Guide to emergency management and related terms, definitions, concepts, acronyms, organizations, programs, guidance & legislation

BioShield: See “Project BioShield.” Biosurveillance


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BioShield: See “Project BioShield.”
Biosurveillance: “The term “biosurveillance” means the process of active data-gathering with appropriate analysis and interpretation of biosphere data that might relate to disease activity and threats to human or animal health – whether infectious, toxic, metabolic, or otherwise, and regardless of intentional or natural origin – in order to achieve early warning of health threats, early detection of health events, and overall situational awareness of disease activity.” (White House, HSPD 21, October 18, 2007)
Bioterrorism: “A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, can not.” (CDC, Bioterrorism Overview. February 12, 2007 update)
Bioterrorism Act: See Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.

Bioterrorism and Epidemic Outbreak Response Model (BERM), AHRQ, HHS: “This computer model predicts the number and type of staff needed to respond to a major disease outbreak or bioterrorism attack on a given population…. BERM allows planners to formulate realistic mass antibiotic dispensing and vaccination contingency plans for their target populations. Such a model provides numerical estimates and forces critical examination of assumptions about prophylaxis clinic design and about the availability of human and materiel resources.” (AHRQ, Computer Staffing Model for Bioterrorism Response, 2005)

Bioterrorism Training and Curriculum Development Program (BTCDP), HRSA/HHS: “The Bioterrorism Training and Curriculum Development Program (BTCDP) provides

support to health professions schools, health care systems, and other educational entities to

equip a workforce of health care professionals to address emergency preparedness and

response issues. The program consists of two discrete foci: (1) provision of continuing

education for practicing health care providers; and (2) curriculum development and

enhancement and training in health professions schools.” (DHS/ODP, FY06 EMPG, p. 11)

BioThrax: An anthrax vaccine.
BioWatch: “DHS, through the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate, provides management oversight to the BioWatch program (BioWatch), an early warning system designed to detect the release of biological agents in the air through a comprehensive protocol of monitoring and laboratory analysis.” (DHS/OIG, DHS’ Management of BioWatch, 2007, p. 1)
“BioWatch was rolled out in just under 80 days from late January 2003 to mid-April 2003.” (DHS/OIG, DHS’ Management of BioWatch, 2007, p. 4)
BioWatch Exercise and Evaluation Program (BWEEP): “Under…BWEEP, all jurisdictions undergo a yearly assessment of operational proficiency.” (DHS/OIG, DHS’ Management of BioWatch, 2007, p. 12)
BioWatch Goals: “The goals of BioWatch are to:

  • Provide early warning of a biological attack by expeditiously identifying the bio-agent, thereby minimizing casualties in an affected area;
  • Assist in establishing forensic evidence on the source, nature, and extent of biological attack to aid law enforcement agents in identifying the perpetrators; and

  • Determining a preliminary spatial distribution of biological contamination, including what populations may have been exposed.” (DHS/OIG, DHS’ Management of BioWatch, 2007, p. 2)

BKC: Biodefense Knowledge Center, DHS (at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).
Blast Wave: (See Shock Wave). “A shock wave in the air is generally referred to as a ‘blast wave’ because it resembles and is accompanied by a very strong wind.” (Glasstone, The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (3rd Ed.), 1977, p. 1, Chapter I)
BLEVEs: “Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions (BLEVEs) are among the most feared events when tanks of hazardous materials are exposed to fire or physical damage or other events that cause excessive pressures within the tank. A BLEVE could occur when flames impinge upon the vapor space (unwetted internal surface) of the tank where there is no liquid to absorb heat. As the vapor space is heated, the pressure inside the tank (even after the relief valve opens) becomes so great that it eventually vents itself through the weakest area of the tank. As the pressure inside is increasing, the flames weaken the structural integrity of the tank, thus creating the conditions for venting. This sudden venting of pressure and vaporization of product involves the violent rupture of the container, with rocketing fragments. If the container stored a flammable

liquid or gas, a large rising fireball will form, the size of which will vary with the amount of hazardous material present.” (EPA, Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis, 1987. p. F-1)

Blister Agents (Vesicants): “Substances that cause blistering of the skin. Exposure is through

liquid or vapor contact with any exposed tissue (eyes, skin, lungs). Mustard (H), Distilled Mustard (HD), Nitrogen Mustard (HN) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents. Symptoms: Red eyes, skin irritation, burning of skin, blisters, upper respiratory damage, cough, hoarseness.” (DOT, Emergency Response Guidebook, 2004, p. 358)

Blizzard: Violent winter storm, lasting at least 3 hours, which combines below freezing temperatures and very strong wind laden with blowing snow that reduces visibility to less than 1 km. (WMO 1992, 86)
Blood Agents: “Substances that injure a person by interfering with cell respiration (the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissues). Hydrogen cyanide (AC) and Cyanogen chloride (CK) are blood agents. Symptoms: Respiratory distress, headache, unresponsiveness, seizures, coma.” (DOT, Emergency Response Guidebook, 2004, p. 358)
BOCA: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.
BOS: Basic Operating Situations. (DCPA, Attack Environment Manual, 1973, Panel 20)
BPA: Blanket Purchase Agreement. (FEMA, Mission Assignment SOPs Draft, 2007, p. 55)
BPA: Business Process Analysis. (DHS, FCD 1, Nov. 2007, p. 16)
BPAT: Building Performance Assessment Team, FEMA.
Branch (ICS/NIMS): “The organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major aspects of incident operations. A branch is organizationally situated between the section and the division or group in the Operations Section, and between the section and units in the Logistics Section. Branches are identified by the use of Roman numerals or by functional area.” (DHS, NIMS, 2004, pp. 127-128)
BRP: Business Resumption Planning. (Paul Rosenthal, BRP)
BSIR: Bi-annual Strategy Implementation Report.

BSL: Biosafety Level.

