Guide to Best Practices


Bicycle Planning Publications



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Bicycle Planning Publications

Suzan Anderson Pinsof and Terri Musser, Bicycle Facility Planning, Planners Advisory Service, American Planning Association (Chicago; 312-786-6344), 1995.

AASHTO, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (Washington DC; 888-227-4860; www.aashto.org), 1999; available online at www.bikefed.org.



Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicyclists, 1993. FHWA, R&T Report Center, 9701 Philadelphia Ct, Unit Q; Lanham, MD 20706. (301) 577-1421 (fax only)

Bicycle Facility Design Standards, 1998. City of Philadelphia Streets Department, 1401 JFK Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19103.

Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines, Transportation Association of Canada (Ottawa; 613-736-1350; www.tac-atc.ca), 1999.

CIP, Community Cycling Manual, Canadian Institute of Planners (www.cip-icu.ca), March 1999.



Evaluation of Shared-use Facilities for Bicycles and Motor Vehicles, 1996. Florida DOT, Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Office, 605 Suwannee Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399.

Florida Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Manual, 1994. Florida DOT, Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Office, 605 Suwannee Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399.

John Forester, Bicycle Transportation: A Handbook for Cycling Transportation Engineers, MIT Press, 1994.

David L. Harkey, Donald W. Reinfurt, J. Richard Stewart, Matthew Knuiman and Alex Sorton, The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Federal Highway Administration (www.hsrc.unc.edu/research/pedbike/bci), 1998.


Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA, HSR 20, 6300, (available online at www.bikefed.org/local.htm), 1998.

William Moritz, Bicycle Facilities and Use, Washington State Department of Transportation, (Olympia; www.wsdot.wa.gov/ta/t2/t2pubs.htm), 1995.



North Carolina Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Guidelines, 1994. North Carolina DOT, P.O. Box 25201, Raleigh, NC 27611. (919) 733-2804.

John Pucher, “Bicycling Renaissance in North America” Transportation Research A, Vol. 33, Nos. 7/8, September/November 1999, pp. 625-254.

TAC, Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada, Transportation Association of Canada (www.tac-atc.ca), 1998

John Williams, Bruce Burgess, Peter Moe and Bill Wilkinson, Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level, FHWA, Report FHWA-RD-98-105, 1998.




Useful Organizations


America WALKs (www.webwalking.com/amwalks) is a coalition of walking advocacy groups.

American Planning Association (www.planning.org) is a professional society for planners that sponsors a “Growing Smart” initiative and provides many extensive resources.

American Trails (www.outdoorlink.com/amtrails) fosters communication among trail users.

Association for Commuter Transportation (Washington DC; 202-393-3497; http://tmi.cob.fsu.edu/act/act.htm) is a non-profit organization supporting TDM programs.


Bicycle Information Center (877-925-5245; www.bicyclinginfo.org) is a comprehensive clearinghouse of bicycle planning and safety information supported by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration.

Bicycle Federation of America (Washington DC; 202.463.6625; www.bikefed.org) provides extensive resources for bicycle and pedestrian planning.

Canadian Cycling Association (Gloucester, Ontario; www.canadian-cycling.com) manages the Can-Bike cycling education program.

Carfree.com (www.carfree.com) explores carfree cities past, present, and future, and provides practical solutions to the problems of urban automobile use.

Center for Livable Communities (www.lgc.org/clc) helps local governments and community leaders be proactive in their land use and transportation planning.

Children on the Move site on children and transport: www.ecoplan.org/children.

The Community Bicycle Network (CBN) Factsheets, newsletter, curriculum guides, and action manuals, Detour Publications (www.web.net/~detour/cbn).



Community Transportation Association of America (www.ctaa.org) provides resources for improving mobility for disadvantaged populations.

Commuter Choice Program (www.epa.gov/oms/traq) provides information, materials and incentives for developing employee commute trip reduction programs.

Congress for New Urbanism (www.cnu.org) supports human scale urban communities.

David Engwicht Communications (www.lesstraffic.com.) supports “street reclaiming.”

The U.S. Federal Highway Administration’s Pedestrian Program (www.ota.fhwa.dot.gov/walk) provides pedestrian safety information and resources.


