focused on the immigration issues and on the explicit social consequences; that is the phenomena of diversity, heterogeneity and identity, and the way the Greek writers of the Children’s Literature through the beliefs and attitudes of their heroes and heroines signify these.
Literary semiotics and cultural imagology are used as methods of analysis of the textual data. Precisely, in a critical approach of the thematics of the novels and novelettes we use cultural thematic, and regarding the narrative, the relationship between heroes and the act of narrative we use the narratology.1 At last, considering the study of the identity and heterogeneity of the heroes and of the literary stereotypes (collective mental representations of the social imaginary) as well, as the position of the writers on these issues, we use the cultural imagology.2
CRITICAL APPROACH AND THEMATIC CATEGORIZATION
A. The immigration phenomenon.
According to the principal or central theme of each prose fiction book, the following categories of the immigration phenomenon are arisen:
1. The economical immigration of Greeks in Europe and in America and, also, the phenomenon of interior immigration.3
The principal theme of the economical immigration of the adolescent Vangelis from Greek Macedonia to West Germany as employee is the issue of the novel Game Without Rules by Galatia Grigoriadou-Soureli. Moreover, this theme is linked with interesting others, such as the abjectness, alienation, corruption, illegality, illegal dealing in antiquities.
The study of some extracts of dialogues (sociolectes) emerges the image of the immigrant (gastarbeiter) in W. Germany.4 A gastarbeiter is obliged to obey in rules, to work and rest in a place (Heim), to not visit places and stores where is prohibited, that is to say to be abject, a base people:
“Alekos cried strongly, without perceiving it. A ferocious voice snarls at them, out of their door.
-Shut up “gastarbeiter”!
Like a knife this word, an injury stabbed them right on the chest. Alekos made to open the door, to come to blows with the doorkeeper who insulted him. They held him back painfully, more cold-blooded, Giorgio and Vangelis”.
Grigoriadou-Soureli Galatia, Game Without Rules, (Athens: Patakis,1982),125.
The stereotype image of a German who exploits the immigrant, he is hard towards him, he is racist, an absolute negative judgment that the principal heroes Vangelis has formed for all Germans, because of his inexperience, deconstructs the writer. She creates a dialogue with Vangelis and Giorgis who knows Germans and has friends who don’t behave like the adolescent Vangelis believes, by generalizing some paradigms from his experience.5
The same theme is treated in the novel The Trees Which Are Running by the Cypriot Maria Piliotou. A Cypriot family after the invasion of the Turks in northern Cyprus immigrate to London, U.K. The main theme is linked with those of cultural assimilation, social solidarity, and racism, which is manifested in school.
2. The immigration-exile of the Greek political refugees in the countries of Europe or elsewhere.6 The immigration-exile of the political refugees, because of the Greek civil war, from Greece to Taskendi (Usbekistan, U.S.S.R.) and, after 40 years, their repatriation (nostos) in Greece, that is to say a second immigration, which includes three generations, is the central theme of the novel Sometime Τhe Hunter by Eleni Saranditi.
The principal heroine-narrator and heroine-witness is the adolescent Evridiki, 17 years old, a schoolgirl in a College of Trikala, where her family, after repatriation, resided. Evridiki is revolted. She represents the voice of enthusiasm, contestation, revolution, when she referred at the issue of social racism against her, her brother Stavros and her sister Margarita:
“Yes. Certainly. (The native land) was missed you. I understand that”, and he move his head by following with interest. And after: “The other children? The brothers of your? They are youngest, so are they?”
“Stavros and Margarita are going to the school yet. But they were changed school. In the middle of the year. The atmosphere wasn’t suitable for children of refugees. You don’t believe it, hey? It impresses you… You should see me. When they were coming tear-stained. When nobody was accepting to sit beside them. When anybody wasn’t going near them. When, they were not daring to talk with. Even at the lesson. And, when they were not being supported as should be by any teachers”.
“Look, it is not possible. Not because you don’t tell the truth, but look, I want not believe it. I didn’t hear something like that until today. And I have difficulties to accept it because it is a sample of racism. And, that I know of…”
Sarantiti Eleni, Sometimes The Hunter, (Athens: Kastaniotis, 1996), 44.