BSSC: Building Seismic Safety Council.
BTCDP: Bioterrorism Training and Curriculum Development Program.
Buffer Zone Protection Program (BZPP): A Department of Homeland Security program which provides “funding to protect and secure areas surrounding critical infrastructure and key resource sites such as chemical facilities, dams, and nuclear plants across the country. The Buffer Zone Protection Program (BZPP) provides targeted funding through states to local jurisdictions to purchase equipment that will extend the zone of protection beyond the gates of these critical facilities.” (DHS, Department of Homeland Security Announces $91.3 Million in Buffer Zone Protection Program Grants, March 2, 2005.)
Buffer Zone Protection Program (BZPP): The BZPP assists responsible jurisdictions in building effective prevention and protection capabilities that will make it more difficult for terrorists to conduct site surveillance or launch attacks within the immediate vicinity of selected CI/KR assets. These capabilities are enumerated in Buffer Zone Plans (BZPs) that:
• Identify significant assets at the site(s) that may be targeted by terrorists for attack.
• Identify specific threats and vulnerabilities associated with the site(s) and its significant assets.
• Develop an appropriate buffer zone extending outward from the facility in which preventive and protective measures can be employed to make it more difficult for terrorists to conduct site surveillance or launch attacks.
• Identify all applicable law enforcement jurisdictions and other Federal, State, and local agencies having a role in the prevention of, protection against, and response to terrorist threats or attacks specific to the CI/KR site(s) and appropriate points of contact within these organizations.

• Evaluate the capabilities of the responsible jurisdictions with respect to terrorism prevention and response.

• Identify specific planning, equipment, training, and/or exercise requirements to better enable responsible jurisdictions to mitigate threats and vulnerabilities of the site(s) and its buffer zone. (DHS, Fiscal Year 2007 Infrastructure Protection Program: Buffer Zone Protection Program – Program Guidance and Application Kit, January 2007, pp. 2-3)
Buffer Zone Protection Program (BZPP): “Described as a surgical approach to protecting CI/KR, the goal of the BZPP is to provide funding for the purchase of equipment that will:
• Devalue a target by making it less attractive or too costly to attack;

• Deter an event from happening;

• Detect an aggressor planning or committing an attack, or the presence of a hazardous device or weapon; and

• Defend against attack by delaying or preventing an aggressor’s movement toward the asset, or the use of weapons and explosives.” (DHS/OIG, Review of the BZPP, July 2007, p. 3)

Building Code: “Codes that architects, builders, and developers use that are in compliance with agreed upon safety standards in a specific area. A building code is a regulation that determines the design, construction, and materials used in building.” (, 2007)

Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule (BCEGS): “The Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule (BCEGS) assesses the building codes in effect in a particular community and how the community enforces its building codes, with special emphasis on mitigation of losses from natural hazards. The concept is simple: municipalities with well-enforced, up-to-date codes should demonstrate better loss experience, and insurance rates can reflect that. The prospect of lessening catastrophe-related damage and ultimately lowering insurance costs provides an incentive for communities to enforce their building codes rigorously — especially as they relate to windstorm and earthquake damage. The anticipated upshot: safer buildings, less damage, and lower insured losses from catastrophes. The BCEGS program assigns each municipality a BCEGS grade of 1 (exemplary commitment to building-code enforcement) to 10. ISO develops advisory rating credits that apply to ranges of BCEGS classifications (1-3, 4-7, 8-9, 10). ISO gives insurers BCEGS classifications, BCEGS advisory credits, and related underwriting information. ISO began implementing the program in states with high exposure to wind (hurricane) hazards, then moved to states with high seismic exposure, and then continued through the rest of the country.” (ISO, ISO’s BCEGS, 2008)

Building Performance Assessment Teams (BPAT) and Process: “In response to hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, and other disasters, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

often deploys Building Performance Assessment Teams (BPATs) to conduct field investigations at disaster sites. The members of a BPAT include representatives of public and private sector entities who are experts in specific technical fields such as structural and civil engineering, building design and construction, and building code development and enforcement. BPATs inspect disaster induced damages incurred by residential and commercial buildings and other manmade structures; evaluate local design practices, construction methods and materials, building codes, and building inspection and code enforcement processes; and make recommendations regarding design, construction, and code issues. With the goal of reducing the damage caused by future disasters, the BPAT process is an important part of FEMA’s hazard

mitigation activities.” (FEMA, Building Performance Assessment Report: Hurricane Georges in Puerto Rico, March 1999, p. 2)

Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC): “The BSSC was established in 1979 as a Council of the National Institute of Building Sciences. Developed as an entirely new type of instrument, the BSSC deals with the complex regulatory, technical, social, and economic issues involved in developing and promulgating building earthquake risk mitigation regulatory provisions that are national in scope. By bringing together all of the needed expertise and relevant public and private interests, it was believed that issues related to the seismic safety of the built environment could be resolved and jurisdictional problems overcome through authoritative guidance and assistance backed by a broad consensus.” (BSSC, About BSSC,

Business Continuity: “The ability of an organization to continue to function before, during, and after a disaster.” (DHS, NIPP, 2006, p. 103)
Business Continuity: “The ability of an organization to ensure continuity of service and support for its customers and to maintain its viability before after and during an event. (DRII and OR-DAS [Oregon Depart. Of Admin Services] definitions are identical).” (DigitalCare, State of OR Business Cont. Workshop, 2006, 47)
Business Continuity: Business continuity – emphasis on “continuity” – is the ability of a

business to continue operations in the face of a disaster condition…. Business continuity means:

• identifying critical business functions
• identifying risks to critical functions
• identifying ways to avoid or mitigate the risks
• having a plan to continue business in the event of a disaster condition
• having a plan to quickly restore operations to ‘business as usual’.