Green Lane Program, Environment Canada (www.ec.gc.ca/emission/5-1e.html) promotes TDM and other strategies for reducing transportation environmental impacts.

Go For Green, The Active Living & Environment Program (www.goforgree.ca) provides resources to promote nonmotorized transportation.

ICBC Road Sense (www.icbc.com) provides a variety of pedestrian and bicycle safety information including Safe Cycle Program material.

The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (www.iclei.org) provides planning resources to help communities become healthier and more environmentally responsible.

The Institute of Transportation Engineers (Washington DC; www.ite.org) has extensive technical resources on pedestrian and bicycle planning, traffic calming and TDM.

League of American Bicyclists (www.bikeleague.org/ec2/education.htm) provides a variety of bicycle education and encouragement resources.

The Local Government Commission (www.lgc.org/clc/pubinfo) provides a variety of useful resources, including pedestrian and bicycle planning publications.



National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (www.nhtsa.dot.gov) provides pedestrian and bicycle safety resources.

National Transportation Week Pedestrian Website (www.ota.fhwa.dot.gov/ntw/bikeped.htm) provides information and links to pedestrian planning websites.

Northwestern University Traffic Institute (Evanston, Illinois; 800-323-4011; www.nwu.edu/traffic) offers professional development workshops on bicycle planning and facility design, and other related subjects.

Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning (www.odot.state.or.us/techserv/bikewalk) is an example of nonmotorized planning at its best.


Perils for Pedestrians (www.pedestrian.org) is a cable television series promoting awareness of pedestrian safety. Their website includes advocacy tips and links to other walking organizations.

Partnership for a Walkable America (http://nsc.org/walk/wkabout.htm) promotes the benefits of walking and supports efforts to make communities more pedestrian friendly.

The Pedestrian Association (http://web.ukonline.co.uk/walkhf) has been campaigning since 1929 to make walking safer, more convenient, and easier.

The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (1-877-WALKBIKE; www.bicyclinginfo.org) provides a variety of technical information on nonmotorized transport planning and programs.

Pedestrian Information Center (877-925-5245; www.walkinginfo.org) is a pedestrian planning and safety information clearinghouse supported by the Federal Highway Administration.

Pednet (www.ottawalk.org/pednet) is an Internet list with information on pedestrian issues.

Pednet’s International Pedestrian Lexicon (glossary) http://user.itl.net/~wordcraf/lexicon.html

The City of Portland (www.trans.ci.portland.or.us/Traffic_Management/trafficcalming) provides excellent information and materials on traffic calming and pedestrian planning.

Project for Public Spaces (www.pps.org) is a non-profit organization that offers resources and technical support to help create special places that build community life.

The Rails-To-Trails Conservancy (www.railtrails.org) resources for public trail development.

The Smart Growth Network (www.smartgrowth.org) includes planners, govt. officials, lenders, community developers, architects, environmentalists and activists.


Sustainable Communities Network (www.sustainable.org) provides tools for community sustainability planning.

Transportation Association of Canada (Ottawa; www.tac-atc.ca) provides a variety of resources related to transportation planning and TDM.

Transportation for Livable Communities (www.tlcnetwork.org) is a resource centre for people working to create more livable communities by improving transportation.

Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (www.tfhrc.gov), provides extensive pedestrian and bicycle planning resources.

UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (www.roads.detr.gov.uk/roadsafety/rs/index.htm) publishes Road Safety Education in Schools - Good Practice Guidelines that describe how to create a safer pedestrian environment.

UK Health Education Authority (www.hea.org.uk) has excellent material to promote “transport exercise” and better integration of nonmotorized transport in public health programs.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org) provides resources for planning and evaluating TDM, bicycling and walking programs.

Walkable Communities, Inc. (www.walkable.org) works with communities to create more people-oriented environments.

Washington Department of Transportation, TDM Resource Center (Seattle; 206-464-6145; www.wsdot.wa.gov) and Northwest Technology Transfer Center (Olympia; www.wsdot.wa.gov/TA/T2/publications.html) offer a variety of resources for TDM planning.

