Catastrophic Event: “Any natural or man-made incident, including terrorism, which results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions.” (DoD, DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)
Catastrophic Event: “What is a Catastrophic Event?
Tens of thousands of casualties and tens of thousands evacuees
Over taxed response capabilities and resources of numerous State and local jurisdictions
Significant need for life saving support from outside the immediate area.
Long term recovery impacts within the incident area as well as on the nation.” (FEMA, Planning for the “Big One,” November 28, 2007, slide 4)
“Will have National Economic Impacts
A catastrophic event can not be address by pedaling faster…
Current Policies will inhibit a cohesive & unified response across all disciplines
A catastrophic event requires ALL stakeholders
To change the way business in conducted
To be better prepared for longer (citizens)
To utilize solutions from unexpected sources.” (FEMA, Catastrophic Disaster Planning IAEM Presentation, November 12, 2007, slides 24-25)
Catastrophic Health Event: “The term “catastrophic health event” means any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in a number of ill or injured persons sufficient to overwhelm the capabilities of immediate local and regional emergency response and health care systems.” (White House, HSPD 21, October 18, 2007)
Catastrophic Incident: “The NRP identifies catastrophic incidents as high-impact, low-probability incidents, including natural disasters and terrorist attacks that result in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption and severely affect the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions.” (DHS, 2007)
Catastrophic Incident: “Any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, which results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, and national morale and/or government functions. A catastrophic event could result in sustained national impacts over a prolonged period of time; almost immediately exceeds resources normally available to State, local, tribal, and private sector authorities; and significantly interrupts governmental operations and emergency services to such an extent that national security could be threatened. All catastrophic incidents are considered Incidents of National Significance.” (DHS National Response Plan, 2004, x)
According to DHS National Response Plan:
“A catastrophic incident results in large numbers of casualties and/or displaced persons;
The incident may cause significant disruption of the area’s critical infrastructure, including transportation, telecommunications, and public health and medical systems;
Response activities may have to begin without the benefit of a detailed or complete situation and needs assessment because a detailed, credible operating picture may not be possible for 24 to 48 hours of longer after the incident;
The federal government may have to mobilize and deploy assets before local and state governments request them via normal protocols because timely federal support may be necessary to save lives, prevent suffering, and mitigate severe damage; and,
Large numbers of people may be left temporarily or permanently homeless and require temporary or longer-term interim housing.” (DHS National Response Plan 2004, at CAT-3)
Catastrophic Incident: “An urban or metropolitan area, or more expansive geographical area encompassing a large aggregate population, suffers a sudden, catastrophic incident resulting (either immediately or over time) in tens of thousands of casualties (dead, dying, and injured) and producing tens of thousands of evacuees and/or affected-in-place. The response capabilities and resources of the local jurisdiction (to include mutual aid from surrounding jurisdictions and response support from the State) will be profoundly insufficient and quickly, if not immediately, overwhelmed. In addition, characteristics of the precipitating event, such as severe damage to critical and public infrastructure and contamination concerns or other public health implications, will severely aggravate the response strategy and further tax the capabilities and resources available to the venue. Life saving support from outside the area will be required, and time
is of the essence. A catastrophic incident is also likely to have long-term impacts within the incident area as well as, to a lesser extent, on the Nation.” (DHS, (NRP)Catastrophic Incident Supplement to the National Response Plan, April 2005, p. 6)
Catastrophic Incident: “A Catastrophic Incident is defined by:
• A sudden event which results in tens of thousands of casualties and tens of thousands of evacuees
• Response capabilities and resources of the state and local jurisdictions will be overwhelmed
• Characteristics of the precipitating event will severely aggravate the response strategy and further tax the capabilities and resources available to the area
• Life saving support from outside the area will be required, and time is of the essence
• Likely to have long-term impacts within the incident area as well as, to a lesser extent, on the Nation.” (FEMA, New Madrid Seismic Zone Catastrophic Planning: Project Overview, 2007)
Catastrophic Incident: “A catastrophic incident is a sudden event that results in tens of thousands of casualties and tens of thousands of evacuees. Due to the magnitude of the event, State and local resources will be automatically overwhelmed and the precipitating event will severely aggravate the response strategy and further tax the capabilities and resources available to the area. The event will likely have long-term impacts within the incident as well as, to a lesser extent, on the Nation.” (FEMA, Strategic Plan, October 10, 2007 Draft, p. 1)
Catastrophic Incident: “…the term ‘catastrophic incident’ means any natural disaster, act of terrorism, or other man-made disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the population (including mass evacuations), infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, or government functions in an area.” (Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006, Title VI, Sec. 602 October 4, 2006, p. 1394)
Catastrophic Incident: “State and local governments are the first line of emergency response in disasters. State and local governments have fire, police, emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency management agencies dedicated to disaster response. The recent White House report on the Federal response to Hurricane Katrina described the situation when normal emergency response to a disaster becomes a response to a catastrophic incident:
“However, in some instances, the State and local governments will be overwhelmed beyond their ability to satisfy their traditional roles in this system. Indeed, in some instances, State and local governments and responders may become victims themselves, prohibiting their ability to identify, request, receive, or deliver assistance. This is the moment of catastrophic crisis—the moment when 911 calls are no longer answered; the moment when hurricane victims can no longer be timely evacuated or evacuees can no longer find shelter; the moment when police no longer patrol the streets, and the rule of law begins to break down.” (White House, The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina – Lessons Learned. February 2006, p. 18)
(DOT,Catastrophic Hurricane Evacuation Plan Evaluation: Report to Congress, 2006, p. 2-1)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (NRP 2004),Federal Response Guiding Principles: “Guiding principles for a proactive Federal catastrophic incident response include the following:
The primary mission is to save lives, protect property and critical infrastructure, contain the event, and protect the national security;
Standard procedures regarding requests for assistance may be expedited, or under extreme
circumstances, suspended in the immediate aftermath of an event of catastrophic magnitude;
Pre-identified Federal response resources deploy and begin necessary operations as required
to commence life-safety activities; and
Notification and full coordination with States will occur, but disruptions in the coordination
process will not delay or impede the rapid deployment of critical resources.” (DHS, Catastrophic Incident Annex July 7, 2004 Draft, pp. 4-5)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (National Response Plan, July 2004), Planning Assumptions:
“1. A catastrophic event will result in large quantities of casualties and/or displaced persons, possibly in the tens of thousands.
