INTRODUCTION Environmental Education through Drama: Green Drama Text: Jaana Hiltunen, Heli Konivuori
Translation: Tarja Malmi-Raike
What is Green Drama? Sometimes environmental issues, and personal values related to them are being dealt with and clarified using self expression and other elements of drama (learning through Drama). This method of working we call the Green Drama. The Green Drama shares values and goals with the environmental education. The ultimate goal is to transform individual actions and lifestyles to be more environmentally friendly.
In the Green Drama everybody can be involved in the action. A theatrical performance is not being produced, and there is no audience present. Instead, group interaction, active partnership and personal experience are essential. These are also key elements in drama in general.
The learning experience in the Green Drama is based on the previous knowledge and experience of the active partners. Together they create an evolving story combining various viewpoints. At the same time everyone can evaluate his/her own thoughts and opinions. We don’t see the Green Drama as an art form, since in it environmental issues come first instead of f.eg aesthetic or other artistic elements.
What does a Green Drama Session look like?
First an environmental issue or theme is chosen. Then it is processed through various activities and exercises. A Green Drama session begins with a warming up followed by exercises related to the issue on both a common and a personal level, and a finish. Warming up is important in creating a positive atmosphere where active presence, contact and interaction are possible. It also introduces the general framework for the chosen theme.
The instructor of the session also has an important role to play. She/he monitors the process, helps in keeping it going, and creates a safe working atmosphere. The instructor also encourages the partners to experiment on new ways of acting, and respects individual insight. The Green Drama has been successfully performed by different age groups from 13-years on.
Role-taking and Improvised Performances in Green Drama
Role-taking is important both in drama and in the Green Drama. It means stepping into a role, and acting accordingly in an imaginary situation as if it was real life. Role-taking is a good way of widening your own horizons when stepping into somebody else’s shoes. Carrying a role you can safely say and do things you wouldn’t dream of in the real world. The Green Drama role-taking is a far cry from the theatrical role play, but functions as a valuable tool in the learning process.
Improvised performances can introduce us the role play characters and their actions in various hypothetical situations, or illustrate the next step in a continuum of events. The performances using acting or mime are not rehearsed or planned ahead. Sometimes set lines or other attributes are given. The other workshop members form an audience. The content and the message come first in a Green Drama performance.
Hiltunen&Konivuori.2005: Vihreä draama – draaman keinoin kestäviin elämäntapoihin.
Hiltunen&Konivuori.2005: Vihreää draamaa tavaramaailmassa
THE GREEN DRAMA
(Source: Hiltunen, Jaana and Konivuori, Heli, 2005: Vihreä draama,
Translated from Finnish to English by Helena Karhu) The Green Drama is about Environmental Education, which uses means of drama education and it aims to change a person’s behavior. The ultimate goal is to transform individual actions and lifestyles to be more environmentally friendly.
THE CRITERIA OF GREEN DRAMA
Environment educational goal and theme
Form of participatory theatre, which enables the participation of all the people who are present in the situation.
Dialogue in the group process
Trying new ways of behavior/action
Methodology of Environmental Education, which takes advantage of the basic elements of theatre, playing, games, action and experiences.
It bases on environmental topics, not aesthetics or making art. It is not an art form, and it is played without audience.
Environmental Education + drama = Green Drama
THE GOAL OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Educational perspective, which emphases equality and justice, is the foundation for sustainable development and environmental education.
*AWARENESS – To clarify and to increase the understanding of environment and the human impact on it
*ATTITUDES – To help to clarify the values and feelings towards the environment
*SENSITIVITY – To help to reach a personal connection with environment through own experience
*SKILLS – To give practical tools to solve environmental problems
*PARTICIPATION – to give a possibility and to increase motivation to actively participate in improving the local neighborhood and environment
A person is in interaction with his/her environment, and is influencing it during the whole lifetime. Therefore Environmental Education is life-long learning process, which is not only for children and youth. Also adults need space for personal reflections to support the knowledge, to become aware of the personal values and to realize the effects of ones own actions.
WORKING METHODS OF GREEN DRAMA The methods of drama education are perfectly suitable for Green Drama and Environmental Education. Drama education enables the learning through experience, has background in the learner’s own experiences / geographical world and knowledge, and uses the person’s natural ways to express him/herself. Methods leave room for individual creativity, new thoughts, and focus on deeper understanding through one’s own ways of thinking and problem-solving. This is central for the goals of Environmental Education.
