Group Story Mapping Intervention to Enhance Writing Performance Intervention Summary



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University of Toledo School Psychology Students Organization Institute 2009,


Group Story Mapping Intervention to Enhance Writing Performance

Intervention Summary:

Story maps are used to improve students’ overall writing performance and to build writing word fluency. This intervention uses a story map with guided questions to help students facilitate writing ideas, as well as teacher feedback to promote writing performance. This intervention is most effective for students who are struggling in writing, especially in organization and written expression. This intervention can also work well for students with learning disabilities in the area of writing.



Materials Needed:

Student Journals (individual student notebooks)

Story Map Chart Handout (attached)

Story Map Questions Handout (attached)



Procedures:

Obtaining Baseline Data

To obtain baseline data, provide students with a writing journal and pencil and have them write a story based on prompts used on three different occasions to obtain three data points. Show students a picture or read a portion of a short story to them. Then, instruct students to generate a story based on the picture or a continuation of the short story. Give students 15-20 minutes to write in their journals. No feedback or prompts are to be provided to students except explaining that they will not be graded on mechanical errors. Record word count per each journal entry and grade according to overall writing performance (use regular grading criteria for writing assignments). After the baseline data have been collected, plot the data along with the goal line on the chart and maintain weekly progress monitoring data the same way and record on the graph.


Intervention Steps
Phase 1

Step 1. Have student choose a picture or short story or teacher provide student with one. Teacher explains picture or reads short story to students.

Step 2. Show generic story map chart (attached) to students and explain components of a story to the student. Explain how each component relates to one another to compose a well written story.

Step 3. Teacher and students work together to generate ideas, brain storm about characters, events, outcomes, problems, solutions, morals, and outcomes of the story.

Step 4. Teacher models use of story map by writing down ideas for the students.

Step 5. Allow students 15-20 minutes to write their own stories based on ideas generated in the group. Give feedback to students regarding their overall performance, strengths and weaknesses (excluding mechanical errors) as well as positive encouragement.

Phase 2

Step 6. After 4-5 sessions of teacher modeling use of story map (Phase 1) introduce the story map questions handout (see attached) to students and verbally explain it to them.

Step 7. Guided with the story map questions, students are to facilitate their own ideas for story planning. Teacher wrote down their ideas and students refer to these while generating their stories.


Phase 3

Step 8. After 4-5 sessions of teacher modeling the story map questions (Phase 2), teacher stops modeling the story map for the students. The students are then shown a set of pictures or read a short story and are asked to fill in their own story map using the story map questions as a guide.
Progress Monitoring:

After each writing session, record word count and overall writing performance grade (using same criteria as in baseline data collection). Review the progress monitoring data each week. If the progress monitoring data points are below the goal line three weeks in a row, the intervention plan needs to be reviewed to determine if changes in the intervention or goal need to be made.” To assess implementation, teachers are to fill out the Intervention Implementation Checklist (attached) 3-5 times throughout the intervention period.



Alternate Ideas/Variations

This intervention was designed as a Tier 2 intervention, but could be used as Tier 2 or Tier 3 if desired. Story mapping can also be used to increase reading comprehension, in which the map serves as a guide to help students organize their thoughts about what they just read and identify the main points of a story/lesson.


Based On:

Li, D. Story Mapping and Its Effects on the Writing Fluency and Word Diversity of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Worldwide.

Gardill, M.C., & Jitendra, A. K. (1999). Advanced Story Map Instruction. Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 28, 2-17


Intervention Implementation Checklist-Group Story Mapping

Phase 1

An appropriate picture or short story was chosen

for students to generate essay from­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ YES NO
Students were shown generic story map chart and explained components

of a story and how those components relates to one another YES NO


Teacher (or implementer) worked directly with students to generate ideas,

brain-storm about characters, events, outcomes, problems, solutions, morals,

and outcomes of the story YES NO
Teacher (or implementer) modeled use of story

map by writing down ideas for students YES NO


Students were provided with 15-20 minutes to write down their stories based on

the ideas generated in the group YES NO


Feedback was given to students regarding their overall performance,

strengths and weaknesses as well as positive encouragement YES NO


Phase 2
Story map questions chart was introduced to students

after 4-5 sessions of using generic story map YES NO


Teacher (or implementer) verbally described

story map questions chart to students YES NO


Teacher (or implementer) guided students while using

the story map questions chart while students worked to

facilitate their own ideas for story planning YES NO
Teacher (or implementer) wrote down students’ ideas,

allowing them to refer to these ideas while writing YES NO


Phase 3

Use of story map and teacher modeling was stopped

after 4-5 sessions of using story map questions chart YES NO

Teacher (or implementer) instructed students to

fill in their own story maps and provided them with

15-20 minutes to generate their own stories YES NO
GENERIC STORY MAP

NAME___________________________________ DATE_______________________


Characters:__Time:__Place'>Characters:

Time:

Place:





The Problem:

The Goal:



Event:______Event'>Event:





Event:





Event:





The Outcome:

STORY MAP QUESTIONS CHART

NAME__________________________________ DATE_______________________


Characters:

Who was the main character?

Can you describe him/her?

Any other important people? Who?



Time:

When did it happen?






Place:

Where did it happen?







The Goal:

What was the story about?

What did the main character want?





The Problem:

What was the central problem?

What difficulty did the main character meet?





Event:

How did the main character try to solve the problem?

What were the consequences?

How did other characters react? What did they say or do?







Event:

What did the main character do next? What happened next?

Did the main characters react? What did they say or do?



Event:

Then what happened?

What did the main character do?



Outcome:

How did the story end?

Did the main character solve the problem?

Was it a happy ending?



Was the ending a surprise?






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