On the contrary, her grant mother Anasta incarnates the voice of wisdom, the experience of life, the consciousness of the History. The heroine Evridiki deconstructs stereotypes for political refugees who are repatriated, when speaks about members of her family and herself. These collective mental representations want repatriated refugees as not civilized people, without country, immigrants, atheists, and communists7. In her effort to face the hostile environment, she has assistants, Sotiris and her grant mother Anasta. Sotiris, an unprejudiced young man, by confronting his mother who dislikes Evridiki and her family, deconstructs the stereotype image of the repatriates as base people. And Anasta, an ex-teacher with an immense experience of life, disproves the beliefs that political refugees are not patriots, they don’t believe in god, etc.8 The same thematic category is presented into the novel The Fiancée Οf Achilles by Alki Zei. In this work the theme of immigration of the political refugees is refolded in a second exile, because of the Dictatorship in the years 1967-1974. A third novel, The Double Voyage by Litsa Psarafti treats the immigration of the refugees of the island of Samos to Gaza and Jerusalem (Palestine) just after the bombing of the city of Samos by the Germans in the Great War.
3. The economical immigration of foreigners from the Balkans, the Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa to Greece.9 The economical immigration of a Russian woman (Elona) and her daughter (Liumba) in a Greek province compose the main theme of the novel A Story Of Fiodor by Manos Kondoleon. With this principal theme coexist others such as alienation, liberty, and dignity.
4. The immigration of foreign political refugees from other countries to Greece.
The immigration of the Kurdish political refugees in Greek islands is treated in the novelette Sarakiniko by Stratis Tragakis. The main theme is linked with those of identity and heterogeneity, the religious and national diversity.
The characters of the novelette are children, 7-8 years of age. Nikolas and Leonidas are distinguished between them. The family of Nikolas sees in a different way the Kurdish boy Ekrem and his family, political refugees in a Greek island. On the contrary, Leonidas and his family believe that the Kurdish family is a danger for them, because they are different, of another language, immigrants, strange foreigners, and terrorists.
The symbolic distinction between good and evil in the fiction is the point of view of these characters. The absolute difference of stereotypes, which enclose and discriminate good people from evil one, is overthrown (upset): the stereotype image of Ekrem is upset by Nikolas in this extract:
“Nikolas was waiting for some extraterrestrial monsters, because of all those he had heard for Turks. But anyone from the crowd wasn’t like an extraterrestrial. Only Panagis was distinguishing because of his size.
Shortly, Nikolas heard the cracking of the old wooden stair, and, as the door opened, his glance was fixed on the dark face of the little boy. He was almost in his age.
“But this one is like me! Neither big teeth, or horns; eyes and hairs like mine” he thought.
In spite of his ascertainments, he wasn’t sure that could sleep calm with all these foreigners into his house. He stood by side of his big brother Michalis, and he whispered:
-They may kill us at night.
-Don’t be afraid, they are not killers, neither terrorists. They are, like us, quiet people. They came in our country for living better!”
The image of the war and that of a Kurdish terrorist, is upset to a performance of Karagiozis with theme “Karagiozis terrorist”.10 So, the writer, by creating a fiction of a subversive and critical realism, ideologically upsets and undermines racism, xenophobia and fanaticism.11
The same theme is treated in the novel Arkandaslar by Voula Arvanitidou, and, partly, is mentioned in the novel Dreams Of Silk by Litsa Psarafti.
B. The diversity phenomenon.
The principal theme of immigration, as we mentioned, is linked to others, such as of the diversity, following this categorization:
Racial diversity between the indigenous citizens in Greece (Gypsies-non Gypsies Greeks).
The diversity of race between citizens of a state, that is the difference between Gypsies and the other Greeks, is the main theme of the novelette People Is Bored ToRead Distressing Stories by Maroula Kliafa. Social racism is presented with references to his perpetuation because of the illiteracy of Gypsies citizens, and, also, with references to the assimilation of Gypsies to the dominant ideology of Greek society. In the extract, below, the racial discrimination is clearly signified:
“They were playing on the street. I was stand and looked them. Suddenly -how it happened to me? - I ran and entered into the circle. “Hey you, where are you going?”