2. A catastrophic mass casualty/mass evacuation incident will trigger a Presidential disaster declaration, immediately or otherwise.
3. The Secretary of Homeland Security will immediately designate the event and Incident of National Significance and direct implementation of the NRP-CIA.
4. The nature and scope of such an event may include chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) attacks, disease epidemics, major earthquakes/major hurricanes in densely populated areas, and/or other natural or manmade hazards.
5. Multiple events may occur simultaneously or sequentially in contiguous and/or noncontiguous areas. Some incidents, such as a biological WMD attack, may be dispersed over a large geographic area, and lack a defined incident site.
6. A catastrophic incident may occur with little or no warning. Some incidents, such as rapid disease outbreaks, may be well underway before being detected.
7. The event will cause significant disruption of the area’s critical infrastructure to power, transportation, utilities, and communications systems.
8. The response capabilities and resources of the local jurisdiction (to include mutual aid from surrounding jurisdictions and response support from the State) may be insufficient and quickly overwhelmed. Many local emergency personnel who normally respond to incidents will be among those affected and unable to perform their duties.
9. A detailed and credible common operating picture may not be achievable for 24- 38 to 48 hours (or longer) after the incident. As a result, response activities must begin without the benefit of a detailed or complete situation and critical needs assessment.
10. Federal support must be provided in a timely manner to save lives, prevent human suffering, and mitigate severe damage. This may require deploying assets before they are requested via normal NRP protocol.
11. Large-scale evacuations, organized or self-directed, may occur. More people initially will flee and seek shelter for attacks involving CBRN agents than for natural events. The health-related implications of an incident will aggravate attempts to implement a coordinated evacuation management strategy.
12. Large numbers of people may be left temporarily or permanently homeless and may require prolonged temporary housing.
13. A catastrophic incident may produce environmental impacts (e.g., persistent chemical, biological, or radiological contamination) that severely challenge the ability and capacity of governments and communities to achieve a timely recovery.
14. A catastrophic incident will have unique dimensions/characteristics requiring that response plans/strategies be flexible enough to effectively address emerging needs and requirements.
15. A catastrophic incident may have international dimensions. These include potential impacts on cross-border trade, transit, law enforcement coordination and other areas.
16. If the incident is the result of terrorism, the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) level will likely be raised regionally, and perhaps nationally. Elevation of the HSAS level carries additional local, State, and Federal security enhancements that may affect the availability of certain response resources.” (DHS, Catastrophic Incident Annex July 7, 2004 Draft, pp. 3-4)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (NRF, July 2007 Comment Draft), Planning Assumptions:
“A catastrophic incident may result in large numbers of casualties and/or displaced persons, possibly in the tens to hundreds of thousands. During an incident response, priority is given to human life-saving operations.
The nature and scope of a catastrophic incident may immediately overwhelm State, tribal, and local response capabilities and require immediate Federal support.
A detailed and credible common operating picture may not be achievable for 24 to 48 hours (or longer) after the incident. As a result, response activities must begin without the benefit of a detailed or complete situation and critical needs assessment.
A catastrophic incident will trigger a Presidential disaster declaration, immediately or otherwise. The Secretary of Homeland Security or a designee implements the NRF-CIA/CIS.
The nature and scope of the catastrophic incident may include chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosive attacks, disease epidemics, cyber attacks, and major natural or manmade hazards.
A catastrophic incident has unique dimensions/characteristics requiring that response plans/strategies be flexible enough to effectively address emerging needs and requirements.
A catastrophic incident may occur with little or no warning. Some incidents, such as rapid disease outbreaks, may be well underway before detection.
Multiple incidents may occur simultaneously or sequentially in contiguous and/or non-contiguous areas. Some incidents, such as a biological WMD attack, may be dispersed over a large geographic area and lack a defined incident site.
A catastrophic incident may produce environmental impacts (e.g., persistent chemical, biological, or radiological contamination) that severely challenge the ability and capacity of governments and communities to achieve a timely recovery.