Drama enables action and dialogue with one’s own self and with others. The body, expressions, and “inner world” of the participants are used as working tools in Green Drama. Thought, images, verbal expressions, body language, senses and presence are important elements. Varied, participatory dialogue and group work is essential in Green Drama, like in Drama Education.
The structure of the Green Drama program consists of (1.) warming up (2.) working with the theme, and (3.) `”Final Act” . These work stages include for example the methods and practices mentioned below.
Icebreakers and focusing to the theme, getting-to-know-each-other-, contact-, concentration- and sense-activities, body- and movement exercises and other so called group activities, stories, music, painting and drawing
Working with the theme
improvisation, mini-performances, creation of role characters and scene, functioning in the role and getting to know it, concentration- and sense-activities, story, games, songs, poems, drawing, writing, discussions
Promise, concentration- and sense-activities, body- and movement-exercises, games, stories, music, writing, poems
Methods to make drama are various. The activities used in Green Drama were chosen from field of the drama education because they promote well the goals of the environmental educational and because they are challenging, but not too difficult. Here few working methods are introduced more carefully:
WORKING WITH ROLES
Role-taking/Role-playing is the most important method of drama and it is used in Green Drama too. The point of it is, that one steps into a role which is pre-decided together, for example “Eco” or “Öky” and the participants are acting in the situation like it would be real.
Through the role one can try out and train new issues and ways of action. Stepping into a role enables access to ones own, or other peoples, inner world and opens perspectives. It is safe to say and try things through a role.
In Green Drama, working with role is not the same as in a theatre, but is used as a good tool to learning.
In improvisation one is acting in an imaginary situation. The performances are not rehearsed, but they can be planned in advance. Besides acting, also pantomime can work. To help with planning, the trainer can give for example some lines or other frames. In Green Drama, the most important is the content and the message.
The participants are drawing characters together in small groups. They can also write down some common features of the character, for example name, gender, age, hobbies. The characters will be used in the role playing.
THE instructor –IN- role
The instructor can lead the situation by taking a temporary role. For example, when she/he is playing an elf.
The participants create in small groups a still-IMAGE, “a photograph” about an event or an action. The pictures are shown to other participants. Other participants wait eyes closed, until the group is ready with the picture. If groups want, they can comment the pictures or develop them. Still-pictures can be made as improvisation.
ESSENCE MACHINE / MOVING SCULPTURES
One of the participants goes in the middle of the room and starts to make a movement or sound of his/her choosing. Other participants join the machine/SCULPTURE one by one and become a part of the machine/SCULPTURE, repeating their own movement or sound. A common MACHINE will be formed. The machine can also be put to pieces in the end. Each participant steps out from the machine when they like.
THE LEARNING PROCESS IN GREEN DRAMA The learning in Green Drama is based on the idea of life-long learning. It is based on the earlier experiences, knowledge, abilities to think and find connections. Awareness and clarification of life experience, knowledge, values and personal goals enable the continuous development of understanding.
Green Drama connects cognitive-constructive learning and means of humanism. According to a humanistic learning concept, the learner is an active partner in the learning process. The goal is to change the practices, to develop understanding of self, testing strategies, and to assimilate new attitudes together with mental growth and realization of personal possibilities. Like in drama, the process is emphasizing the importance of social interaction, creativity, own initiative and realization of ones own potentials.
Green Drama is used as a tool in social influencing. It can function both as a learning tool of needed knowledge and skills, and as a changing power of society. One can perceive relationships of interaction and ones own role in the surrounding world through Green Drama.
Green Drama sets free the creativity of the participants and therefore enables reflection and self-knowledge. With the help of reflection, the participants can put their experiences into words and concepts. This helps in organizing ones own thoughts and learning process. It enables the realization of the goals of Environmental Education, and especially the needed change in the actions/behavior of the participants.
ON THE GREEN DRAMA PROGRAMS:
The Green Drama –book includes the following 10 programs in Finnish: *Connection of Three Corners – the dimensions of sustainable development
*Influencing Choices –ways of life
*Shopping for Beginners – shopping habits
*Suspicious Lifecycle – the lifecycle of a product
*World without Waste – the waste management
*Weird Object of a Fairy – consumerism
*Dark Thing! – energy matters
*Responsible Steps – traffic
*Furious Water Routes – water
*Big Quarrel of the Fairies and Trolls – eutrophication
The Green Drama activities issue sustainable lifestyle and ways of life from different perspectives. The activities can be used as described, or each trainer/multiplier can adapt the activities suitable for their group. The activities can be used as orientation, inspiration, or repetition of the learned subject. All the activities have been tested in practice.