Way To Go! School Program (Vancouver; 1-877-325-3636; www.waytogo.icbc.bc.ca) provides resources and support for school traffic reduction programs.

World Health Organization Healthy Cities Project (www.who.dk/london99) provides information on international efforts to create healthy cities.

The WSDOT Bicycle and Pedestrian Websites (www.wsdot.wa.gov) provide extensive reference information for nonmotorized transport planning.

nmtguide.pdf



1 J. Scott Osberg, Stephanie Faul, Joshua Poole, and John McHenry, Skating: An Emerging Mode of Transportation. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 2000.

2 Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1994, p. 97.

3 Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Center for Disease Control (www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr), 1996.

4 Physical Activity Task Force, More People, More Active, More Often, UK Department of Health (London), 1995, cited in Judith Hanna, “Transport and Health: Fit to Get About” Urban Transport International, No. 4, March/April 1996, p. 11.

5 Todd Litman, Quantifying the Benefits of Nonmotorized Transport, VTPI (www.vtpi.org), 1999.

6 Manual of Socioeconomic Procedures, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways (Victoria), 1994, Chapter 10.

7 See Appendix 3 for more information on evaluation techniques.

8 BTS, Bicycle and Pedestrian Data: Sources, Needs & Gaps, USDOT (www.bts.gov/programs/transtu/bikeped/report.pdf), 2000

9 Piet Rietveld, “Nonmotorized Modes in Transport Systems: A Multimodal Chain Perspective for The Netherlands,” Transportation Research D, Vo. 5, No. 1, Jan. 2000, pp. 31-36.


10 Developing Communities for Active Transportation, Go For Green (www.goforgreen.ca), 1998.

11 Helen James, “Under-reporting of Road Traffic Collisions,” Traffic Eng+Con, Dec. 1991, pp. 574-583.

12 Ronald Eash, “Destination and Mode Choice Models for Nonmotorized Travel,” Transportation Research Record 1674, 1999, pp. 1-8.

13 W.L. Schwartz, et al., Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Nonmotorized Travel: Overview of Methods, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, FHWA (www.tfhrc.gov), 1999.

14 Cambridge Systematics and Bicycle Federation of America, Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel, FHWA, Publication No. FHWA-RD-98-166 (available at www.tfhrc.gov), 1999; PBQD, Data Collection and Modeling Requirements for Assessing Transportation Impacts of Micro-Scale Design, Transportation Model Improvement Program, USDOT (www.bts.gov/tmip), 2000.

15 Charles Komanoff and Cora Roelofs, The Environmental Benefits of Bicycling and Walking, National Bicycling and Walking Study Case Study No. 15, USDOT, January 1993, FHWA-PD-93-015.

16 “A Trend On the Move: Commuting by Bicycle.” Bicycling Magazine, Rodale Press, April 1991.

17 Environics, National Survey on Active Transportation, Go for Green, (www.goforgreen.ca), 1998.


18 Arthur Nelson and David Allen, “If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them; Cross-Sectional Analysis of Commuters and Bicycle Facilities,” Transportation Research Record 1578, 1997, pp. 79-83.

19 See Appendix 3 for more information on evaluation techniques.

20 John Williams, Bruce Burgess, Peter Moe and Bill Wilkinson, Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level, FHWA, Report FHWA-RD-98-105, 1998.

21 See Appendix 3 for more information on evaluation techniques.

22 Linda Dixon, “Bicycle and Pedestrian Level-of-Service Performance Measures and Standards for Congestion Management Systems,” Transportation Research Record 1538, 1996, pp. 1-9.

23 See Appendix 3 for more information on evaluation techniques.

24 Todd Litman, Whose Roads? Defining Bicyclists’ and Pedestrians’ Right to Use Public Roadways, VTPI (www.vtpi.org), 1998.

25 Jeroen Buis, The Economic Significance of Cycling; A Study to Illustrate the Costs and Benefits of Cycling Policy, VNG uitgeverij (The Haag; www.vnguitgeverij.nl) and I-ce (www.cycling.nl), 2000.