Federal support must be provided in a timely manner to save lives, prevent human suffering, and mitigate severe damage. This may require mobilizing and deploying resources before they are requested via normal NRF protocols.
Large-scale evacuations, organized or self-directed, may occur. More people initially are likely to flee and shelter outside of areas involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents than for natural events. The health related implications of these incidents may aggravate attempts to implement a coordinated evacuation management strategy.
Large numbers of people may be left temporarily or permanently homeless and may require prolonged temporary housing.
A catastrophic incident may have significant international dimensions. These include impacts on the health and welfare of border community populations, cross-border trade, transit, law enforcement coordination, and other areas.” (DHS, National Response Framework, Catastrophic Incident Annex, July 2007 Draft, pp. 4-5)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (National Response Plan, July 2004), Purpose: “The Catastrophic Incident Annex to the National Response Plan (NRP-CIA) establishes the strategy for implementing and coordinating an accelerated, proactive national response to a catastrophic incident.” (DHS, Catastrophic Incident Annex, July 7, 2004 Draft, p. 1)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (National Response Plan, December 2004), Purpose: “The Catastrophic Incident Annex to the National Response Plan (NRP-CIA) establishes the context and overarching strategy for implementing and coordinating an accelerated, proactive national response to a catastrophic incident.” (DHS, Catastrophic Incident Annex, Dec. 2004, p. 1)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (National Response Framework 2007), Purpose and Scope: “Purpose: The Catastrophic Incident Annex to the National Response Framework (NRF-CIA) establishes the context and overarching strategy for implementing and coordinating an accelerated, proactive national response to a catastrophic incident. A more detailed and operationally specific National Response Framework Catastrophic Incident Supplement (NRF-CIS) is published independently of the NRF and annexes.
Scope…. Recognizing that Federal and/or national resources are required to augment overwhelmed State, tribal, and local response efforts, the NRF-CIA establishes protocols to preidentify and rapidly deploy key essential resources (e.g., medical teams, urban search and rescue teams, transportable shelters, medical and equipment caches, etc.) that are expected to be urgently needed/required to save lives and contain incidents. Accordingly, upon designation by the Secretary of Homeland Security of a catastrophic incident, Federal resources, organized into incident-specific “packages,” deploy in accordance with the NRF-CIS and in coordination with the affected State and incident command structure.
Where State, tribal, or local authorities are unable to establish or maintain an effective incident command structure due to catastrophic conditions, the Federal Government, at the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security may establish a unified command structure to save lives, protect property, secure critical infrastructure/key resources, contain the event, and protect national security. The Federal Government shall transition to its normal role supporting incident command through State, tribal, or local authorities when their command is reestablished.” (DHS, National Response Framework, Catastrophic Incident Annex, July 2007 Draft, p. 1)
Catastrophic Incident Annex (National Response Framework July 2007 Draft), Scope: “The Catastrophic Incident Annex is primarily designed to address no-notice or short-notice incidents of catastrophic magnitude, where the need for Federal assistance is obvious and immediate, where anticipatory planning and resource pre-positioning were precluded, and where the exact nature of needed resources and assets is not known. Appropriately tailored assets and responses identified in the NRF-CIS, as well as other select Federal resources and assets, also may be deployed in support of a projected catastrophic event (e.g., a major hurricane) with advance warning in support of the anticipated requests of State, tribal, and local authorities.” (DHS, National Response Framework, Catastrophic Incident Annex, July 2007 Draft, p. 2)
Catastrophic Incident Planning: “…planning for major catastrophic events sponsored by FEMA is underway [Florida, New Madrid Seismic Zone, California South, California North, Hawaii]. Subject matter experts, planners and operators are deployed at the Federal, Regional, and State levels. Their mission is to identify capability assessments, identify planning seams, and achieve solutions. FEMA is developing and will continue to enhance scenario-driven catastrophic planning that combines planning and exercises that are realistic and reasonable and that simulate the conditions and demands responders would face following a catastrophic disaster.” (FEMA, Strategic Plan, October 10, 2007 Draft, p. 5)
Catastrophic Incident Planning Strategy: “Achieving a robust and sustainable national capability to rapidly and successfully meet the immense challenges posed by an incident of catastrophic magnitude will require a unified strategy supported by aggressive leadership, joint collaboration, innovative thinking, significant funding, and national resolve. To that end, this Strategy for Catastrophic Incident Planning (SCIP) establishes a comprehensive and ambitious set of unified goals and objectives, and will provide a baseline against which to identify, validate, align and prioritize necessary capability-building initiatives.” (FEMA, Strategic Plan, October 10. 2007 Draft, p. 4)
Catastrophic Incident Planning Strategic Goals: “The SCIP shall accomplish the following goals:
Creation of an ongoing operational framework consisting of collaborative partnerships among all FEMA directorates, other NRF agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs and private sector entities at the National, Regional, State, metropolitan, local and tribal levels.
Development on a continuing basis of comprehensive catastrophic planning solutions for selected natural hazards by working with the other Federal agencies, regions, and other Federal partners and under the auspices of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006. In addition to the current planning efforts already underway, review additional scenarios for catastrophic planning development including all 15 National Planning Scenarios.