The description of the programs include the goal, theme, target group, group size, duration, needed equipment, special requirements of the room space and other tips. Scissors and tape are needed in all the activities.
Each description includes the purpose from the environmental educations or drama works perspective.
Most of the programs are suitable for youth and adults, except the “Weird Object of a Fairy” –activity, which has been used with 7-10 year olds. The age of the target group is only suggestive. The programs can be used with younger participants, if the amount of knowledge of the group is sufficient. In some of the programs the participants might need some basic knowledge, knowledge of the concepts and certain level of thought. Most of the programs have been developed so, that perceiving the big picture and reflection are needed to reach the goal of the activity. This is why some of the activities are not suitable for very young participants.
The programs have been developed so that the minimum size of the group is 8-10, and the maximum is 25. The exception is the activity “The Connection of Three Corners”, in which the maximum group size is 12. The duration of the programs is 1,5 – 2 hours. The programs are supposed to be made without breaks.
Part of the programs include get-to-know-each-other games in the beginning. They are always being made, when the participants don’t know each others. If the group members know each others, different concentration activities and energizers can be used for orientation to the theme and to gain attention.
In the end of the programs, the participants make promises for the better future of the world. There are different ways to make these promises. The feedback of the participants can be asked in the end of the program or later. The trainer can adapt the programs for example by adding to the end of the activities a feedback discussion for reflection: How are you feeling now? What thoughts this activity raised?
It is important to keep always in mind the general goal of Green Drama, and to remember environmentally friendly ways of working also during the process.
To increase awareness about ones own consumer habits and their environmental effects
Materials and space needed: -copies of the annex number 1 and 2
-small pieces of paper
-3 boxes with the following texts: FACTS, OTHERS and ME
Comments: Eco = character, who is functioning super-environmentally friendly
Öky = character, who is functioning without caring about the environment. (translator’s notice: This word Öky is a Finnish one without suitable English version, but for example LUX could be used, which would come from “luxurious”)
When starting to draw Eco and Öky, you should define the gender of the character for the groups.
Orientation to the theme and space:
MYSELF AS A CONSUMER –introduction, getting-to-know-each-others
Everybody is standing in a circle. Everybody is thinking of a word, which describes themselves as a consumer. This will become a new “family name” for the person. This game could be made more difficult so, that the word should start with the first letter of their first name. Everybody in the circle says in their time their own last name, and makes some movement. Others repeat the name and the movement.
YES – GAME –concentration, getting-to-know-each-others
Everybody stands in a circle. The leader starts the exercise by taking an eye contact with someone in the circle. When the person in the circle notices this, the person will nod his/her head and say “yes”. After this, the leader will walk towards that person to change to his/her place in the circle. Next, the person who lost the place needs to continue the same practice. This exercise lasts, until everybody in the circle has changed their place.
In the next round, in stead of saying “yes”, the person needs to say the name made up in the previous exercise.
FACES OF THE CONSUMPTION –introduction to the theme
Everybody stands in a circle. A person who begins will be chosen. He/she chooses a movement, which others repeat. The starter gives her/his turn to another one by touching him/her to the shoulder. This will be repeated.
In suitable moments, the leader will interrupt the game by saying “stop”. The leader will read a claim (annex 1.) to which the participants are answering no / yes. The persons answering “yes” have to go down on their knees, and the ones answering “no” have to stand up and raise their hands up. The leader gives the right answer, after which the game continues. (Please see the annex 1.)
Working with the subject / basic level:
STORY OF ECO AND ÖKY –getting to know different ways of life
Eco- and Öky –puzzle: Division into groups
The groups are made with the help of the Eco and Öky –papers (annex 2.) When you want 4 groups, you need 2 sets of the papers. If you have for example 20 participants, you cut all the 4 papers in pieces. The pieces are given to the participants, one to each. They need to find their group by making the puzzle.
Drawing Eco and Öky – creating the roles/characters
The groups are given big paper sheets and marker pens. The groups draw their Eco or Öky and the qualities of the characters: name, gender, age, hobbies, appearance, hopes, dreams, work, family and other things which come to mind. After this, the final results are introduced to the other groups.
Dating –announcement –taking the roles, introducing the ways of life
Ecos and Ökys are making a dating announcement of themselves to a dating program of TV, and what kind of date company are they looking for. From the newspapers, the Ecos and Ökys are making their outfits. The leader is the host of the TV-program and invites the participants. The other participants can make questions to the one in the program.