Disaster recovery is an integral part of business continuity. Business continuity does not replace insurance. It is a form of insurance, and should include insurance for life, health, facilities, product and business interruption.” (Glenn, What Is BC Planning? 2002)

Business Continuity: “An ongoing process supported by senior management and funded to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impact of potential losses, maintain

viable recovery strategies, recovery plans, and continuity of services.” (NFPA 1600, 2007, p.7)

“In the public sector, this phrase is also known as continuity of operations or continuity of government. Mission, vision, and strategic goals and objectives are used to focus the program. (NFPA 1600, 2007, p.11)

Business Continuity: “…the term business continuity encompasses the gamut of mechanisms that maintain continuity in business, including all forms of problem resolution and preventive mechanisms like quality assurance and security.” (Wainschel 2006, 54)
Business Continuity, Disaster Recovery & Contingency Planning Differences: “A person builds a house on an ocean beach. A storm washes away the beach. The house collapses.

Business continuity would suggest building a barrier reef or moving the house farther inland.

Disaster recovery rebuilds the house in time for the next storm.

Contingency planning takes the same scenario and says: ‘A storm will come ashore and damage the house; make sure there is someplace to live while the house is rebuilt’.” (Glenn, What Is BC Planning? 2006, p. 18)

Business Continuity Certified Planner (BCCP): “The BCCP recognizes practitioners who are involved in developing, implementing and maintaining BC procedures and processes for their business sub-units; as well as for senior and middle management involved in BCM.” (ISSA, Certifications, 2007)
Business Continuity Coordinator: “Designated individual responsible for preparing and coordinating the business continuity process. Similar term: disaster recovery coordinator, business recovery coordinator.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 47)

Business Continuity Management (BCM): “Business Continuity Management is an holistic management process that identifies potential impacts that threaten an organisation and provides a

framework for building resilience and the capability for an effective response that safeguards the

interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value creating activities.” (BCI, Good Practice Guidelines, 2007)

Business Continuity Management (BCM): “Business Continuity Management (BCM) planning focuses on assuring continuous business processes and is a major factor in an organization's survival during and after a disruption. BCM is a key component of Comprehensive Emergency Management. Companies that don't have good business continuity plans often fail to survive a business disruption.  Good continuity planning can make the difference -- and in the long run make you more profitable.” (Davis Logic, BCM, 2005)
Business Continuity Management (BCM): “A holistic management process that identifies potential impacts that threaten an Organization and provides a framework for building resilience with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value creating activities. The management of recovery or continuity in the event of a disaster. Also the management of the overall program through training, rehearsals, and reviews, to ensure the plan stays current and up to date.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 47)
Business Continuity Management (BCM) Process: “The Business Continuity Institute’s BCM process (also known as the BC Life Cycle) combines 6 key elements: 1) Understanding Your Business 2) Continuity Strategies 3) Developing a BCM Response 4) Establishing a Continuity Culture 5) Exercising, Rehearsal & Testing 6) The BCM Management Process.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 47)

Business Continuity Management (BCM Program: “An ongoing management and governance process supported by senior management and resourced to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impact of potential losses, maintain viable recovery strategies and plans, and ensure continuity of products/services through exercising, rehearsal, testing, training, maintenance and assurance.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, pp. 47-48)

Business Continuity Plan: “The Business Continuity Plan pulls together the response of the whole organisation to a disruptive incident. Those using the plan should be able to analyze information from the response team concerning the impact of the incident, select and deploy appropriate strategies from those available in the plan and direct the resumption of business units

according to agreed priorities. The components and content of a Business Continuity Plan will vary from organisation to organisation and will have a different level of detail based on the culture of the organisation and the technical complexity of the solutions.” (BCI, Good Practice Guide 2007)

Business Continuity Plan (BCP): “Advance arrangements and procedures that enable an organization to respond to an event in such a manner that critical business functions continue with planned levels of interruption or essential change. SIMILAR TERMS: Contingency Planning, Planning, Business Resumption Planning, Continuity Planning, Continuity of Operation Plans (COOP).” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 48)
Business Continuity Plan Administrator: “The designated individual responsible for plan documentation, maintenance, and distribution.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Wkshop, 2006, 47)

Business Continuity Planning (BCP): “Business continuity planning involves ensuring that a business is sustainable through a period of significant business interruption caused by a disaster or any other unforeseen disruptive event. It is essential for all types of scenarios ranging from system or component failure caused by a software upgrade to a man-made or natural disaster that broadly impacts a firm’s physical assets, buildings and/or people.” (AT&T, Business Continuity Preparedness Handbook, April 2007, p. 2)

Business Continuity Planning (BCP): “Process of developing advance arrangements and procedures that enable an organization to respond to an event in such a manner that critical business functions continue with planned levels of interruption or essential change. SIMILAR TERMS: Contingency Planning, Disaster Recovery Planning, Business Resumption Planning, Continuity Planning.” (DigitalCare, State of OR Business Continuity Workshop, 2006, 48)
Business Continuity Planning (BCP): “Assessment of risk to an organization’s processes, and the creation of policies, plans, and procedures to minimize the impact of those risks.” (Risky Thinking, A Glossary of Risk Related Terms, 2007)
Business Continuity Planning Options: “Once critical functions and risks to those functions are identified, planners have three options:

• Avoid a risk, typically through redundancy.

• Mitigate a risk by implementation of ‘work-arounds’.
• Absorb the risk.

The decision to avoid, mitigate, or absorb is a management decision. The planner makes recommendations based on cost vs. effectiveness and efficiency.” (Glenn, What is BC Planning, 2002)

Business Continuity Planning Phases:

  • Project Initiation

  • Business Analysis

  • Design and Development (Designing the Plan

  • Implementation (Creating the Plan)

  • Testing

  • Maintenance (Updating the Plan) (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 20)

Business Continuity Practice Subject Areas and DRII Professional Practices:

1. Project Initiation and Management

2. Risk Evaluation and Control

3. Business Impact Analysis

4. Developing Business Continuity Strategies

5. Emergency Response and Operations

6. Developing and Implementing Business Continuity Plans

7. Awareness and Training Programs

8. Maintaining and Exercising Business Continuity Plans

9. Public Relations and Crisis Coordination

10. Coordination with Public Authorities.

(DRJ & DRII, GAP for BC Practitioners, 2007, p. 3)