Establishment of clear-cut legal authorities, roles and responsibilities, lines of communication and coordination at all levels of government.
Implementation of state-of-the-art technology providing information management and document control for the dissemination, exchange, and transfer of plans, lessons learned, best practices, workshop schedules and related products.
Creation of an integrated, scenario-driven catastrophic planning methodology that combines planning and exercise phases.
Implementation of standardized plan templates and a planning developmental methodology at the National, Regional, State, metropolitan, local, and tribal levels.
Development of a Joint Catastrophic Disaster Steering Group (JCDSG) of representatives from key directorates (Disaster, Operations, Disaster Assistance, Mitigation, National Preparedness) that develops and revises goals, policies, doctrines, funding, and long-range plans, and provides integration and coordination with new initiatives within FEMA and with other Federal agencies, as well as NGOs.
Creation of an annual national conference fro all stakeholders to provide a forum for the reporting of research results and planning efforts in order to support, inform, integrate and enhance catastrophic plans.
Creation of a five-year plan, developed by the JCDSG (in conjunction with other stakeholders). This plan will address the identified goals and objectives, funding, selected metropolitan areas, scenarios, and specific target dates for local jurisdictions to achieve self-sustaining programs.” (FEMA, Strategic Plan, October 10, 2007Draft, pp. 6-7)
Catastrophic Incident Planning Vision: “By end of fiscal year 2013, functional planning annexes will prepare the nation to respond to the unique characteristics of all-hazard catastrophic events on a national level and for 21 regional locales around the nation. These will facilitate a coordinated national preparedness and response capability which integrates operations and resources at all levels of government and the private sector.” (FEMA, Strategic Plan, October 10, 2007, p.6)
Catastrophic Task Force (CATF) Exercises: “…in the months before Hurricane Katrina, the HSC [Homeland Security Council] created some confusion at the interagency level by launching the Catastrophic Assessment Task Force (CATF) exercises, which competed with the NEP [National Exercise Program] exercises. The CATF exercises were Cabinet-level exercises aimed at challenging the federal government's ability to respond to a major event. The procedural problem with the CATF exercises was that other departments and agencies, except for the Defense Department with its massive planning staff, simply did not have enough qualified personnel to participate fully in both the NEP and the CATF exercises.
“The substantive problem with the CATF exercises was that they were so complex and catastrophic (and largely implausible) that the lessons learned from them were either obvious without the exercise or too expensive to the point that no President would request the required resources and no Congress would pay for them. For example, a CATF scenario might indicate that the nation needed 20,000 surge hospital beds for third-degree burn victims, the supplies to treat the 20,000 burn victims, and the large numbers of medical personnel to treat the victims. This would require billions of dollars, an enormous increase in the number of college and medical school students specializing in burn treatment, and other costly changes just for one element of the CATF response.
“The CATF exercises simply demonstrated that the United States could not deal with two nearly simultaneous nuclear detonations followed closely by a Category Five hurricane on the East Coast and an earthquake on the West Coast measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale. This is not a surprise. One senior official referred to the CATF scenarios as the "Book of Revelations" because of their apocalyptic nature.
‘The CATF frustrated rather than accelerated the interagency planning effort. Subsequently, the DHS was able to fold the CATF exercises into the NEP schedule and to construct more realistic scenarios based on the NPS so that Cabinet members could constructively explore strategic policy issues that needed to be resolved.” (Mayer and Carafano, October 24, 2007)
Categories of Hazardous Diseases/Agents: “The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies potential dangers to public health and safety by dividing them into three categories, based on their potential for harm.
Category A Diseases/Agents: The U.S. public health system and primary healthcare providers must be prepared to address various biological agents, including pathogens that are rarely seen in the United States. High-priority agents include organisms that pose a risk to national security because they can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person; result in high mortality rates and have the potential for major public health impact; might cause public panic and social disruption; and
require special action for public health preparedness.
Category B Diseases/Agents: Second highest priority agents include those that are moderately easy to disseminate; result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates; and require specific enhancements of CDC's diagnostic capacity and enhanced disease surveillance.
Category C Diseases/Agents: Third highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of availability; ease of production and dissemination; and
potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact.” (HHS, Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act Progress Report, November 2007, Appendix 3, p. 1)
CATF: Catastrophic Assessment Task Force exercises.
CATS: Consequence Assessment Tool Set, ACECenter/DTRA/DOD. (DTRA, CATS)
CAV: Community Assistance Visit. (FEMA, CAV, 2007)
CB: Citizen’s Band.
CBCP. Certified Business Continuity Professional. (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop)
CBDRM: Community Based Disaster Risk Management. (ProVention Consortium, 2006)
CBF: Critical Business Functions. (DigitalCare, Inc., State of OR BC Workshop 2002, 42)
CBIRF: Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force, USMCorps. (DoD, Verga, 2007, p. 6)
CBO: Community Based Organization. (CA OES, SEMS Guidelines, 2006, Glossary, p. 5)
CBP: Customs and Border Protection, DHS.