Dates – testing the ways of life and comparing them, role-playing, discussion
The leader informs everybody taking part to the “dating program” that he/she has found company to the participants. But unfortunately there has become a computer failure, and therefore the partners are not totally matching the hopes of the date.
Each one is Öky or Eco according to their group. The Ecos and Ökys are made into couples, who are meeting on dates. The dates are made simultaneously by acting. The leader is saying the time and the place, by choosing one of the dating announcements.
The experiences and meeting with people with different ways of life are discussed together in small groups (not being in roles anymore).
Working with the subject / personal level:
SHAKING HANDS AND OWN NAME –stepping out of the role
Stepping out of the role. The participants are walking around in the room and shaking hands with each others by saying their real full name.
WHO IS DRIVING A BICYCLE? -mapping the ways of living
Everybody is standing in a circle. One is in the middle of the circle. The person being in the middle is thinking the ecological and sustainable habits, which she/he has done in her/his life. S/he selects one of them and asks for example “Who is driving a work/school trip by bicycle?” Those, who are doing so, change the place in the circle. One can’t change place with the person standing next to him/her, but anybody else in the circle. The person in the middle tries to take his/her place. The person without a place asks the next question. (This game can be done also by sitting in a circle.)
The leader has small pieces of paper and three boxes, which have the following texts: FACTS, OTHERS, and ME. The participants write to the papers their own shopping criteria, the reasons to what they buy and why (1 thing per paper). After this, the participants are putting their papers to the appropriate box.
FACTS = papers including things, which the person feels that she/he can’t influence her/himself.
OTHERS = things, for which the reasons are other people
ME = things, to which you can influence yourself.
The participants choose themselves, which subjects they put to which box. In this exercise, there are no wrong or right answers, as everybody are thinking their subjects from their own perspective. One subject which can be a fact for one person, can be a “me” –subject for another one. For example, that there is not an ecologic coffee in the local supermarket, can be a fact to one person, but for another a subject to which they can influence.
After the distribution to the boxes, the leader is throwing away the boxes of FACTS and OTHERS by saying “We can’t do anything for the facts, and to change other persons is difficult. First, we need to examine our own choices and behaviour. The real change is starting from ourselves.”
A POEM TO CHANGE THE WORLD –problem solving, motivation
The groups are distributed the papers from the ME –box. The groups are making a poem, where these words are included, and possible problems are solved. The groups perform their poems with choreography to the other groups.
PROMISE - own choices
Everybody is in a circle. The participants are thinking by themselves, how they are ready to change their own way of life towards more environmentally friendly way. Everybody chooses one issue, which they promise to do soon. The promise is whispered to the person sitting next to.
The leader has a dice. Everybody throws the dice in their turn and describe their feelings and thoughts of that moment by so many words as they throw with the dice.
CONNECTION OF THREE CORNERS
Increasing awareness about the different, concrete dimensions of sustainable development.
Three areas of sustainable development
From 13-year olds to adults
about 2 hrs
Materials and space needed: -paper
-an outfit for “the specie protector” (the trainer), eg. a hat and a cape
-cards of “dimensions of sustainable development”
-3 big-sized papers
-frames of a “tv-screen” made from cardboard.
-music CD’s with rhythmic music
Comments: The activity can be made with one trainer, but it is easier, if another trainer acts the “specie protector”. In the activity “Triangle run”, the trainer can make the triangle to the floor by using tape already before the program starts.
Orientation to the theme and space:
ME AND SUSTAINABILITY –introduction to the theme, getting-to-know-each-other
Each participant receives 6 pieces of paper and a pen. The participants write to the papers 3 things about themselves and 3 things about sustainable development. All the papers will be mixed. Each participant gets 6 new papers (3 with personal characteristics and 3 with sustainable development). If necessary, the participants can change the papers with each others. If a participant is not satisfied with all the papers s/he finally has, it doesn’t matter. In the end, each participant reads the papers to the others.
CLAIMS –mapping and sharing opinions
In the room is formed a line, which has two poles. One pole is “Agree” and another one is “Disagree”. Trainer will say few claims, and the participants find their place in the line according to their opinion. The participants must explain their opinion to the person standing next to them, or if being in small room, to everyone.
Promotion of sustainable development is a task of a state and municipalities, not of an individual person.
Science and technology can solve environmental problems.
Environmental protection is protection of the humankind.
Be ready to reduce your own quality of life for the sake of the sustainable development.
