Greenwood professor of hellenistic greek and indo-european philology in the victoria university of manchester tutor in new testament language and literature

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CR xv. 437. For gen. abs. without expressed subjects, cf BU 925 (iii/A.D.?)


P. 78.—Elative comparatives may be seen in D in Ac 416, fanero

e]stin, and 1028 beApp2 151). It

substitutes plei?stoi for plei32, and adds an elative h!dista in 138. On

1028 Blass compares 2422 2510 in the ordinary text, and 2 Tim 118, Jn 1327. As to


P. 79.—Before leaving the subject of comparison, we ought to remark on

curious forms which have been brought into existence by the weakening of the

old formations, or their detachment from the categories of comparative and

superlative. Beside the regular form e]la

lative in Mt, but elative in Lk (ter, and 1226 doubtful) and Jas, Paul uses e]la-

xisto8, whether as comparative or true superlative the sentence

leaves uncertain. He uses e]la9, and as elative in 43

62. The double comparative meizo4: of our lesser, which is

equally due to the absence of clear comparative form in a word whose meaning

is clear. See Jannaris HG 147 for a list of these forms: add meizoArchiv

iii. 173 (iv/A.D.) al, megisto

(i/A.D.), prw

On the Aramaising use of positive c. h@ or para< for compar., see Wellh. 28.

P. 81.—Wellhausen (p. 26) finds in the Synoptists some traces of insertion

of the article through literal translation of Semitic idiom: here again D is con-

spicuous. Thus Mt 1029 tou? a]ssari

from the rule which drops the article with a noun in construct state preceding

a definite noun: so Mt 1242 "the Queen of the South."

P. 82.—Westcott translates e]n sunagwg^? (Jn 659 1820) “in time of solemn

assembly.” Our own use of "in church," "in or out of school," etc., is enough

to illustrate this phrase, which must be explained on the lines described in the

text above: Westcott seems to be somewhat overpressing it.

P. 84.—On the presence or absence of the article when a prepositional clause

has to be added as an epithet, cf J. Ap Robinson, Ephes. 149. For its presence

may be cited such passages as Eph 115, for its omission, Eph 211 41, Phil 15,

Col. 14. 8.

It is only very seldom that we find in Greek of the NT types the complex

arrangement by which the classical language will wrap up a whole series of ad-

juncts between the article and its noun. 1 Pet 33 will serve as an exceptionally

good example. The simplicity of NT style naturally causes less involved forms

to be generally preferred.

One more paralipomenon under the Article may be brought in. In Prof.

Cooke's North Semitic Inscriptions, no. 110 (ii/A.D.), there is a bilingual

inscription, Palmyrene-Aramaic and Greek, containing within its compass a

good parallel to the genealogy in Lk 323-38: ]Aaila


113 the article is dropped for the last two steps, as in the first step in 110.

P. 85.—In Mt 617 note that D reads a@leiyon, rejecting the middle in view of


the presence of sou. In Ac 52 e@qeto and 21 sugkalesaopposite change, which in the former case, at any rate, is no improvement.

P. 88.—Cf Wellh. 30: "i@dioj in Mt and Lk is sometimes 3rd pers.


P. 89.—Prof. Thumb notes how accent may differentiate words capable of

full or attenuated meaning: "God is," but "God is Almighty!"

P. 94.—To the exx. cited from Blass (top of p. 95) add from Hawkins Jn 127

(taken like Lk 316 from the original source in Mk 17), Ac 1517 (LXX), Rev 38

72.9 138. 12 208, and I Pet 224 (Ti with x*LP, against ABCK). The idiom is in

one place translation Greek, and in the rest a sign of inferior Greek culture,

which makes it the more striking that Lk and Jn (not Mt) faithfully copy their

source. Since the Greek of 1 Pet is remarkably good, it does hot seem likely

that ou$ t&? mw

have been added by a glossator who did not notice that the or made it needless.

This consideration may fairly be set against the a priori argument of Ti in

favour of the reading of x. See p. 249.

P. 96.—Cf Josephus Ant. i. 29, au!th me>n a@n ei@h prw

au]th>n mi13 the variation mhno>j tou?


Hebrew. Prof. Thumb has traced the history of the Greek names for the days

of the week in Zeitschrift fur deutsche Wortforschung i. 163-173 (1901).

P. 102.—The importance of Heb 1324 in critical questions justifies our adding

one more note on a]po<. In Theol. Bundschau v. 64 Deissmann writes two

"marginalia" upon Harnack's famous article in ZNTW i. 16 ff. He notes the

masculine dihgou32—not, I presume, as a difficulty likely to give

Harnack much trouble; and observes that oi[ a]po< ]Itali

to the late Greek use of a]po<, describe very easily the greetings of the brethren

to be found in Italy." He refers to the article by E. Brose in Theol. Stud. und

., 1898, pp. 351-360, on a]po< in 1 Co 1123. Brose examines a]po<, para<, u[po<,

and e]k, showing that in daily speech these prepositions were used without exact-

ness of distinction. The argument is designed to show that a]po> tou? Kuri

1 Co l.c. does not mean by tradition, but by revelation from the Lord. Deiss-

mann observes that Brose could have made his treatment of a]po< still more

illuminating, if he had gone outside the NT: he refers to a "stop-gap" of his

own in Hermes xxxiii. 344, which touches on. the passage from Heb.