The girl that was asking me was tall, in my height. She wore a jean. “I want to play me too”, I said. “You are gypsy”, said the girl. And she elbowed me. “No, I have a chocolate skin” I stammered. The children laughed. “You are a liar” cried a child. And another said: “Gypsies are thieves”. “Gypsies made the nails and crucified Jesus Christ”, said a third one. I infuriated. “No, that is not truth” I screamed out. The children were laughing. They were laughing and saying many curses. “I didn’t disturb anyone” I cried. “Gypsy… gypsy…gypsy” were saying the children. I shut with my palms my ears. Their voice was piercing from everywhere. “Gypsy…gypsy…” “No, don’t cry, don’t cry in front of them” I was saying to me. And I was swallowing the tears.”
Kliafa Maroula, People Is Bored To Read Distressing Stories, (Athens: Kedros, 1986), 16-17.
Children’s discourse against heroine Elpida, for instance, “you are Gypsy”, “you are liar”, “Gypsies are thieves”, “Gypsies made the nails and crucified Jesus Christ”, encloses, separates, generalizes, predisposes. The heroine resists because she don’t want this absolute diversity that imposes the repetition of the above motifs, by objecting: “I have chocolate-colored skin”. The writer creates the character of Elpida who deconstructs the social representations, because her discourse is the objection to the racism, and so the story by Maroula Kliafa could be qualified as a novelette of awareness on the Gypsies social problem.
Similarly, the social diversity of Gypsies citizens in the Greek state has as central theme the novel The Dress Of Cleopatra by Pitsa Sotirakou. Also, in parallel with the main theme, the racial discrimination against Gypsies, the illiteracy of Gypsies citizens, the illegal immigrants, and the capture of animals (bears) are treated.
Racial diversity of foreign citizens in Greece or Europe or elsewhere.12
The complicated situation of social, racial, and individual diversities is treated in the novel Dreams Of Silk by Litsa Psarafti. The writer focuses on various diversities that concern the Greek society which is not any more a traditional but a multicultural one, with all the typical problems of a modern society: homosexuality, difference of thought and mentality of northern and southern Europeans, separation and divorce, employment of immigrants in Greek houses, children with special needs.
The principal heroine Danai, 16 years old, a schoolgirl of College, daughter of a Greek employee of bank and a Danish woman, narrates her experiences from her family and social environment in the island of Samos.
In the fiction, there are two narrators: the adolescent Danai and the old woman Thekla, 77 years old. Danai deconstructs the collective mental representations for the immigrants and foreigners. She works conscientiously against stereotypes which consider boys as homosexuals and girls as fallen women/prostitutes, when she discusses with her friend Themis his sexual problem and with Nikos, a person with special needs (disable), she comments positively on the social change and the attitudes of many citizens towards the diversity that she remarks in her island:
“-You are lucky to be born after the second world war, otherwise Nazis would make/put on you a rosy triangle in your sleeve, would pack you to the concentration’s camps and would make you soap, a soap of luxury of course, with perfume of lavender.
-Don’t say more Danai, you make me shudder.
-Don’t be afraid, as passes the time, our society accepts all those that are different. But me, whatever you are, I will be your friend, I love you as my brother and I will be beside you anytime.
- I thank you, baby. I am sure that I would need of you.”