CBR: Chemical, Biological, and Radiological. (DA, WMD-CST Ops, Dec 2007, Glossary-1)
CBRA: Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982. (FEMA, CBRS History, 2006)
CBRNE: Chemical, Biological, Radiation, Nuclear and Explosive Weapons. (HSC, NCPIP, 66)
CBRNE Consequence Management: “CBRNE CM encompasses CM actions taken to address the consequences from all deliberate and inadvertent releases of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear agents or substances, and high-yield explosives with potential to cause mass casualties and large levels of destruction. An exception is response to accidents or incidents involving US nuclear weapons in DOD or Department of Energy custody. CBRNE CM, is normally managed at the national level (US or HN governments), with DOD providing support as directed. During combat operations, DOD leads the operational response in reaction to an incident involving US forces and allies…. CBRNE CM includes those measures and methods of responding to CBRNE events to alleviate damage, loss of life, hardship or suffering caused by the incident, protect public health and safety, emergency restoration of essential government services and infrastructure, and provide emergency relief to governments, businesses, and individuals affected by the consequences of a CBRNE situation. The method of response will include use of standing contingency plans and procedures to determine what forces and capabilities are required and committed in support of requests for assistance.” (JCS/DoD, CBRNE CM (JP 3-41), 2006, p. vi; see, also, p. I-2)
CBRNE Consequence Management Chain of Command: “The joint force chain of command and civilian oversight within DOD will be clear. The joint task force (JTF)-CBRNE CM commander reports directly to the supported combatant commander (CCDR), who in turn reports to the SecDef and the President. Within DOD, the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Homeland Defense) (ASD[HD]) is the principal civilian advisor to the SecDef on domestic CM activities for CBRNE incidents.” (JCS/DoD, CBRNE CM (JP 3-41), 2006, p. I-3) [Bold emphasis in the original.]
CBRNE Consequence Management Command and Control: “The joint force conducting CBRNE CM will usually be in support of a Federal agency. The SecDef always retains control of Federal (Title 10) military forces providing CBRNE CM. The state governors, through the adjutants general, control National Guard forces when those forces are performing active duty in their state role and when performing active duty under Title 32, United States Code (USC). The JFC remains within the normal chain of command for military forces from the President, as
Commander in Chief, to the SecDef, to the CCDR. If the JFC is a National Guardsman, the
individual can maintain dual Title 10/Title 32 authority over forces, if agreed to by the President
and the state governor. National Guard soldiers and airmen may serve either in a Federal status
like other reserve soldiers, or in a state status (state active duty or Title 32 status) under the
command of the governor. When serving in their home state for disaster relief, they typically
will serve in state status. National Guard soldiers and airmen serving in state status are not
subject to the Posse Comitatus Act (PCA), (18 USC Section 1385), which generally prohibits
Service members in Title 10/Federal status from engaging in civilian law enforcement activities
(unless constitutional or statutory exceptions apply). Some state laws, however, also restrict the
law enforcement activities that can be performed by National Guard members even when in
state status. Statutory exceptions to the PCA include the Insurrection Act and Federal laws that
allow the Attorney General to ask the SecDef to authorize the use of active duty forces to assist
in law enforcement activities after a CBRN incident. The JFC normally provides support when
civil authorities request DOD support, evaluated by DOD authorities and approved by SecDef
(compliance with laws), lethality (potential use of lethal force by or against DOD forces), risk
(safety of DOD forces), cost (who pays, impact on DOD budget), appropriateness (whether the
requested mission is in the interest of DOD to conduct), and readiness (impact on DOD’s ability
to perform its primary mission). Planning an effective, proactive response to mitigate a CBRNE
event includes considerations that contribute to saving lives, preventing injuries, reducing human
suffering, providing temporary critical life support, and providing shelter to the affected populace.” (JCS/DOD, CBRNE Consequence Management (JP 3-41, 2006, p. II-1)
CBRNE Consequence Management Response Force, DoD (CCMRF): “personnel organized in force packages to perform missions across the CBRNE spectrum. CCMRF capabilities
include medical, decontamination, command and control, communications, logistics,
transportation and public affairs assets.” (FEMA, Statement of Glenn Cannon, 2007, p. 11)
CBRNE Detection Capability Definition: “The preventative Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Detection capability provides the ability to detect CBRNE materials at points of manufacture, transportation, and use. It is important to note that the activities and tasks described in this capability will be carried out individually for each specific agent, rather than for all agents at the same time. Therefore, when considering critical tasks and preparedness measures, each task and measure should be applied separately to each CBRNE agent. For example, in considering whether technical support (or “reachback”) is
available, rad/nuc “reachback” is considerably different from chemical, biological, or explosive
“reachback”. Preparedness in one or more of the CBRNE areas does not equate to preparedness across the entire CBRNE detection spectrum.
“This capability includes the detection of CBRNE material through area monitoring, but does not include detection by their effects (i.e., signs or symptoms) on humans and animals. Such population level monitoring is addressed, respectively, in the Epidemiological Surveillance and Investigation and Animal Disease Emergency Support capabilities. The CBRNE Detection capability includes the identification and communication of CBRNE threats, but does not include actions taken to prevent an incident or respond to the consequences of a CBRNE incident, which are also addressed in other capabilities.
