Guide to emergency management and related terms, definitions, concepts, acronyms, organizations, programs, guidance & legislation

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Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-yield Explosive Hazards: “Those chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive elements that pose or could pose a hazard to individuals. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive hazards include those created from accidental releases, toxic industrial materials (especially air and water poisons), biological pathogens, radioactive matter, and high-yield explosives. Also included are any hazards resulting from the deliberate employment of weapons of mass destruction during military operations. Also called CBRNE hazards.” (DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)


Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-yield Explosives Incident: “An emergency resulting from the deliberate or unintentional release of nuclear, biological, radiological, or toxic or poisonous chemical materials, or the detonation of a high-yield explosive. Also called CBRNE incident.” (DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)
Chemical Facility: “Any establishment that possesses or plans to possess, at any relevant point in time, a quantity of a chemical substance determined by the Secretary [DHS] to be potentially dangerous or that meets other risk-related criteria identified by the Department.” (DHS, Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information, November 2007, Glossary, p. 1)
Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS): “Responsibility for chemical security is shared among federal, state, and local governments, as well as the private sector. The Department of Homeland Security has issued Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards for any facility that manufactures, uses, stores, or distributes certain chemicals above a specified quantity.” (DHS, “Critical Infrastructure: Chemical Security.” November 2, 2007.

Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Background: “In 2005 and 2006, the Secretary of Homeland Security identified the need for legislation authorizing DHS to develop and implement a framework to regulate the security of high-risk chemical facilities in the United States. In October 2006, Congress passed and the President signed the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2007, which in Section 550 authorizes DHS to require high-risk chemical facilities to complete security vulnerability assessments, develop site security plans, and implement risk-based measures designed to satisfy DHS-defined risk-based performance standards. The Act also authorized DHS to enforce compliance with the security regulations, including conducting audits and inspections of high-risk facilities, imposing civil penalties of up to $25,000 per day, and shutting down facilities that fail to comply with the regulations…. Under the rule, if a facility possesses a chemical of interest at or above the screening threshold quantity, the facility must complete and submit a consequence assessment known as a Top-Screen. A facility must do so within 60 calendar days of the publication of a final Appendix A or within 60 calendar days of coming into possession of the listed chemicals at or above the listed STQs [Screening Threshold Quantities].” (DHS, Fact Sheet: CFATS: Appendix A, Nov. 2, 2007, p. 1)

“Appendix A [CFATS] lists approximately 300 chemicals of interest and includes common industrial chemicals such as chlorine, propane and anhydrous ammonia as well as specialty chemicals such as arsine and phosphorus trichloride. Facilities that possess chemicals of interest at or above the listed screening threshold quantities are required to complete the Top-Screen within 60 calendar days of the publication of Appendix A.” (DHS, “DHS Publishes Chemicals of Interest List for Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards,” November 2, 2007)

Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Risk-Based Facility Tiering: “The Department has developed a risk-based tiering structure that will allow it to focus resources on the high-risk chemical facilities. To that end, the Department [DHS] will assign facilities to one of four risk-based tiers ranging from high (Tier 1) to low (Tier 4) risk. Assignment of tiers is based on an assessment of the potential consequences of a successful attack on assets associated with chemicals of interest. [DHS] uses information submitted by facilities through the Chemical Security Assessment Tool Top Screen and Security Vulnerability Assessment processes to identify a facility’s risk, which is a function of the potential impacts of an attack (consequences), the likelihood that an attack on the facility would be successful (vulnerabilities), and the likelihood that such an attack would occur at the facility (threat).  All facilities that were individually requested by the Assistant Secretary or that meet the criteria in Appendix A must complete the CSAT Top Screen…. The highest tier facilities, or Phase 1 facilities, are those specifically requested by the Assistant Security to complete the Top Screen…. Preliminarily tier 1, 2, and 3 facilities must subsequently submit a CSAT Security Vulnerability Assessment.  Tier 4 facilities may submit an Alternative Security Program (ASP) for [DHS] to consider… Tier 3 and 4 facilities may choose to submit an Alternative Security Plan for the Site Security Plan for consideration by the Department….” (DHS, “Risk for CFATS.” November 1, 2007, p. 1)

Chemical Incidents: “Chemical Incidents are characterized by the rapid onset of medical symptoms (minutes to hours) and easily observed signatures (colored residue, dead foliage, pungent odor, dead insects and animals).” (DOT, Emergency Response Guidebook, 2004, 354)
Chemical Sector Buffer Zone Protection Grant Program: “The Chemical Sector Buffer Zone Protection Grant Program is a targeted effort that provides funds to build security and risk management capabilities at the state and local level for chemical sector critical infrastructure

from acts of terror and other hazards. Chemical Sector Buffer Zone funding is specifically

focused on enhancing the protection of facilities that, if attacked, could cause Weapons of Mass

Destruction (WMD)-like effects.” (DHS, “DHS Awards $399 Million in Grants to Secure the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure” (Press Release), September 25, 2006)


Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT): “The Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT) is the [DHS] system for collecting and analyzing key data from chemical facilities to

register for CSAT, identify facilities that present a high level of risk, support the preliminary and final tiering decisions for individual high-risk facilities, assess a facility’s security vulnerabilities, and evaluate a facility’s security plan to address vulnerabilities and meet risk-based performance standards. The Chemical Security Assessment Tool comprises four secure, web-based tools:


Facility Registration Questionnaire

Consequence screening questionnaire (Top-Screen);

Security Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) tool

Site Security Plan (SSP) template.