(Psarafti Litsa, Dreams Of Silk, (Athens: Patakis, 2002), 91
On the contrary, Thekla who lives sometimes in the past, thinks differently/otherwise, she is superstitious and prejudiced against diversity, sometimes refers and adopts some negative images for the different “other”, for instance, Danai’s mother who is Danish and abandons her husband and children. Her name is not mentioned in the story. The writer reproduces the literary stereotype of Latin lover on the character of the Italian Paolo whom loves Danai’s mother. She is signified always as “mother of”, and because Thekla and the neighbors evaluate her negatively as mother, perhaps unable to understand her:
“When mister Aristides brought to our house the Danish woman for knowing her, she (his mother) behaves like a lady. She welcome her and she opened her armful, “she is an orphan girl, needs our love” she was saying. Mistress wanted for her son a woman from the land. She didn’t want, for his sake, to displease him, although all, relatives and friends, were telling her that many foreigner women are frivolous and over-sexed. Mister Aristides was a cool boy, I didn’t ever hear tell something bad to his mother. But, from the beginning he said decidedly to mistress Danai.
-Either I marry her and we stand in the island or we leave to Denmark.”
(Psarafti Litsa, Dreams Of Silk, (Athens: Patakis, 2002), 104.
Social and individual diversities in Greece.13
The adoption of a child is the subject of the novel The Other Sister by Agni Charalabous. A Greek family adopts a Rumanian girl (Andouanetta). The two sisters, Eleni and Marina, have a new sister, which is now a member of their family.
Also, social diversities, such as between the inhabitants of the city and those of the countryside, their mentality are the subject of the novel Akis And The Others, by Kyriakos Delopoulos, and, finally, the individuality of the adolescent as difference of thought and behavior is the main theme of the novel Chandal And The Others, by Gil Lacq.
Social racism in Greece.14
The social and racial racism constitute the dominant theme of the novel The Monsters Of TheHill by Loti Petrovits-Andoutsopoulou. An international group of Neonazi is extended in Athens: Greeks and foreigners executors of violence that attack the immigrants and the refugee citizens of the city. The society reacts and the group is dismembered. Same is the thematic category of the novel Elsa And The…Chocolate With… Milk! by Olga Sechidou. In the plot of the story, children are victims of an attack in their school, but the heroine succeeds to escape and save her friend and fellow-student Tomi, who is an immigrant boy from Zaϊr (Africa).
Religious diversities in Greece and Cyprus.
The novel Didon, My Pavelakis, And Me, by Filissa Chatzichanna, (Kedros: Athens, 1982) treats the religious and ethnical diversities between Christians and Muslims of the two communities of Cyprus before the Turkish invasion on the island.
Similarly, the diversity of religion is also the subject of the novelette Sarakiniko by Stratis Tragakis.
National or ethnical diversities in Greece.15
As we mentioned above, ethnical diversity too is the subject of the novelette Sarakiniko, by Stratis Tragakis and the novel The Other Sister, byAgni Charalambous.
As all these themes coexist, they can be found not separately into the fictions and can be studied together. Also, all these fictions belong to the writing of the critical social realism, because they represent the world in a way that can be observed and verified by the empirical and historical reality.
The protagonist heroes of the childhood-adolescence prose fictions (novel and novelette) are children and adolescents, both boys and girls. Their age varies. The writers, by choosing carefully the sex and the age of their heroes, try to create convincing characters. Moreover, they give exemplary or worthy of imitation characters to their young readers.16
The research of 23 prose fiction books presented to reader the following results: 17 female and 4 male writers chose and incarnated 10 heroes and 17 heroines as protagonists: the preference on the heroines is obvious by the sample of the study. Besides, the protagonist-central role is important: the main role in the system of the active persons is most often female (girls or female adolescents or adult women).17 The relationship of the protagonist heroes or heroines and the other characters to the narrative depends on the choice of the writer. In the specific study we observed the following: when the writer chooses heterodiegetic narrative, always focuses on the protagonist hero or heroine (6 prose fiction books). When the writer chooses homodiegetic narrative, the hero (heroine) speaks at first person, and because he speaks for himself and his experiences, the fiction becomes autobiographical, more active and credible for the reader, because of the autonomy of the character that the writer creates. This narrative mode is the dominant in the sample and significant for this genre of literature (17 prose fiction books).