“The CBRNE Detection capability includes technology, as well as the capacity to recognize potential CBRNE threats through equipment, education, and effective protocols. Training, communication, close coordination with key partners, including intelligence, law enforcement, public safety, public health, and international partners, and public and private sector awareness of CBRNE threats are all recognized as critical enablers for this capability. However, only CBRNE detection-specific tasks within these crosscutting elements have been identified in the discussion of this capability.” (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 115)
CBRNE Enhanced Response Force Package (CERFP): “The CERFP is composed of four elements staffed by personnel from already established National Guard units. The elements are search and extraction, decontamination, medical, and command and control. The CERFP command and control team directs the overall activities of the CERFP and coordinates with the Joint Task Force - State and the Incident Commander. The CERFP search and extraction element mission is assigned to an Army National Guard Engineering Battalion, the decontamination element mission is assigned to an Army National Guard Chemical Battalion, and the medical element mission is assigned to an Air National Guard Medical Group. The security duties are performed by the state National Guard Quick Response Force. The initial establishment of CERFPs placed at least one in each FEMA Region. There are currently 12 validated CERFPs. An additional five CERFPs have been authorized and funded by Congress, to include full-time manning and equipment. When an incident occurs within a team's response area, they are alerted through their State Headquarters and mobilized on State Active Duty. If the incident is located within their state, they would proceed to the incident when directed by their JFHQ. If the incident is located outside of their state, their State Headquarters would coordinate with the receiving state under the terms agreed to in the Emergency Mutual Aid Compact or EMAC.
After arriving at the incident site, the command and control team and element commanders coordinate with the incident commander and JTF Commander to determine how to most effectively employ the CERFP.” (NGB, CERFP Fact Sheet, 2007; see, also DoD, Statement of Verga, July 19, 2007, p. 5, and Blum, July 19, 2007, p. 5)
CBRNE Incidents. “During a CBRNE incident, CBRNE CM [Consequence Management] efforts must make the preservation of life a priority. This is a significant shift in mindset for JFCs [Joint Force Commands], staff personnel, and CBRNE CM planners.” (JCS/DoD, CBRNE CM (JP 3-41), 2006, p. I-4) “Regardless of the nature of the toxic chemical, CBRNE CM operations will focus on life saving and prevention of further injury tasks to include: responding immediately to treat identified casualties; securing and decontaminating the area to prevent spreading of the chemical; decontaminating people possibly exposed; and providing support to a displaced populace. In many instances, chemical warfare individual protective equipment does not provide protection from toxic materials nor is it certified for use in support of civilian authorities outside of a battlefield environment.” (JCS/DoD, CBRNE CM (JP 3-41), 2006, p. I-6)
CBRS: Coastal Barrier Resource System. (FEMA, CBRS, 2007)
CbT: Combating Terrorism. (DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)
CBZP: Chemical Buffer Zone Protection Program, DHS.
CCA: Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements.
CCA: Continuity Communications Architecture. (HSC, NCPIP, August 2007, p. 60)
CCAB: Continuity Communications Architecture Board. (DHS, FCD 1, Nov. 2007, p. 18)
CCDR: Combatant Commander. (DA, WMD-CST Operations, Dec 2007, Glossary-1)
CCERP: California Catastrophic Earthquake Readiness Response Plan. (Maxwell, Report to NEMA, 2007)
CCIR: Commander’s Critical Information Requirement. (DA, WMD-CST Ops, 2007, Gloss-1)
CCMRF: CBRNE Consequence Management Response Force, DoD.
CCP: Citizen Corps Program.
CD V-715: Radiological Survey Meter (0-500 r/hr). (USACE, ERS Annex B, 1985, p. B-7)
CD C-700: Radiological Survey Meter (0-150 mr/hr) (USACE, ERS Annex B, 1985, p. B-7)
CD V-750: Dosimeter Charger. (USACE, ERS Annex B, 1985, p. B-7)
CD-V-717: Remote Survey Meter, (0-500 r/hr). (USACE, ERS Annex B, 1985, p. B-7)
CD-V-742: Dosimeter (USACE, ERS Annex B, 1985, p. B-7)
CDBG: Community Development Block Grant, Depart. of Housing and Urban Development.
CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS.
CDC: Certain Dangerous Cargo. (GAO, Maritime Security, December 2007, p. iv)
CDMHA: Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance, USF.
CDP: Center for Domestic Preparedness.
CDRARNORTH: Commander, US Army North.
CDRP: Catastrophic Disaster Response Plan. (DOA/USCOE, Anchorage Earthquake CDRP, January 11, 2005)
CDRUSJFCOM: Commander, US Joint Forces Command.
CDRUSNORTHCOM: Commander U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM).
CDRUSPACOM: Commander, US Pacific Command.
CDRUSSOCOM: Commander, US Special Operations Command.
CDRUSSOUTHCOM: Commander, US Southern Command.
CDRUSSTRATCOM: Commander, US Strategic Command.
CDRUSTRANSCOM: Commander, US Transportation Command.
CDS: Civil Defense System (s).
CDUEP: Civil Defense University Extension Program, DCPA. Defunct.
CEA: California Earthquake Authority.
CEM: Certified Emergency Manager (IAEM managed credential).
CEM: Comprehensive Emergency Management.