26 Peter Newman and Jeff Kenworthy, Sustainability and Cities; Overcoming Automobile Dependency, Island Press (Covelo; www.islandpress.org), 1998; Todd Litman and Felix Laube, Automobile Dependency and Economic Development, VTPI, (www.vtpi.org), 1998.


27 Jon Miller, Henry Robison & Michael Lahr, Estimating Important Transportation-Related Regional Economic Relationships in Bexar County, Texas, VIA Transit (San Antonio; www.viainfo.net), 1999.

28 Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors, U.S. National Park Service (www.nps.gov/pwro/rtca/econ_index.htm), 1995; Economic and Social Benefits of Off-Road Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities, Technical Brief, Nat. Bicycle & Pedestrian Clearinghouse, (www.bikefed.org), 1995; “Evaluation of the Burke-Gilman Trail’s Effect on Property Values and Crime,” Transportation Research Record 1168, 1988, pp. 57-59.

29 Cycling The Way Ahead For Towns And Cities, European Community, 1999, ISBN 92-828-5724-7 EC no CR-17-98-693-EN-C, Free from DG XI Fax: +32 2 299 0307.

30 Roger L. Moore, Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails: Synthesis of the Literature and State of the Practice, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-PD-94-031 (www.bikefed.org), 1994.

31 Jim Mulchinoch, The Official Guide: The Galloping Goose Regional Trail, Capital District Regional Parks (Victoria; www.crd.bc.ca/parks/pdf/galgoos2.pdf), 1996.

32 Maintenance of Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities, NBPC Technical Assistance #6 (wsdot.wa.gov/hlrd/PDF/MaintBicPedArticle.pdf), 1995; E. Gallagher and V. Scott, Taking Steps; Modifying Pedestrian Environments to Reduce the Risk of Missteps and Falls, STEPS Project, School of Nursing, University of Victoria (Victoria), 1996.


33 Gerald Donaldson, “Work Zone Pedestrian Safety,” in Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities: A Recommended Practice of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, ITE (www.ite.org), 1998.

34 Tom McKay, “The Right Design for Reducing Crime; Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design,” Security Management Magazine (www.peelpolice.on.ca/cpbook.html), March 1996.

35 Pedestrian Master Plan, Pedestrian Transportation Program, City of Portland (503-823-7004; pedprogram@syseng.ci.portland.or.us), 1998.

36 “Roadway Design Considerations,” in Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities: A Recommended Practice of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, ITE (www.ite.org), 1998, p. 8.

37 G.D. Hamilton Asso., Safety Design Guidelines for Parking Facilities; A Recommended Practice, Road Improvement Program, ICBC (Vancouver; www.icbc.com), 1998.

38 Amanda West, “Pedestrian Malls: How Successful Are They?” Main Street News (www.mainst.org/pedmallarticle.htm), Sept. 1990; Kent Robertson, “the Status of the Pedestrian Mall in American Downtowns,” Urban Affairs Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2, Dec. 1990, pp. 250-273; Norm Tyler, Downtown Pedestrian Malls, (www.emich.edu/public/geo/557book/c120.auto.html).

39 Ian Boyd, “Pedestrian-Oriented Environments,” in Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities: A Recommended Practice of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, ITE (www.ite.org), 1998.


40 John Forester, Effective Cycling, MIT Press, 1993.

41 W.W. Hunter, et al, Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Operational and Safety Findings and Countermeasure Recommendations, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (www.tfhrc.gov), 1999.

42 Dan Burden and Peter Lagerwey, Road Diets; Fixing the Big Roads, Walkable Communities (www.walkable.com), 1999.

43 Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level, ITE, FHWA (available online at www.bikefed.org/local.htm), 1998. A.M. Khan and A. Bacchus, “Bicycle Use of Highway Shoulders,” Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995, pp. 8-21.

44 Michael Ronkin, Reasons for Highway Shoulders, Oregon DOT (available at www.walkable.org).

45 Oregon DOT Highway Design Manual, ODOT (www.odot.state.or.us/techserv/bikewalk).

46 P. Garder, “Rumble Strips or Not Along Wide Shoulders Designated for Bicycle Traffic,” Transportation Research Record 1502, TRB (www4.nationalacademies.org/trb), 1995, pp. 1-7.