Working with the subject / basic level:
YEAR 2100 –basic conditions for life, increasing awareness
3.1. The Specie Protector – transition, imaginary world
In the room is arriving “a specie protector” (trainer) who is dressed up with space theme. The specie protector makes a sound signal, which transits everybody to the year 2100.
The specie protector is introducing him/herself and gives a task to the participants.
Welcome to the year 2100!
I am the Specie Protector of all the living of the Universe. This time my task is to save a part of the human race. Like you know about the history of the Earth, equal distribution of natural resources became finally through. All the people of the world started to consume as much as you, the residents of so called industrialized countries. There was only one problem: The Earth could not take it, and it became unlivable. You have been chosen amongst the people of the Earth to continue life in the new planet. To make sure the human race is going to prevail, make three small groups. If Specie Protector is an assisting trainer, s/he leaves the room after this exercise, because there are many species in the Universe, who are in trouble on various reasons. S/he leaves the task by giving 3 cards to the trainer.
3.2. Preconditions for Life – choices
Trainer will distribute the cards to the groups, one per group. Each card has a topic, under which the group has things needed for the new, empty planet, to prevail the life. The texts of the cards are:
Physical and mental well-being
Environment and nature
Each group will get a big piece of paper, to which they list 10-15 topics according to their topic. These listed things they want to take with them to a new planet.
The papers will be put on the wall for the other groups to see. If other participants are not sure, why some listed issue is brought up, the group must explain it so, that others accept the reasoning.
3.3. Auction of Sustainable Development – mapping
The trainer has about 10 topics, which s/he is auctioning like a broker to the groups of participants. These topics are eg. clean water, a mobile phone, sunset, a car, a space ship, forest, a dog, a credit card of the Universe. The groups can buy these goods by paying them from those topics, which they have listed in the previous exercise. The price depends how many groups are interested. The bought topic will be written to a list, and the exchanged topics will be removed from the list.
The groups prepare short improvised performances, how is their life in the new planet. The groups have only those things with them, which they have in their list after the auction.
3.5. Good News – problem solving
The trainer has a message from the specie protector. According to the message, the human race can make 3 wishes, each group one. The groups are solving their possible problems by making their wish.
The trainer brings out “a TV-screen”, which sends internal news of the Universe. Groups (or part of the group) come one by one to perform as a newsreader, to tell what they wished for and what their good wish will bring along.
After the news, the trainer will give a signal, which returns the participants back to the real time.
CONDITIONS FOR GOOD LIFE –discussion
Discussion about the activity, preconditions for good life, different dimensions of sustainable development and their relationship to each others. The trainer will show “a green triangle” on the floor. The corners of this triangle represent the 3 different areas presented in the activity 3.2. The dimensions of sustainable development and green triangle are quite the same.
Working with the subject / personal level:
4.1. Triangle Run –connection, concretization
Everybody gathers around the triangle so that the 3 groups go to stand next to their own topic (as in activity 3.2.). The papers of those 2 topics are put in the corners of the triangle.
One of the participants is in the middle of the triangle, and tells about some activity of her/his everyday life, such as brushing teeth. After this, the ones in the corners start to act (pantomime) this activity from the perspective of the topic in their triangle. Usually each activity is connected to all these 3 perspectives. If necessary, it is possible especially in the beginning, to take few activities and to clarify their influences.
After the participants in the corners have acted, all of those, who are doing that activity in their own everyday life, go to that corner of the triangle which is their reason for eg. brushing teeth. After this, the participants return to their own place in triangle.
This will be continued couple of rounds, depending of the number of participants.
DANCE OF GOOD DEEDS - own choices
Everybody is in a circle. Rhythmic music is playing on the background. The participants are choosing one action towards a more sustainable future, which they are going to realize. One of the participants starts making a movement, which is describing his/her action, and other repeat. This continues so long, that all the participants have showed their moves.
To motivate participants to save energy, and to become aware to observe personal energy use.
Energy saving, different forms of energy
From 13-year olds to adults
about 1,45 hrs
Materials and space needed: -some music CDs
-papers including the different energy forms
-1 candle per group
-A3 /A2 –size papers
-a room which can be made dark
Comments: The lights must be turned off during the part 4. The lights will be put on after the activity. If you have flashlights, they can be used as spot lights during the presentations.
Orientation to the theme and space:
TREE – WIND –SUN –introduction to the theme, division into groups
Suitable music is playing on the background. The participants are moving freely in the room. The trainer is saying a random number, and the participants form groups according to the number. For example, when the trainer says “three”, the participants form groups of three persons. After the groups have been formed, the trainer will give the discussion topic for the groups, which will be about renewable energy sources. After short discussion, the participants will continue walking, until the trainer gives a new number, the new subject being non-renewable energy sources. Both topics can be discussed couple of times in groups.