P. 105.—On u[per e[auto>n fronw?n: of Rom 123.

P. 112.—A very good ex. in Greek is 2 Co 48, where perfective e]c shows the


P. 116.—In the Dream of Nectonebus, the last Egyptian king of the old

dynasties (LPu, ii/B.C.), there occurs the phrase diatethn xw

which gives a striking parallel to 2 Tim 47. The perfective in the king's

words emphasises the fact that the watchful care has been successful; the

simplex in Paul lays the stress on the speaker's own action, "I have guarded

my trust."

P. 118.—Hawkins, HS 142, gives the number of compound verbs for the

several parts of the NT. His figures work out thus:—Heb has 7 · 8 per WH

page, Ac 6 · 4, Lk 6 · 0, Mk 5 · 7, Paul 3 · 8, Mt 3 · 6, Cath. Epp. and Rev 3 · 1, and

Jn 2 · 1. The high figure of Mk in this table may be illustrated by the large

use of compounds in many uneducated papyri (e.g. Tb P 413, of A. D. —see

my notes in CQ ii. 140). That Heb and Luke (whose unity comes out by this, as

by so many other tests) should be at the top, is what we might expect.

P. 126.—Since writing this, I have noticed Prof. Ramsay's suggestive


language on the early Christians of the average type in C. and B. ii. 485: see

also his Paul 208 f.

Pp. 126 and 129.—On the biblical use of present and aorist imperative, cf

F. W. Mozley in JTS iv. 279 ff. Prof. Thumb notes that Mozley independently

confirms his judgement on the aoristic prose17, by the observa-

tion that fe

John of Rev, and the context less clamant for an imperfect, I should readily


P. 132.—See now D. Smith, In the Days of His Flesh, p. 208.

Ib.—In OGIS 219 (iii/B.C.) there is an ex. of coincident a]spasamay be worth quoting:— e[le kai> presbeuta>j . . . [oi!tinej] a]spasa

ai]to>n para> t[ou? dhn keleu

lou?sin au]tw?i th>n ti]mh

message: it is difficult anyhow to make it precede the wish for good health.

P. 143.—In Mt 2524 we find o[ ei]lhfw

v.20, o[ labw

takes it out of the category described in the paragraph above. Both tenses

were entirely justifiable, and the rather more emphatic perfect suits the situation

of v.25 better.

P. 145.—I must make it clear that in this tentative account of e@sxhka—which

is propounded with great hesitation, and with a full appreciation of its diffi-

culties—there is no suggestion that the aoristic meaning proposed was more

than an idiosyncrasy of individual writers, or (better) of certain localities. The

pure perfect force is found long after Paul's day: thus in the formula of an

IOU, o[mologw? e]sxhke sou? dia> xeiro>j e]c oi@kou xrh?sin e@ntokon (BR 1015

early iii/A.D.), "to have received and still possess." But in AP 30 (ii/B.C.),

prosemartun M. katesxhken oi]ki tou? pole

possessed seems to be recognisable, in an early illiterate document. See p. 248.

P. 146.— Oi#mai de> ka}n Lampidw<, th>n Lewtuxin qugate

gunai?ka, @Agidoj de> mhte

hard to see why this should be cited as aoristic: Agis was on the throne at the

supposed time of the dialogue.

P. 148.—In connexion with this paragraph should be mentioned the birth

of the new present sth


P. 152.—On this view of the prehistoric relations of act. and mid., cf Hirt,

Indog. Forsch. xvii. 70. The theory had been restated in terms of the

new school of philology, in Osthoff and Brugmann's pioneer Morphologische

Untersuchungen iv. 282 n. (1881). There H. Osthoff conjectures that "Skt.

dves-ti and dvis-te depend on one and the same proethnic basis-form [dueistai],

which was differentiated by the accent, according as one wished to say

hates for himself’ or 'hates for himself.' "I had overlooked this passage,

and am all the more confirmed by it in the theory which I had independently

developed as to the relationship of the voices in the element they severally


On the late Greek developments of the voices the student should carefully

observe the rich material in Hatzidakis 193

P. 156.—The proverb in 2 Pet 222 is acutely treated by Dr Rendel Harris,

as I ought to have remembered, in The Story of Ahikar, p. lxvii. He cites as

the probable original words appearing in some texts of Ahikar: "My son, thou

hast behaved like the swine which went to the bath with people of quality, and

when he came out, saw a stinking drain, and went and rolled himself in it.'


If, as seems extremely likely, this is the source of the paroimi

2 Pet refers, of course lousameiambic verse may have been the medium of its transmission had been antici-

pated: see Mayor in loc. I leave my note unaltered in view of the measure of

uncertainty attaching in Dr Harris's judgement to the account he proposes.

P. 166.—Dr P. Giles, in a letter endorsing and improving my Scotch trans-

lotion of Homer R. i. 137, says, "I agree that a@n is very like jist, and if you

had added like at the end you would have got your subjunctive also. This like

does for many dialects what the subjunctive did for Greek, putting a state-

ment in a polite, inoffensive way asserting only verisimilitude." It is found


P. 168.—Add to this list the curious anti-Christian inscription in Ramsay,

C. and B. ii. 477 (no. 343) ou#toj o[ bi

P. 169.—Since writing the paragraph on ei] mh

other exx. of ei] . . . a@n in illiterate Greek of a century or two later than the

NT. An inscription from Cyzicus, lately published by Mr F. W. Hasluck

in JHS xxv. 63, has i@ tij d ] a}n tolmhn o[ qeo

subjunctive here is the itacistic equivalent of the optative which would have

been used in earlier Greek: cf p. 199n.). In Ramsay's C. and B. vol. ii. I

note the following:--No. 210 (p. 380) ei] de< tij a}n fanei

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