47 Planning and Marketing Division, Bicycle Locker Demonstration Program, BC Transit (Vancouver), 1992, p. 5.

48 M. Replogle and H Parcells, Linking Bicycle/Pedestrian Facilities with Transit, U.S. Federal Highway Administration (Washington DC), 1992, pp. 84-88.

49 Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level, ITE, FHWA (available online at www.bikefed.org/local.htm), 1998.


50 Guidelines for Cycle Audit and Cycle Review, Institution of Highway and Transportation (London; www.iht.org), 1996.

51 For a good example see Making Streets That Work; Neighborhood Planning Tool, Engineering Dept., City of Seattle (www.ci.seattle.wa.us/npo/tblis.htm), 1996.

52 Waiting for the Bus: How Lowcountry School Site Selection and Design Deter Walking to School, Southern Carolina Coastal Conservation League (Charleston), 1999.

53 Wolfgang Homburger, et al., Residential Street Design and Traffic Control, ITE (Washington DC; www.ite.org), 1989.

54 Residential Streets, American Society of Civil Engineers, National Association of Home Builders, and the Urban Land Institute (Washington DC), 1990.

55 Developing Communities for Active Transportation, Go For Green (www.goforgreen.ca), 1998.

56 Helen James, “Under-reporting of Road Traffic Collisions,” Traffic Eng+Con, Dec. 1991, pp. 574-583.

57 Linda Dixon, “Bicycle and Pedestrian Level-of-Service Performance Measures and Standards for Congestion Management Systems,” Transportation Research Record 1538, 1996, pp. 1-9.

58 J.M. Clark and B.J. Hutton, The Appraisal of Community Severance, U.K. DoT, Transport Research Laboratory (Crowthorne, UK), Report #135, 1991.


59 Todd Litman, Transportation Cost Analysis; Techniques, Estimates and Implications, VTPI (www.vtpi.org), 2000; Dr. Peter Bein, Monetization of Environmental Impacts of Roads, and Social Cost of Transverse Barrier Effects, Planning Services Branch, B.C. Ministry of Transportation and Highways (Victoria; www.th.gov.bc.ca/bchighways), 1997, 1995.

60 David L. Harkey, Donald W. Reinfurt, J. Richard Stewart, Matthew Knuiman and Alex Sorton, The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-98-072 (www.hsrc.unc.edu/oldhsrc/research/pedbike/bci/bcitech.pdf), 1998.

61 David L. Harkey, Donald W. Reinfurt, J. Richard Stewart, Matthew Knuiman and Alex Sorton, The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-98-072 (www.hsrc.unc.edu/oldhsrc/research/pedbike/bci/bcitech.pdf), 1998; David L. Harkey, Donald W. Reinfurt, Matthew Knuiman, “Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index,” Transportation Research Record 1636, 1998, pp. 13-20.

62 Julie Mercer Matlick, If We Build It, Will They Come?, Washington State DOT (Olympia; www.wsdot.wa.gov), undated.

63 Colin Henson, “Level of Service for Pedestrians,” ITE Journal, Sept. 2000, pp. 26-30.


64 Joseph Milazzo, et al., Quality of Service for Interrupted Pedestrian Facilities in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 1999.

65 www.intelligentspace.com

66 Barry Wellar, Walking Security Index; Final Report, Geography Department, University of Ottawa (Ottawa; 613-562-5725; wellarb@uottawa.ca), 1998.

67 PBQD, The Pedestrian Environment, 1000 Friends of Oregon (www.friends.org) 1993.

68 PT, “How Far Should Patrons Have to Walk After They Park?” Parking Today (www.parkingtoday.com), May 2000, pp. 34-36.

69 Cambridge Systematics and Bicycle Federation of America, Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel, FHWA, Publication No. FHWA-RD-98-166 (available at www.tfhrc.gov), July 1999.

70 Pedestrian Master Plan, Pedestrian Transportation Program, City of Portland (503-823-7004; pedprogram@syseng.ci.portland.or.us), 1998.




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