CEMP: Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan. (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 23)
Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC): A US Coast Guard designation. “CDCs are defined in 33 C.F.R. § 160.204, a section of Coast Guard regulations that addresses ports and waterways safety. The list primarily includes nonenergy products that are flammable, toxic, or explosive, such as chlorine and sulfur dioxide.” LNG and LPG are also on the USCG’s CDC list. (GAO, Maritime Security, December 2007, p. 43)
Center of Gravity Analysis: Joint Publication (JP) 5-0 (Draft 2), Doctrine for Joint Planning Operations: “The most important task confronting campaign planners in this process is being able to identify friendly and adversary strategic centers of gravity; that is, the sources of
strength, power, and resistance.” (JCS/DOD, DJPA, December 2002, p. IV-12)
Center for Domestic Preparedness (Anniston, Alabama.): “The Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) provides a unique environment and opportunity to offer specialized advanced training to state and local emergency responders in the management and remediation of incidents of domestic terrorism, especially those involving chemical agents and other toxic substances…. The Center was created by a Congressional directive to:
Establish a National, State, and Local Public Training Center for First Responders to domestic terrorist acts at Fort McClellan. The Center will serve as a training facility for all relevant federally supported training efforts that target state and local law enforcement, firefighters, emergency medical personnel, and other key agencies such as public works and state and local emergency management agencies. The focus of the training is to prepare relevant state and local officials to deal with chemical, biological, or nuclear terrorist acts and handle incidents dealing with hazardous materials.” (DOJ, ODP Fact Sheet)
CERFP: CBRNE Enhanced Response Force Package.
Certified Business Continuity Professional (CBCP): “DRII's CBCP certification is reserved for individuals who have demonstrated their knowledge and experience in the business continuity / disaster recovery industry. The CBCP level is designed for an individual with a minimum of two years of experience as a business continuity/disaster recovery planner.” (ISSA, 2007)
Central HAZUS Users Group (CHUG): The CHUG (Central HAZUS Users Group) provides a means of collaboration between HAZUS-MH users within FEMA Region 5. This group looks at software challenges, HAZUS-MH projects, and the overall general use of HAZUS-MH software. The main goal of the CHUG is to maximize the potential of HAZUS-MH within the region. Sharing the successes and challenges between users helps bring the entire region together in planning for natural disasters.” (FEMA, “HAZUS User Groups Success Story: CHUG, Expanding HAZUS Use in FEMA Region 5,” October 22, 2007)
Central Training School (Civil Defense), Stillwater, OK: Opened July 30, 1951 to serve 20 States. (FCDA, Annual Report 1951, 1952, p. 23). Closed on August 15, 1952 due to reduced Congressional funding. (FCDA, Annual Report for 1952, p. 169)
Central United States Earthquake Consortium: “The Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium is a partnership of the federal government and the eight states most affected by earthquakes in the central United States. Those states are: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. Established in 1983 with funding support from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, CUSEC's primary mission is, ‘... the reduction of deaths, injuries, property damage and economic losses resulting from earthquakes in the Central United States.’ CUSEC serves as a ‘coordinating hub’ for the region, performing the critical role of coordinating the multi-state efforts of the central region. Its coordinating role is largely facilitative and not as the primary implementer of emergency management functions which is the responsibility of each individual state.” (CUSEC, CUSEC Mission and Goals, webpage)
CEPIN: Community Emergency Preparedness Information Network. http://www.cepintdi.org/ CEPP: Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program. (EPA, Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis: Emergency Planning for Extremely Hazardous Substances, 1987, p. 1-5)
CERC: Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. (DHS, TCL, 2007, p. 309)
CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980.
CERFP: CBRNE Enhanced Response Force Packages, National Guard. (DoD, Statement of Verga, July 19, 2007)
CERT: Citizen Emergency Response Team.
CERT: Computer Emergency Response Team. (DSB, Protecting the Homeland, 2001, p. F-3)
CEU: Continuing Education Unit.
CFC: Chlorofluorocarbons. (UNDHA, Disaster Management Glossary, 1992, 21)
CFDA: Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.
CFI: Critical Facility Inventory. (FL DEM, CFI-RSFI, SOG, 2003)
CFR: Code of Federal Regulations.
CG: Commanding General. (Dept. of the Army, WMD-CST Operations, 2007, Glossary-1)
Chain of Command: “A series of command, control, executive, or management positions in hierarchical order of authority.” (DHS, NIMS, 2004, p. 128)
Chain of Command: “The orderly line of authority within the ranks of the incident management organization.” (FEMA, NIMS (FEMA 501/Draft), August 2007, p. 148)
Chain of Command and Unity of Command, Incidence Management: “Chain of command refers to the orderly line of authority within the ranks of the incident management organization. Unity of command means that every individual has a designated supervisor to whom they report at the scene of the incident. These principles clarify reporting relationships and eliminate the confusion caused by multiple, conflicting directives. Incident managers at all levels must be able to control the actions of all personnel under their supervision.” (DHS, NIMS, 2004, p. 11)
Checklist Exercise: “A method used to exercise a completed disaster recovery plan. This type of exercise is used to determine if the information such as phone numbers, manuals, equipment, etc. in the plan is accurate and current.” (DigitalCare, State of OR BC Workshop, 2006, p. 50)
Chemical Accident: “Accidental release occurring during the production, transportation or handling of hazardous chemical substances.” (UNDHA, Disaster Mgmt. Glossary, 1992, 21)
Chemical Agents: “(1) Chemical agents include any chemical substance which, is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate through its physiological effects. In contrast, TICs [Toxic Industrial Chemicals] include any chemical substances in solid, liquid, aerosolized, or gaseous form that may be used, or stored for use, for industrial, commercial, medical, military, or domestic purposes that produce toxic impact to personnel, materials, and infrastructure.