NARRATIVE IN RELATION TO AGE AND SEX OF HEROES
A most detailed description of the narrative analysis of the sample studied in relation to the age and sex of the heroes is the following:
1.Adolescents-heroines above 10 years of age narrate the story (9 prose fiction books).18
2.The third person narrative (omniscient narrator) focuses on the heroines-protagonists.19
3.Adolescents-heroes above 10 years narrate the story.20
4.The third person narrative (omniscient narrator) focuses on the heroes-protagonists.21
5.Mixed type, that is to say a combination of the heterodiegetic and homodiegetic narrative modes.22
Most often, especially at the late adolescence, the writers prefer the heroine narrators and, at the age below or around 10 years, they prefer the heroe narrators, although this difference is not statistically significant. On the first occasion, the choice of the heroine narrators signifies not only the complexity of the social problems, which are presented in the story, but, also the most compound narrative mode of presenting the fiction.
Another aim of the research, which is confirmed from the study of the texts, is the historical and social references, the time and the space of the story in relation to the year of publication of the book. When the events of the story happen in the decades of 50s, 60s and 70s, the immigrants are Greeks; as we come closer in the end of the 20th century, the immigrants are foreigners (with some exceptions): the last 15 years the Greek writers tend to be more occupied with the foreigner immigrants in Greece and the attitudes of the Greeks towards them. This tendency is explained by the historical and social facts.23
At last, the study of attitudes of the others towards the immigrants, Greeks and foreigners, towards diversity, indicated the following:
First, the immigrants or the political refugees are confronted negatively by the society, on the contrary to the indigenous, which are confronted positively. This result is confirmed by other studies too.24 Second, the writers of the Children’s Literature create characters (young-adolescent), which are opposed by nature to the social conventions. These heroes, more or less, deconstruct the social stereotypes of any kind, projecting a positive image of the immigrant, of the significant “other”, that is to say of the national, racial, political, religious, existential, psychosomatic “other”.
Third, these heroes are in conflict with their environment (familiar, social, political, national) and from this conflict results the acceptance of the different “other”, the emergence of a collective multicultural conscience starting to tolerate and respect the diversity.
1 Makaryk Irena R., (ed.) Encyclopedia Of Contemporary Literary Theory, (Approaches, Schools,Terms), Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1993, 41997: 642-646. Genette, Gerard, «Discours du récit», in Figures III, (Paris: Seuil, 1972,) Transl. by Jane Lewin, NarrativeDiscourse: An EssayInMethod, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980).Genette, Gerard, Nouveau discours du récit, Paris, Seuil, 1983, Transl. by Jane Lewin, NarrativeDiscource Revisited, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988. Genette Gerard, Fiction et diction (Paris: Le Seuil, 1991).
2 Jackson Rosemary, Fantasy. The Literature Of Subversion (London: Methuen, 1981). Ambatzopoulou Frangiski, “Imagology and her aims” Diavazo 417 (April, 2001): 92-126.
3 The novels of Fakinou Evgenia, Astradeni (Athens: Kedros, 1982), Gkertzou-Sarri Anna, House Without Yard (Athens: Kedros, 1982), Grigoriadou-Soureli Galatia, Game Without Rules (Athens: Patakis, 1982), Gertzou-Sarri Anna, They Called It Xastero (Athens: Kedros, 1986), Piliotou Maria, The Trees Which Are Running (Athens: Kastaniotis, 21988).
4 Lane-Mercier Gillian, “Pour une analyse du dialogue romanesque”, Poétique 81(Février,1990): 43-62.
5 See pages 201-202.
6 Zei Alki, The Fiancée Of Achilles (Athens: Kedros, 1987), Psarafti Litsa, The Double Voyage (Athens: Patakis, 1987), Saranditi Eleni, Sometime The Hunter (Athens: Kastaniotis, 1996).
7 See pages 86, 87.
8 See page 164.
9 Sechidou Olga, Elsa And The… Chocolate With… Milk! (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 2002), Kondoleon Manos, A Story Of Fiodor (Athens: Patakis, 2004).
10 See pages 37-38.
11 Akritopoulos Alexandros N., “Intertextual readings of modern “social novels” for young people”, in The Modern Greek Novel For Children And Adolescents, Tasoula Tsilimeni (Compiler), (Thessaloniki: Sygchronoi Orizontes, 2004).
