Increased nonmotorized transportation can help achieve Transportation Demand Management (TDM) objectives, and provides other community benefits including improved public health, and local economic development. There are a number of strategies to help encourage and promote walking and bicycling to support these objectives. Examples include:
Transportation demand management programs, such as parking cash out (giving commuters who don’t drive to work the cash equivalent of parking subsidies provided to drivers), which provide financial incentives to use travel alternatives such as walking and cycling.
Parks, recreational programs, or non-profit groups can sponsor walking and cycling events and activities, particularly on trails and cycling routes.
Tourist promotion materials can highlight walking and cycling.
Special bicycle events can raise the profile of cycling in the community. Bike to Work Week (usually held in June) offers commuters an opportunity to try cycling. The event may include special publicity, special guidance to first-time bicycle commuters on choosing a route, or special breakfasts for bicycle commuters. Bike to Work Week events have been held in many BC communities for several years.
A bicycle map can be published which shows cycling facilities, recommended routes, roadway conditions (shoulders, traffic volumes, special barriers to cycling, etc.) hills, recreational facilities, and bicycle shops to help potential cyclists identify their best routes.
Bicycle Encouragement and Transportation Demand Management
Go For Green, The Active Living & Environment Program (www.goforgree.ca) provides resources to promote nonmotorized transportation.
The Institute of Transportation Engineers (Washington DC; www.ite.org) has extensive technical resources on TDM, transportation planning, and traffic calming.
UK Health Education Authority (www.hea.org.uk) has excellent material to promote “transport exercise” and better integration of nonmotorized transport in public health programs.
Joseph Milazzo, et al., Quality of Service for Interrupted Pedestrian Facilities in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 1999.
Lawrence Frank and Peter Engelke, How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health, Active Community Environments, Center for Disease Control (www.cdc.gov), 2000.
SWOV, Best Practice to Promote Cycling and Walking, Denmark Ministry of Transport (firstname.lastname@example.org), European Commission Directorate General of Transport, 1998.
Transportation Association of Canada (Ottawa; www.tac-atc.ca) provides a variety of resources related to transportation planning and TDM.
Washington Department of Transportation, TDM Resource Center (Seattle; 206-464-6145; fax: 206-464-6084; www.wsdot.wa.gov) and Northwest Technology Transfer Center (Olympia; www.wsdot.wa.gov/TA/T2/publications.html) offer a variety of resources for TDM planning.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org) provides resources for planning and evaluating TDM, bicycling, and walking programs.
Various planning strategies and tools used to implement pedestrian and bicycle plans are described in this section.
U.S. Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) are required to develop long-range (20-25 year) Regional Transportation Plans, and a five-year Transportation Implementation Plan (TIP) to quality for federal transportation funds. These plans are required to take into account safety and security for nonmotorized travel, accessibility, environmental and quality of life impacts on a community.
A community Comprehensive Plan is a statement of the policy direction of a municipal council that provides a vision, goals, and performance measures. It is an opportunity to integrate pedestrian and cycling improvements into community projects and activities. Specific components that may support nonmotorized travel include:
Goals to increase mobility choices and encourage alternatives to automobile travel.
Specific objectives for modal split, facility use, and increased road safety.
Policies to review transportation projects and incorporate consideration of bicycle and pedestrian travel where appropriate.
Specific objectives for making roadways compatible to walking and cycling.
Land use and development codes that accommodate and encourage nonmotorized travel.