28 C. Flavin. “Climate Change and Storm Damage: The Insurance Costs Keep Rising.” World Watch, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997, pp. 10-11.
29 As an aside, the earliest usage of the word “homeland” that this chronicler has found in relation to “emergency management” and related terms is in the 1965 report Federal Civil Defense Organization: The Rationale of Its Development, at p. 34: “Civil defense is simply viewed as an aspect of the common defense of the homeland.”
30 White House, National Strategy for Homeland Security, July 2002.
31 Critical Mission Areas: Intelligence and Warning, Border and Transportation Security, Domestic Counterterrorism, Protecting Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets, Defending Against Catastrophic Threats, and
Emergency Preparedness and Response. Supportive Foundations of Homeland Security: Law, Science and
Technology, Information Sharing and Systems, and International Cooperation.
32 The larger the losses from an insured event, the more significant the timing risk. For example, according to information supplied by the Insurance Information Institute,
homeowners’ losses in Louisiana from Katrina wiped out 25 years of insurance premiums collected in the state. In Mississippi, the damages from Katrina wiped out 17
33 The Galloway 2007 report notes that “even the most perfectly engineered, impeccably maintained levee will be overtopped during a flood event that exceeds its design capacity.” (At p. 10)
34 Such as New York and Phoenix during 2001 World Series “when the threat of anthrax attacks had put security officials on a heightened state of alert.” See p. 6 in: Cohen, John D. and John A. Hurson. The State and Local Role in Domestic Defense (Policy Brief). Progressive Policy Institute, January 2002, 9 pages. Accessed at: http://www.ppionline.org/documents/local_home_d.pdf
35 The assumptions for major events mirror those for Catastrophic events found in the National Response Plan.
36 As Gessert observes “The ‘proclamation of limited martial law by President Eisenhower during the Operation Alert exercise of 1955…prompted broad reexamination of…emergency requirements and functions of government.” (Federal Civil Defense Organization, 1965, p. 29)
37 Hupert N, Cuomo J, Callahan MA, Mushlin AI, Morse SS. Community-Based Mass Prophylaxis: A Planning Guide for Public Health Preparedness. AHRQ Publication No. 04-0044, August 2004. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/cbmprophyl/
38 The FSR adds a footnote that “There is a limit, however, to addressing the adverse selection problem through pricing alone. As risk pools narrow to include only those presenting the highest risks, the actuarially appropriate premium may be so high that few will purchase the insurance. This may so increase the uncertainty about the expected loss from the risk pool that insurers become unable to price the risks correctly, or even become unwilling to provide any coverage at all. This is essentially why private insurers dropped out of covering flood risks…) (p. 45)
39 Cited: Guna Selvaduray, Professor and Executive Director, Collaborative for Disaster Mitigation, San Jose State University. January 26, 2006. Testimony to the Commission.
40 See FEMA, NIMS Alert, April 27, 2007, footnote 1.
41 P. 89, White House. The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina – Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: The White House, Townsend, Francis Fragos, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, February. 2006. At: http://www.whitehouse.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned/
42 According to a November 29, 2007 “Interagency Planning Workshop” slide presentation (#16) the Incident Management Planning Team “publishes” the NPES in September 2006.
43 Referenced: “A 2004 Report by the Association of State Floodplain Managers Foundation, Reducing
Flood Losses: Is the 1% Chance Flood Standard Sufficient? concluded that “The prescriptive 1% chance standard oversimplifies complicated concepts. Much happens within the floodplain that cannot be captured in a simple “in or out” determination. Although such simplicity has its appeal, a broader, more flexible approach would allow for the reflection of more detail and more accuracy.” Because of the standard, development has tended to cluster just outside of the 1% floodplain boundary, an area not free from flood risk and possibly subject to considerable risk where watersheds have been urbanized and runoff thereby increased.”
44 “Pandemic Influenza: Historical Perspective,’’ Center for Infectious Disease Research Policy, Univ. of Minnesota. http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/panflu/biofacts/panflu.html#Historical_Perspective_1 8 July 2007.
45 Cited is System Development Corporation, Final Report: Local Planning Project, April 30, 1970.
46 Cites Donald L. Schmidt, Preparedness, LLC.
47 The NFPA explains the addition of “Prevention” to the “Phases” in the last paragraph of the section, "Origin and Development of NFPA 1600" -- "The 2007 edition incorporates changes to the 2004 edition, expanding the conceptual framework for disaster/emergency management and business continuity programs. Previous editions of the standard focused on the four aspects of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. This edition identifies prevention as a distinct aspect of the program, in addition to the other four. Doing so brings the standard into alignment with related disciplines and practices of risk management, security, and loss prevention."
48 Citation: 18 U.S.C. § 1385 (2002). Congress enacted the PCA in 1878 as a result of concerns over the military presence in the Reconstruction South. On its face the current PCA only applies to the Army and Air Force. In 1981, however, Congress directed the Secretary of Defense to promulgate regulations to essentially apply the PCA to the Navy and Marine Corps. See 10 U.S.C. § 375 (2002). The resulting regulation is DoD Directive 5525.5, DoD Cooperation With Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, 15 January 1986. Of note, the PCA does not apply to the members of the National Guard unless they have been federalized.
49 Citation: 10 U.S.C. §§ 331–34 (2002).
50 “Rules for the use of force,” for domestic support to civil authority missions and “nonoperational” force protection.
51 Citation: Garden Plot, supra note 5, at ann. C, app. 1, para. (1)(C).
52 Witt, James Lee. “Project Impact: Building a Disaster Resistant Community.” Disaster Recovery Journal, Winter 1998/ Accessed at: http://www.drj.com/win98/witt.htm
53 See Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (FHCF) as an example.
54 United States Coast Guard: America’s Maritime Guardian, Coast Guard Publication 1 (Washington, DC: January 2002, second printing), p. 3. The term “doctrine” has clear and rich meaning as a guide to action within the military services. See also U.S. Department of Defense’s Joint Operations Planning and Execution System, an overview of which is available at http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/other_pubs/jopes.pdf.
55 Dean, W. “Risk Assessments and Future Challenges.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2005.
56 Deyle, French, Olshansky, and Paterson 1998, 124.
57 Cites: Cohen, D. and Prusak, L. (2001) In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work, Boston, Ma.: Harvard Business School Press. P. 4.
58 Downloaded from web site address: http://www.cyberg8t.com/simeon/glossary.html (definitions from The Simeon Institute are obtained from “unattributed sources”).
59 “The larger the losses from an insured event, the more significant the timing risk. For example, according to information supplied by the Insurance Information Institute, homeowners’ losses in Louisiana from Katrina wiped out 25 years of insurance premiums collected in the state. In Mississippi, the damages from Katrina wiped out 17 years of premiums.” (FSR, Mega-Catastrophe, 2007 45)
60 Referenced is a chapter in Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities, edited by P.A. Merriman and C.W. Browitts (London: Thomas Telford, 1993).
61 Referenced is chapter by Norton and Chantry in Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities, edited by P.A. Merriman and C.W. Browitts (London: Thomas Telford, 1993).
62 Sinha, D.K. Ed. 1992. Natural Disaster Reduction to the Nineties: Perspectives, Aspects and Strategies. Calcutta: International Journal Services.
63 Pelanda, Carlo. 1982. “Disastro e vulnerabilita sociosistemica.” Rassegna Italian di Sociologia 22:507-532.