12 Chatzichanna Filissa, Didon, My Pavelakis, And Me (Athens: Kedros, 1982), Karajiani-Tolka Matoula, The Turkish Boy, Me, And The African Boy (Athens: Angira, 1982), Sechidou Olga, Elsa And The… Chocolate With… Milk! (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 2002), Petrovits-Andoutsopoulou Loti, The Monsters Of The Hill (Athens: Patakis, 2002).
13 Psarafti Litsa, DreamsOf Silk (Athens: Patakis, 2002), Karatzaferi Ioanna, Teti And The Others (Athens: Synchroni Epochi, 1992), Lacq Gil (transl. by K. D. Vavrias) Chandal And The Others (Athens: Papadopoulos, 1992), Ntelopoulos Kiriakos, Akis And The Others (Athens: Gnosi, 1983).
14 Petrovits-Andoutsopoulou Loti, The Monsters Of The Hill (Athens: Patakis, 2002), Sechidou Olga, Elsa And The… Chocolate With… Milk! (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 2002).
15 Charalambous Agni, The Other Sister (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 1997), Chatzichanna Filissa, Didon, My Pavelakis, And Me (Athens: Kedros, 1982).
18 Fakinou Evgenia, Astradeni (Athens: Kedros, 1982), Kliafa Maroula, People Is Bored To Read Distressing Stories (Athens: Kedros, 1986), Zei Alki, The Fiancée Of Achilles (Athens: Kedros, 1987), in this novel the narrator, sometimes the adolescent and sometimes the adult woman, is the same character, Psarafti Litsa, The Double Voyage (Athens: Patakis, 1987), in this novel the narrator, sometimes adolescent and sometimes adult woman, is the same character, Saranditi Eleni, Sometime The Hunter (Athens: Kastaniotis, 1996), Sechidou Olga, Elsa And The Others (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 2001), Sechidou Olga, Elsa And The… Chocolate With… Milk! (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 2002), Petrovits-Andoutsopoulou Loti, The Monsters Of The Hill (Athens: Patakis, 2002), Psarafti Litsa, Dreams Of Silk (Athens: Patakis, 2002).
19 Charalambous Agni, The Other Sister (Thessaloniki: Paratiritis, 1997), Kondoleon Manos, A Story Of Fiodor (Athens: Patakis, 2004), Lacq Gil (transl. by K.D.Vavrias) Chandal And The Others (Athens: Papadopoulos, 1992).
20 Gkertzou-Sarri Anna, House Without Yard (Athens: Kedros, 1982), Chatzichanna Filissa, Didon, My Pavelakis, And Me (Athens: Kedros, 1982), Karajiani-Tolka Matoula, The Turkish Boy, Me, And The African Boy (Athens: Angira, 1982), Ntelopoulos Kiriakos, Akis And The Others (Athens: Gnosi, 1983), Gertzou-Sarri Anna, They Called It Xastero (Athens: Kedros, 1986), Sotirakou Pitsa, The Dress Of Kleopatra (Athens: Patakis, 1991), Karatzaferi Ioanna, Teti And The Others (Athens: Synchroni Epochi, 1992).
21 Grigoriadou-Soureli Galatia, Game Without Rules (Athens: Patakis, 1982), Piliotou Maria, The Trees Which Are Running (Athens: Kastaniotis, 21988), Tragakis Sratis, Sarakiniko (Athens: Kedros, 1996).
22 Zei Alki, The Fiancée Of Achilles (Athens: Kedros, 1987), Kliafa Maroula, Hard Times For Princes(Athen: Kastaniotis, 1992), Petrovits-Andoutsopoulou Loti, The Monsters Of The Hill (Athens: Patakis 2002).
23 Gefou-Madianou Dimitra, (Compiler), Self And “Other”. Meanings, Identities And Practices In GreeceAnd Cyprus, (Athens: Gutenberg, 2003).
24 Ambatzopoulou Frangiski, “Imagology and her aims”, Diavazo 417 (April, 2001): 93.