Business Continuity Program: “An on-going program to ensure business continuity and recovery requirements are addressed, resources are allocated, and processes and procedures are completed and rehearsed. Most effective with management sponsorship and through regular rehearsals.” (DigitalCare, State of OR Business Continuity Workshop, 2006, p. 48)
Business Continuity Steering Committee: “A committee of decision makers, business owners, technology experts and continuity professionals, tasked with making strategic recovery and continuity planning decisions for the organization.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 48)
Business Continuity Strategy: “An approach by an organization that will ensure its recovery and continuity in the face of a disaster or other major outage. Plans and methodologies are determined by the organizations strategy. There may be more than one solution to fulfill an organization’s strategy. Examples: Internal or external hot-site, or cold-site, Alternate Work Area reciprocal agreement, Mobile Recovery, Quick Ship / Drop Ship, Consortium-based solutions, etc.” .” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 48)
Business Executives for National Security (BENS): “Business Executives for National Security, a nationwide, non-partisan organization, is the primary channel through which senior business executives can help enhance the nation's security. BENS members use their business experience to drive our agenda, deliver our message to decision makers and make certain that the changes we propose are put into practice. BENS has only one special interest: to help make America safe and secure.” (BENS, Mission Statement, 2006)

Business Impact Analysis (BIA): “The Business Impact Analysis is the foundation on which the whole BCM [Business Continuity Management] process is built. It identifies, quantifies and qualifies the business impacts of a loss, interruption or disruption of business processes so that management can determine at what point in time these become intolerable (after an interruption).

This is called the ‘Maximum Tolerable Period of Disruption’ (MTPD). It therefore provides the data from which appropriate continuity strategies can be determined.” (BCI, Good Practice Guide 2007)

Business Impact Analysis (BIA): “The BIA:
• identifies business functions critical to the business’ survival
• identifies risks to those functions
• rates (prioritizes) risks by probability of occurrence and impact on the business
• identifies ways to avoid or mitigate identified risks
• prioritizes recommended avoidance and mitigation options.” (Glenn, What is BC Planning, 2002)
Business Impact Analysis (BIA): “A method of identifying the effects of failing to perform a function or requirement.” (HSC, National Continuity Policy Implementation Plan, 2007, 60)
Business Impact Analysis (BIA): “Business impact analysis, a component of the business continuity program, assesses the potential impact on business operations resulting from damage to, interruption of, or failure of processes, systems, utilities, or equipment from a natural or manmade hazard.” (NFPA, Implementing NFPA 1600, 2007, p. 6)
Business Impact Analysis (BIA): “Analysis which identifies the resources critical to an organization's continued existence, identifies threats posed to those resources, assesses the likelihood of those threats occurring, and the impact of each of those threats on the organization.

One output of a business impact analysis is a prioritized list of the risks which should be addressed.” (Risky Thinking, A Glossary of Risk Related Terms, 2007)

Business Impact Analysis (BIA) Risk Assessment: “The Business Impact Analysis/ Risk Assessment is a process designed to identify critical business functions and workflow determine the qualitative and quantitative impacts of a disruption, and to prioritize and establish recovery time objectives. SIMILAR TERMS: Business Exposure Assessment, Risk Analysis.” (DigitalCare, State of OR Business Continuity Workshop, 2006, pp. 47-48)

Business Interruption: “Any event, whether anticipated (i.e., public service strike) or unanticipated (i.e., blackout) which disrupts the normal course of business operations at an organization’s location. Similar terms: outage, service interruption. Associated terms: business interruption costs, business interruption insurance.” (DigitalCare, State of OR Business Continuity Workshop, 2006, p. 48)
Business Process Analysis (BPA): “A method of examining, identifying, and mapping the functional processes, workflows, activities, personnel expertise, systems, data, and facilities inherent to the execution of a function or requirement.” (HSC, National Continuity Policy Implementation Plan, August, 2007, p. 60)
Business Process Mapping (BPM): A business process map is a visual representation of a process – sequentially illustrating each step in the process, who completes each step, and the time taken to complete each step… The basic steps to process mapping are:

  • Establish the scope or your project

  • Map the current business process

  • Identify opportunities to improve

  • Redesign the business process

  • Identify assumptions and tools required for success (these will be the starting point for implementation planning. (Government of British Columbia, Regulatory Reform Initiative, no date)

Business Resumption Planning (BRP): “The BRP is a plan activated during or immediately after an emergency and is aimed at permitting the rapid and cost effective resumption of an organization's essential operations in order to maintain continuity of service to its clients. (Manitoba Emergency Measures Organization, Business Resumption Planning, 1996, p. 9)

Business Resumption Planning (BRP): “Modern organizations have a large variety of operational and managerial functions whose continuous operations are critical to the organizations continuing viability. Business Resumption Planning (BRP) involves arranging for emergency operations of these critical business functions and for resource recovery planning of these functions following a natural or man-made disaster. Business Resumption Plans are needed for all such organizational units, including data centers, information systems (IS) supported functions, and those organizational functions which are performed manually…. Business resumption planning should be an integrated portion of a total security program. The security program should cover physical security of facilities and equipment, data security of automated files and manual records, protection of all levels of personnel, and business resumption planning.” (Paul Rosenthal, BRP)

BWEEP: BioWatch Exercise and Evaluation Program. (DHS/OIG, DHS’ Management of BioWatch, 2007, p. 12)
BW IRP: Biological Weapons Improved Response Program. (Skidmore, Acute Care, 2003, v)
BY: Budget Year. (DHS, DHS Exhibit 300 Public Release BY08…JAC, Feb 12, 2007)
BZP: Buffer Zone Plan. (DHS, FY 2007 IPP: BZPP-Program Guidance…, 2007, p. 2)
BZPP: Buffer Zone Protection Program. (DHS, NIPP, 2006, p. 101)
C2: Command and Control. (JCS/DOD; DA, WMD-CST Operations, Dec 2007, Glossary 1)
C3: Command, Control, and Communications. (Defense Science Board, 2007)
C3I: Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence. (DSB, Protecting the Homeland, 2001, p. F-3)
C4: Command, Control, Communications, and Coordination. (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 447)
C4: Command, Control, Communications and Computers. (DOD, BG John Thomas Testimony, 2004)