Renewable energy sources:
wind, sun, wood and other energy source plants, geothermal heating, water power
Non-renewable energy sources:
oil, coal, natural gas, turf/peat, nuclear power and waste burning
The last group size is formed depending how many persons there are participating in total.
Working with the subject / basic level:
ENERGY SOURCES –sharing knowledge
The trainer chooses the energy forms used in the exercise according to the goal, knowledge of the participants and group size. The trainer is writing the energy forms in the pieces of paper, giving one theme per group. The groups are choosing their own theme.
The groups are thinking, what that energy form is about and how it is produced. After this, each group is making a poem or a story, to which they make choreography. The result is shown to the other groups. If necessary, the other groups are guessing, which energy form it is about.
THE BEST CHOICE –transition, increasing awareness
Groups discuss, which way to produce energy they consider the most environmentally friendly, and what kind of energy they use themselves.
The trainer is closing off the lights in a suitable moment of the exercise.
POWER CUT –trying out an imaginary situation
4.1. To the darkness! – making it real
Trainer makes the room dark by cutting off the lights and informing the group about temporary power cut. The groups are thinking, what they can’t do now without the electricity, even if they would like to. The groups make together a list of these things. Each group is given candles, matches, pens and paper.
4.2. Priorities – my own choice, compromise
Two groups will be combined together. The combined group will choose 5 functions from the list, which they would like to do, if the power would come back for 2 hours.
After this, new groups are combined. This time the group chooses 3 matters, which would be done, if the power would come back for 2 hours. The idea is that in the end of the activity, there will be 2-3 groups. 4.3. Pictures of the Future – dependence on the energy production, moving in time
The groups will think, how their life would change, if the power cut would continue longer. Groups will make “a photograph” (still-picture) of the situations, how life has changed after
The still-pictures are shown to the other groups. The viewers can comment the pictures, if they like.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE –motivation
The participants will become newspaper journalists, and each one chooses a pair. The journalists have experienced the power cut, and have noticed how important it is to save energy. They want to inspire everybody to energy-saving. The journalist pairs will make attractive articles about the topic.
The pairs will receive paper and pens from the trainer. After each article is ready, each pair will read out their articles for the other participants.
Working with the subject / personal level:
PATH OF CONSCIENCE -influencing
Journalists are marketing their newspaper by shouting the texts in their article, everybody at the same time. Next, the journalists will form two lines facing each others. One can barely walk between these lines. From the end of the line, the participants will start walking through the middle of lines, one by one. At the same time, the other will try to advertise their articles to the person walking in the middle, trying to say the most attractive things about the article. After going through, the person stands again in the line and starts marketing his/her article.
When everybody have gone through, the participants go back to the original groups.
LET’S SAVE ENERGY! –mapping, concrete actions
The groups will think ways to save energy. They choose one of them, and it will be performed as a pantomime to the other participants.
PROMISE - own choices
Everybody is in a circle. Calm music is playing on the background. The participants are choosing one way to change energy, which they are going to do. The promise is whispered to the person sitting next to.
CIRCELING CANDLE - feedback
The leader puts a candle going around in the circle. The person who holds the candle, can say his/her thoughts to the other participants.
CONTACT FOR MORE INFORMATION: Jaana Hiltunen, email@example.com
ANNEX 1. Faces of the consumption
Every person in an industrialized country consumes natural resources about 100 shopping bags per week.
(right answer: 300 bags)
4/5 of the world’s natural resources are used by 1/5 by the world population. (right answer: yes, but the difference is getting wider)
The consumption of the Finnish people has increased by 50 % in couple of decades.
(right answer: correct – please use here an example from your own country)
If the consumption of the developing countries would reach the consumption levels of the industrial countries, the use of natural resources is going to double.
(right answer: it is going to increase 4 times)
According to the evaluations the population of the world is going to be about 10 milliard in the year 2050. In this case the use of natural resources is going to increase eight times.
(right answer: correct)
The ecologically sustainable use of the natural resources would be about the half of what it is now.
(right answer: correct)
So that the use of the natural resources would be equal between the people of the world, the people in the industrial countries should decrease their consumption about half of what it is now.
(right answer: 1/10 of what it is now, 90 %)
(Source: The Finnish conservation society, Suomen luonnonsuojeluliitto ry. )