“(2) When distinguished by their effects on human physiology, chemical agents fall into five categories: blood (cyanide compounds), blister (vesicants), choking (pulmonary agents),
incapacitating, and nerve. Chemical agents may also be categorized by their persistency. Agents
are described as persistent when, after release, they may remain in the environment for hours to
days and nonpersistent when they remain for 10 to 15 minutes. Persistent agents are primarily
contact hazards while nonpersistent agents are primarily inhalation hazards.
(3) The greatest risk with TICs lies in exposure to inhaled chemicals, but emergency
responders may receive lethal or incapacitating dosage through ingestion or absorption through
the eyes or skin. A variety of industries use and produce chemicals that pose hazards to individuals if exposed to sufficient quantities or concentrations. In many instances, chemical warfare individual protective equipment does not provide protection from TICs (e.g., chlorine gas, sulfuric acid).” (JCS/DoD, CBNHE CM (JP 3-41), 2006, p. I-5)
Chemical Agents: “Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids, and solids that have toxic effects on people, animals, or plants. They can be released by bombs or sprayed from aircraft, boats, and vehicles. They can be used as a liquid to create a hazard to people and the environment. Some chemical agents may be odorless and tasteless. They can have an immediate effect (a few seconds to a few minutes) or a delayed effect (2 to 48 hours). While potentially lethal, chemical agents are difficult to deliver in lethal concentrations. Outdoors, the agents often dissipate rapidly. Chemical agents also are difficult to produce.” (FEMA, Chemical Threats, March 21, 2006)
Chemical Agents: “According to CDC, there are over 80 chemical agents that can kill or seriously injure a person.6 Of these, 60 or so are toxic substances that could be used as chemical weapons by terrorists. Many of these are common commercial and industrial chemicals that can be easily weaponized.” (Trust for America’s Health, Ready or Not? 2007, p. 29)
Chemical Attack: “A chemical attack could come without warning. Signs of a chemical release include people having difficulty breathing; experiencing eye irritation; losing coordination; becoming nauseated; or having a burning sensation in the nose, throat, and lungs. Also, the presence of many dead insects or birds may indicate a chemical agent release.” (FEMA, Chemical Threats, March 21, 2006)
Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force, U.S. Marines: “In the event of a chemical or biological incident, the Emergency Services Sector (ESS) can obtain support from the Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF), an element of II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF), U.S. Marine Forces Command (MARFORCOM). Located in Indian Head, MD, CBIRF forward-deploys and/or responds by land, sea, or air worldwide to credible threats of chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRNE) events on short notice. Once on scene, CBIRF activities include reconnaissance (detecting and identifying threats), rescue and extraction (confined space rescue, trench rescue, vehicle and advanced rope rescue, and collapsed structure stabilization and rescue), medical care in “hot zones,” decontamination, explosive ordnance disposal (render Improvised Explosive Devices safe), command and control (critical network communications), and logistics (self-contained, self-sufficient task-organized unit). To receive the Force’s assistance at the local level, the senior elected official (e.g., mayor) must contact the governor, who formally requests CBIRF…. CBIRF personnel also have performed hundreds of evaluations of commercial off-the-shelf items that enhance personal protection equipment, detection, and decontamination of agents. CBIRF interacts with all standards-writing organizations, and works on an ongoing basis to improve research, development and acquisition of new equipment.” (EMR-ISAC, INFOGRAM 42-07, October 25, 2007; see, also, DoD, Statement of Verga, July 17, 2007, p. 6))
Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) Background: “In 1995, then Commandant of the Marine Corps, General Krulak provided planning guidance that stated the need for a strategic organization to respond to the growing chemical/biological threat. The Commandant's Warfighting Laboratory developed the concept for the establishment of CBIRF in 1996. As a result of this concept development, CBIRF was formed during the spring of 1996. CBIRF is currently located 26 miles from the District of Columbia.” (CBIRF, “The Background of CBIRF,” 2007)
Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) Mission: “When direct, forward- deploy and/or respond to a credible threat of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, or High Yield explosive (CBRNE) incident in order to assist local, state, or federal agencies and Unified Combat Commanders in the conduct of consequence management operations. CBIRF accomplishes this mission be providing capabilities for agent detection and identification; casualty search, rescue, and personnel decontamination; and emergency medical care and stabilization of contaminated personnel.” (CBIRF, CBIRF Mission, 2007)
Chemical, Biological, Radiation, Nuclear, Explosive Weapons (CBRNE). (HSC, NCPIP, 66)
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-yield Explosives Consequence Management: “The consequence management activities for all deliberate and inadvertent
releases of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives that are undertaken when directed or authorized by the President. Also called CBRNE CM.” (DoD, DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)