C Zone, NFIP: “C Zone is defined as an area of minimal flood hazard, usually depicted on the Flood Insurance Rate Map as above the 500-year flood level of the primary source of flooding. C Zones tend to have local, shallow flooding problems. B and C Zones may have flooding that does not meet the criteria to be mapped as a Special Flood Hazard Area, especially ponding, localized drainage problems, and streams that drain smaller watersheds.” (FEMA, Reducing Damage from Localized Flooding – A Guide for Communities, 2005, vii)

CAAP: Critical Asset Assurance Program (DoD Directive No. 5160.54, January 20, 1998). ; [Note: Replaced “DoD Key Asset Program (KAPP),” June 26, 1989.]
CADRI: Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (UNDP/BCPR, 2007)
CAEIAE: Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education. (DHS, NIPP, 2006, p. 101)
CAER: Community Awareness and Emergency Response, Chemical Manufacturers Association.
CAG: Continuity Advisory Group. HSC, National Continuity Policy IP, 2007, p. 22)
Calamity: “A massive or extreme catastrophic disaster that extends over time and space.” Notes the Black Death of the 14th century as an example. (Drabek 1996, Session 2, p.4)
California Catastrophic Earthquake Readiness Response Plan (CCERP), FEMA: “The planning for California Catastrophic Earthquake Readiness Response Plan (CCERRP) started in July, 2007. This endeavor, which will include the contribution and participation of Federal, State and local government as well as other critical emergency management partners, will create an overall operational plan for a response to a catastrophic event in the State of California. The first phase will produce a Concept of Operations (CONOP) that will clarify authorities between Federal and State partners, integrate the doctrine and policy of the National Incident Management System and California’s State Emergency Management System, and provide a statewide all hazards framework for responding to a catastrophic event that exceeds California’s considerable capabilities. (Maxwell, Report to NEMA, October, 2007)

California Earthquake Authority (CEA): “The CEA is structured with many different layers of capital:

• Initial layers from private insurers who were permitted not to offer earthquake coverage in exchange for their voluntary participation in capitalizing the CEA and covering the next limited layer of earthquake losses

• Various layers of reinsurance

• A layer financed by state revenue bonds

• A top layer funded by post-event assessments on participating private insurers. The coverage

provided by the CEA is capped, currently at approximately $8.2 billion. This means that in a

future earthquake, insured parties would bear any losses exceeding the CAT limit (unless they

bought additional coverage on their own).”4 (Financial Services Roundtable, Nation, 2007, 47)

California Earthquake Authority (CEA): “…the California Earthquake Authority was formed in 1996 in response to a crisis in the residential property insurance market following the Northridge earthquake in 1994. According to the Insurance Information Institute, California insurers had collected only $3.4 billion in earthquake premiums in the 25-year period prior to the Northridge earthquake but had paid out more than $15 billion on Northridge claims alone. Moreover, insurers representing about 95 percent of the homeowners insurance market in California began to limit their exposure to earthquakes by writing fewer or no new homeowners insurance policies, triggering a crisis that threatened California’s housing market and stalled the state’s recovery from recession.” (GAO, Natural Disasters: Public Policy Options…, Nov 2007, 18 see, also, pp. 57-59)
Call Tree: “A document that graphically depicts the calling responsibilities and the calling order used to contact management, employees, customers, vendors, and other key contacts in the event of an emergency, disaster, or severe outage situation.” (DigitalCare, State of OR Business Continuity Workshop, 2006, p. 48)

CAMEO (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations): “CAMEO ® is a system of software applications used widely to plan for and respond to chemical emergencies. It is one of the tools developed by EPA’s Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. They can use CAMEO to access, store, and evaluate information critical for developing emergency plans. In addition, CAMEO supports regulatory compliance by helping users meet the chemical inventory reporting requirements of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA, also known as SARA Title III). CAMEO also can be used with a separate software application called LandView ® to display EPA environmental databases and demographic/economic information to support analysis of environmental justice issues.

The CAMEO system integrates a chemical database and a method to manage the data, an air dispersion model, and a mapping capability. All modules work interactively to share and display critical information in a timely fashion. The CAMEO system is available in Macintosh and Windows formats.” (EPA, What is CAMEO?, February 12 2007 update)

Camps (ICS): “Camps are separate from the Incident Base and are located in satellite fashion from the Incident Base where they can best support incident operations. Camps provide certain essential auxiliary forms of support, such as food, sleeping areas, and sanitation. Camps may also provide minor maintenance and servicing of equipment. Camps may be relocated to meet changing operational requirements.” (DHS, NIMS, 2004, ICS Annex, p. 94)
Canada/United States Agreement on Emergency Planning (1987): The Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of United States of America on Cooperation in Comprehensive Civil Emergency Planning and Management, 28 April 1986 is designed to strengthen cooperation between Canada and the United States, encouraging a more effective response to peacetime emergencies. The agreement sets out principles of cooperation and establishes a joint consultative group to foster comprehensive emergency planning and management. The Treaty can be found at the following address: (Transport Canada, Cross-Border Emergency Response Guide (3rd Edition), 2007, p. 10)
CANUS: Canada-United States. (JCS/DOD, CBRNE CM, 2006, p. IV-16)

CANUS Joint Radiological Emergency Response Plan (JRERP): “After the nuclear

accidents at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania in 1979 and at Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986, Canada and the US recognized the need for cooperation in development of a response plan for radiological events. Consequently, the two countries developed a joint plan to deal effectively with a potential or actual peacetime radiological event that could affect both countries or be of a magnitude that would require assistance from the neighboring country. The CANUS JRERP is currently being rewritten to incorporate the Department of Homeland Security and Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. The CANUS JRERP, is designed to do the following:

(a) Alert the appropriate federal authorities within each country of the existence of a threat from a potential or actual radiological event.
(b) Establish a framework of cooperative measures to reduce, to the extent possible, the threat posed to public health, safety, property, and the environment.
(c) Facilitate coordination between the federal government in each country in providing support to provinces and states affected by a potential or actual radiological event.” (JCS/DOD, CBRNE Consequence Management (JP 3-41), 2006, p. IV-16)
CAP: Capabilities Assessment Pilot(s). DHS, 2006.
CAP: Civil Air Patrol.
CAP: Community Assistance Program. (FEMA, Community Assistance Visit, 2007)
National Level Exercises (NLEs): (FEMA, Statement of D. Schrader, Oct. 3, 2007, 4)
CAP: Crisis Action Planning. (DoD, DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)
CAP-SSSE: Community Assistance Program – State Support Services Element. (FEMA)
Capabilities: “Capabilities are defined as providing: …the means to accomplish a mission or function and achieve desired outcomes by performing critical tasks, under specified conditions, to target levels of performance.” (DHS, NPG, Appendix B, Capabilities-Based Preparedness Overview, 2007, p. 30)
Capabilities-Based Planning Process:

  1. Convene Working Group

  2. Determine Capability Requirements

  3. Assess Current Capabilities Levels

  4. Identify Needs and Methods to Fill Gaps

    1. Develop Options

    2. Analyze Options

    3. Choose Options

  5. Update Strategies/Submit Investment Justifications

  6. Review Justifications/Allocate Funds

  7. Update and Execute Program Plans

    1. Plan

    2. Equip

    3. Train

    4. Exercise

  8. Assess and Report

    1. Capability

    2. Compliance

    3. Performance (DHS, Development of the Capabilities Assessment Pilots, 2006)

Capabilities-Based Planning Process: A process “…“that integrates strategic planning with activities such as threat and vulnerability assessment, mission analysis, risk assessment, investment strategy development, resource allocation, program planning performance-based assessment, and system requirements analysis.” (HSI, HS Strategic Planning, March 2007, 3)
Capabilities-Based Preparedness: “The Guidelines establish a capabilities-based approach to preparedness. Simply put, a capability provides the means to accomplish a mission. The Guidelines address preparedness for all homeland security mission areas: prevention, protection, response, and recovery.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, September 13, 2007, p. 4)
Capabilities-Based Preparedness: “Capabilities-Based Preparedness encourages flexibility and requires collaboration. More importantly, it helps to ensure that operations planners and program managers across the Nation can use common tools and processes when making planning, training, equipment, and other investments, and can produce measurable results.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, September 13, 2007, p. 10)

Capabilities-Based Preparedness: “Capabilities-Based Preparedness is a form of all-hazards planning…. Capabilities-Based Preparedness is defined as:

preparing, under uncertainty, to provide capabilities suitable for a wide range of challenges while working within an economic framework that necessitates prioritization and choice.
Capabilities-Based Preparedness is a way to make informed choices about how to manage the risk and reduce the impact posed by potential threats. It focuses decision making on building and maintaining capabilities to prevent and protect against challenges (e.g., intelligence analysis, critical infrastructure protection, etc.) and to respond and recover when events occur (e.g., onsite incident management, medical surge, emergency public information, and economic recovery). The process rests on a foundation of multi-disciplinary, cross-governmental, and regional collaboration to determine measurable capability targets, to assess current levels of capabilities, and to find ways to close the gaps. As entities make choices in preparedness programs and activities, they will be able to improve their own preparedness, focus available assistance on areas of greatest need, and collaborate with others using a common reference framework.” (DHS, NPG, Appendix B, Capabilities-Based Preparedness Overview, 2007, p. 30)
Capabilities-Based Preparedness Process: “The Capabilities-Based Preparedness process…involves homeland security partners in a systematic and prioritized effort to accomplish the following:

  • Convene working groups;

  • Determine capability requirements;

  • Assess current capability levels;

  • Identify, analyze, and choose options;

  • Update plans and strategies;

  • Allocate funds;

  • Update and execute program plans; and

  • Assess and report.

The process emphasizes collaboration to identify, achieve, and sustain target levels of capability that will contribute to enhancing overall national levels of preparedness…. The core of the Capabilities-Based Preparedness approach is the comparison of current capabilities with risk-based target capability levels.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, Appendix B, 2007, pp. 32-34)

Capabilities-Based Preparedness Working Groups: “The preparedness process should begin with formation of a chartered, representative working group. It is strongly encouraged that, wherever possible, previously established working groups be used for this process. The working group should be multi-disciplinary, multi-agency, and multi-jurisdictional. Where appropriate, working groups should include the private sector and nongovernmental partners. The intent is to bring together regional practitioners from across disciplines so that they can be effective advisors to the senior decision-makers who formulate strategies, set priorities, and allocate funds.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, Appendix B, 2007, p. 34)
Capability: “…a capability provides the means to accomplish a mission.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, September 13, 2007, p. 4) “A capability consists of the combination of elements required to deliver the desired outcome. (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, September 13, 2007, p. 5) “A capability provides the means to accomplish a mission or function resulting from the performance of one or more critical tasks, under specified conditions, to target levels of performance. A capability may be delivered with any combination of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained, and exercised personnel that achieves the desired outcome.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, September 13, 2007, p. 40)
Capability: “A capability is provided with proper planning, organization, training, equipment, and exercises.” (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 8)

Capability: “A capability provides the means to accomplish one or more tasks under specific

conditions and to specific performance standards. A capability may be delivered with any

combination of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained, and exercised personnel that

achieves the intended outcome.” (DHS, Universal Task List, 2.1, 2005, p. B-1 (142))

Capability and Hazard Identification Program (CHIP), FEMA: “Instituted in 1989 to replace IEMS [Integrated Emergency Management System], FEMA established a national database of information on the status of emergency preparedness and the impact of FEMA funds on State and local government operations. Emergency management data were collected for 3,300 communities and maintained in a comprehensive and easily accessible database. However, a drawback of the ‘self-assessment’ was the lack of consistent criteria for reporting, which resulted in incomplete and inaccurate information. Through regular updates of the CHIP database, local government officials provided information on natural hazards in their areas, including the likelihood and frequency of events and the impacts on local population and property. They also provide information on local emergency management expenditures, including totals expended and the sources of funding. By answering questions separated into five topic areas, local governments provided information to allow assessment of their capability to deal with disast4rs. The five topic areas are: planning, logistics, training and education, operations, and administration. On the Federal level, the information from CHIP was used to prepare reports to the U.S. Congress on the status of emergency management capabilities. It also was used to evaluate the effectiveness of FEMA programs in delivery of financial and technical assistance to State and local governments. At the local level CHIP was used as a planning tool, guiding local jurisdictions through a logical sequence: identify hazards; assess capabilities to address those hazards; set priorities for improving those capabilities; and schedule process activities to improve those capabilities.” (FEMA, Multi Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment, 1997, p. xxii)

Capability Assessment: After conducting a Hazards Analysis, [t]he next step for the jurisdiction is to assess its current capability for dealing with the hazards that have been identified… Current capability is determined against standards and criteria FEMA has established as necessary to perform basic emergency management functions, e.g., alerting and warning, evacuation, emergency communications. The resulting information provides a summary of the capabilities that exist and upon which current plans should be prepared…and leads to the identification of the jurisdiction’s weaknesses.” (FEMA, IEMS Process Overview, 1983, p. 7)
Capability Assessment for Readiness (CAR): “The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA) are working together aggressively to reduce losses from disasters. As an important component of this effort, FEMA and NEMA joined together in 1997 to develop the CAR, an assessment process and tool that States, Territories, and Insular Areas can use to evaluate their own operational readiness and capabilities in emergency management. The CAR was implemented first in 1997 and has matured into a sophisticated and accepted, automated, self-assessment tool that helps the States, Territories, and Insular Areas establish sound mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery practices, establish priorities, and analyze program performance.

“The CAR was revised after its initial implementation in 1997, and a second self-assessment is underway this year. The CAR is available in automated or manual versions and is divided into 13 Emergency Management Functions (EMF) common to emergency management programs: 1) laws and authorities; 2) hazard identification and risk assessment; 3) mitigation; 4) resource management; 5) planning; 6) direction, control, and coordination; 7) communications and warning; 8) operations and procedures; 9) logistics and facilities; 10) training; 11) exercises, evaluation, and corrective actions; 12) crisis communications, public education, and information; and 13) finance and administration.

“Each EMF is divided into broad criteria called attributes, and the attributes are subdivided further into more detailed criteria called characteristics, to facilitate the self-assessment. Using the CAR, the States will develop a self-profile of strengths and weaknesses in their emergency management programs that then can be used for strategic planning and budgeting. The FEMA uses the aggregate data from this process to produce a national report. Work is underway to develop a CAR process for local jurisdictions and Indian Tribal Governments to use in assessing their emergency management programs.” (Hampton, CAR, Prehospital Dis. Med., 15(3), 2000)

Capability Assessments: “Capability assessments measure the current level of capability against the target levels of capability from the TCL [Target Capabilities List] applicable to the respective level of government.” (DHS, National Preparedness Guidelines, 2007, p. 34)
Capability Elements: “…capability elements define the resources needed to perform the critical tasks to the specified levels of performance, with the recognition that there is rarely a single combination of capability elements that must be used to achieve a capability.” (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 8)
“The Capability Elements serve as a guide for identifying and prioritizing investments when

working to establish a capability. Further, existing programs and activities represented as

Capability Elements have been included for reference purposes only, and are subject to change in

response to an evolving threat environment and competition for scarce resources.” (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 9)

Capability Elements (TCL):

Organization and Leadership


Equipment and Systems


Exercises, Evaluations, and Corrective Actions. (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 9)

Capability Shortfall: “The difference between current capability…and the optimum capability…” (FEMA, IEMS Process Overview, 1983, p. 8)

Capacity: “A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster. Capacity may include physical, institutional, social or economic means as well as skilled personal or collective attributes such as leadership and management. Capacity may also be described as capability. (UN/ISDR, Terminology: Basic Terms of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2004, p. 1)

Capacity, Adaptive: “…a combination of a society’s ex ante vulnerability to damages from natural hazards and its ex post resilience or ability to cope with the damages that result.” (Dayton-Johnson, Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity, 2004)
Capacity, Adaptive and Coping: “While the concept of coping capacity is more directly related to an extreme event (e.g. a flood or a winter storm), the concept of adaptive capacity refers to a longer time frame and implies that some learning either before or after an extreme event is happening. The higher the coping capacity and adaptive capacity, the lower the vulnerability of a system, region, community or household. Enhancement of adaptive capacity is a necessary condition for reducing vulnerability, particularly for the most vulnerable regions and socioeconomic groups." (Peltonen, Coping Capacity and Adaptive Capacity, 2006)
Capacity, Coping: “…a function of: perception (of risk and potential avenues of action… the ability to cope is information contingent); possibilities (options ranging from avoidance and insurance, prevention, mitigation, coping); private action (degree to which special capital can be invoked); and public action…” (IPCC, Climate Change 2001. Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001)
Capacity, Coping: “The manner in which people and organisations use existing resources to achieve various beneficial ends during unusual, abnormal and adverse conditions of a disaster phenomenon or process.” (UNDP, Reducing Disaster Risk…Global Report, 2004)

Capacity, Coping: “The ability to cope with threats includes the ability to absorb impacts by guarding against or adapting to them. It also includes provisions made in advance to pay for potential damages, for instance by mobilizing insurance repayments, savings or contingency reserves. (UNEP, Global Environment Outlook 3 Past, Present and Future Perspectives, 2002)

Capacity, Coping: “The coping capacity of human society is a combination of all the natural and social characteristics and resources available in a particular location that are used to reduce the impacts of hazards (IATFDR 2001). These include factors such as wealth, technology,

education, information, skills, infrastructure, access to resources and management capabilities.” (UNEP, Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3), Chapter 3, Human Vulnerability to Environmental Change, p. 303)

Capacity, Coping: “The means by which people or organizations use available resources and abilities to face adverse consequences that could lead to a disaster. In general, this involves managing resources, both in normal times as well as during crises or adverse conditions. The strengthening of coping capacities usually builds resilience to withstand the effects of natural and human-induced hazards.” (UN/ISDR, Living with Risk... 2004 version)
Capacity Building: “Improving and building the technical and managerial skills and resources within an organisation.” (European Environment Agency, EEA Environmental Glossary, 2007)
Capacity Building: “Building capacities for prevention, preparation and recovery means learning to assess vulnerabilities, reinforcing expertise in relevant technical, social and scientific institutions, and establishing partnerships of mutual learning that extend from communities and districts to central authorities…” (Fagen and Martin 2005, 12)

Capacity Building: “Efforts aimed to develop human skills or societal infrastructures within a community or organization needed to reduce the level of risk. In extended understanding, capacity building also includes development of institutional, financial, political and other resources, such as technology at different levels and sectors of the society.” (UN/ISDR, Terminology: Basic Terms of Disaster Risk Reduction, March 31, 2004, p. 1)
Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI): “CADRI was created in 2007 as a joint programme of the United Nations Development Programme’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (UNDP/BCPR), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), and the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR)…. CADRI succeeds the UN Disaster Management Training Programme (DMTP), a global learning initiative, which trained United Nations, government and civil society professionals between 1991-2006. DMTP is widely known for its pioneering work in developing high quality resource materials on a wide range of disaster management and training topics. More than twenty trainers’ guides and modules were developed and translated. CADRI’s design builds upon the success and lessons learned from the DMTP. While the importance of capacity is now widely recognized, lessons of experience have demonstrated that the development of capacity is far more complex than previously thought. Capacity development goes beyond training or the transfer of technology, requiring local ownership and political leadership.

CADRI’s design also reflect the significant growth in training and related organizational learning throughout the world and it is these resources that CADRI seeks to draw upon and expand, thereby making effective use of the wealth of capacity development experience and expertise that resides within the broader ISDR system and making use of the advances in technology for networking and learning purposes. CADRI’s design also recognizes the critical role that the UN system plays at the national level in supporting government’s efforts to advance disaster risk reduction. …The three organizations that comprise CADRI provide oversight for its strategic direction and management.” (Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative, Who We Are, 2007)

CAPRA: Critical Asset and Portfolio Risk Analysis. (Ayyub, CAPRA, 2007, 789)
CAR: Capability Assessment for Readiness.
Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS): Provides “Automatic detection of high density shielding that might be used to avoid passive detection.” (DHS/DNDO, DNDO Overview, April 20, 2006, slide 13)
Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS) Goals:

  • Develop and deploy a radiography system that automatically detects threat materials in mixed commerce without impeding the flow of commerce

  • Conduct radiographic inspection of 50% of all incoming cargo

  • Improved penetration capability. (DHS/DNDO, DNDO Overview, April 2007, slide 15)

CARRS: Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System. (DHS, Opening Statement of Vayl Oxford, March 2007, p. 3)

Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup (CREW): “The Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup (CREW) is a coalition of private and public representatives working together to improve the ability of Cascadia Region communities to reduce the effects of earthquake events…. In less than 50 years, a number of great Cascadia-like earthquakes have occurred around the Pacific Rim, including Chile (1960), Alaska, (1964) and Mexico (1985). A unique aspect of a great Cascadia earthquake is the strong likelihood that the three greater metropolitan areas of Portland, Seattle, and Vancouver will simultaneously feel the effects of strong and sustained ground shaking. This wide-spread ground shaking combined with accompanying elevation changes and the likely generation of a tsunami along the Pacific coast, will cause loss of life, property damage, and business interruption in vulnerable locations through out southwestern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northwestern California. The broad geographic distribution of damaging impacts will generate special challenges and severely stress the response and recovery resources of the three Pacific states and British Columbia.

of Pacific Rim trade involving Ports like Vancouver, Seattle, Tacoma, and Portland.


  • Promote efforts to reduce the loss of life and property.

  • Conduct education efforts to motivate key decision makers to reduce risks associated with earthquakes.

  • Foster productive linkages between scientists, critical infrastructure providers, businesses and governmental agencies in order to improve the viability of communities after an earthquake event.” (CREW, About CREW,” accessed November 4, 2007)

Catastrophe: An event in which a society incurs, or is threatened to incur, such losses to persons and/or property that the entire society is affected and extraordinary resources and skills are required, some of which must come from other nations.
Catastrophe: “A catastrophic disaster is one that so overwhelms response agencies that local, state, and federal resources combined are insufficient to meet the needs of the affected public.” “Bissell, Catastrophe Workshop, EM HiEd Conference, 2005)
Catastrophe: “In catastrophic disasters, tens-or-hundreds of thousands of lives are immediately at risk, State and local resources may well be exhausted from the onset, and government leaders unable to determine or communicate their priority needs.” (Carafano 2005, 2)

Catastrophe: “Mark Brandenburg, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Associate Professor, Director of Emergency Medicine Student Programs, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine-Tulsa… noted a difference between disasters (such as the Oklahoma City bombing) and complex emergencies/catastrophes (such as Hurricane Katrina) which are events that overwhelm resources.  Looking back on response performance, one must put the hurricane catastrophe in context.  This catastrophe was along the lines of Hiroshima and by mere definition as a catastrophe was expected to overwhelm resources.” (Center for Community Research and Development, 2005)

Catastrophe: “You see, one of the lessons I think we have learned from last year's hurricanes is, we've got to look at the challenge of the catastrophic event, not only at the point where the catastrophe hits, but in all the areas around that point that are going to receive the collateral or cascading effects of that catastrophe.

When we have a major event, whether it be a terrorism event or a natural disaster, that causes a lot of people to move out of a particular area, they're going to go someplace.  And a lot of them are going to go to your cities or your towns, and you're going to have to be able to deal with that challenge.  

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