After registering for CSAT, facilities are provided access to the Top Screen, which enables the Department to determine if they are a high risk chemical facility covered by the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Interim Final Rule (CFATS).  For facilities that are determined to be high risk, other tools, specifically the SVA and SPP, are made available to satisfy additional CFATS requirements.” (DHS, “CSAT,” November 1, 2007, p. 1)

Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP): “The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is a unique partnership between FEMA and the U.S. Army, given FEMA's long-standing experience in preparing for and dealing with all types of emergencies and the U.S. Army's role as custodian of the U.S. chemical stockpile. Since 1988, FEMA and the U.S. Army have assisted communities surrounding the eight chemical stockpile sites to enhance their abilities to respond to the unlikely event of a chemical agent emergency.” (FEMA, Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), May 2, 2006 update.)
Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI): “Information used to determine chemical facility readiness to deter, mitigate, or respond to a terrorist attack. CVI includes vulnerability assessments, site security plans, inspection findings, self-audits, sensitive portions of enforcement-related documents, and correspondence between chemical facilities and the Federal government.” (DHS, CVI Glossary, November 2007, p. 1)
Chemical Warfare: “All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to separately or under the broader term “chemical,” which will be used to include all types of chemical munitions/agents collectively. (DA, WMD-CST Operations, 2007, Glossary-9)

Chemical Agent: “Together or separately, (a) a toxic chemical and its precursors, except when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention; (b) a munition or device specifically designed to cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those chemicals specified in (a) above, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device; (c) any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices specified in (b) above.” (DA, WMD-CST Operations, Glossary-9)

CHEMPACK: “The CHEMPACK program is an ongoing initiative of the DSNS [Division for the Strategic National Stockpile, CDC], begun in 2003, that provides antidotes (three countermeasures used concomitantly) to volatile nerve agents for pre-positioning by State, local, and/or tribal officials throughout the U.S.” (HHS, PHEMCE Implementation Plan, 2007, p. 18)
CHEMTREC: The Chemical Transportation Emergency Center, 24-hour contact number 1-800-424-9300 in CONUS, 202-483-7616 outside the continental United States. A service, sponsored by the chemical industry, which provides two stages of assistance to responders dealing with potentially hazardous materials. First, on receipt of a call providing the name of a chemical judged by the responder to be a potentially hazardous material, CHEMTREC provides immediate advice on the nature of the chemical product and the steps to be taken in handling it. Second, CHEMTREC promptly contacts the shipper of the material involved for more detailed information and on-scene assistance when feasible. (DOT 1993)
CHER-CAP: Community Hazards Emergency Response-Capability Assurance Process. (FEMA, Community Hazards Emergency Response-Capability Assurance Process, 8May2007)
Chief: “The ICS title for individuals responsible for management of functional Sections: Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance/Administration, and Intelligence/Investigations (if established as a separate Section).” (FEMA, NIMS (FEMA 501/Draft), August 2007, p. 148)
CHIP: Capability and Hazard Identification Program (FEMA CPG 1-35, 1985).

CHIP: Critical Homeland Infrastructure Protection. (DSB, Report of DSB TF on CHIP, 2007)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC): “A group of chemical compounds used in industry and in the household, of which the excessive and universal use is believed to be one of the causes of ozone depletion, with resulting environmental damage.” (UNDHA, DM Glossary, 1992, 21)
Choking Agents: “Substances that cause physical injury to the lungs. Exposure is through inhalation. In extreme cases, membranes swell and lungs become filled with liquid (pulmonary edema). Death results from lack of oxygen; hence, the victim is “choked”. Phosgene (CG) is

a choking agent. Symptoms: irritation to eyes/nose/throat, respiratory distress, nausea and vomiting, burning of exposed skin.” (DOT, Emergency Response Guidebook, 2004. p. 358)


CHOP: Change of Operational Control. (DA, WMD-CST Ops, Dec 2007, Glossary-1)
Chronic Radiation Dose: “A dose of ionizing radiation received either continuously or intermittently over a prolonged period of time. A chronic radiation dose may be high enough to cause radiation sickness and death but, if received at a low dose rate, a significant portion of the acute cellular damage may be repaired.” (DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)
CHUG: Central HAZUS Users Group.
CHUG: Collaborative Healthcare Urgency Group, Chicago.
CHW: Community Health Worker. (CDC, Locating and Reaching At-Risk Populations 2007, 13)
CIA: Catastrophic Incident Annex (to the National Response Plan, 2004)
CIAO: Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office, DOD. (DBS, Protecting the Homeland, 2001, F-3)

CII: Critical Infrastructure Information. (DHS, NIPP, 2006, p. 101)

CI/KR: Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources. (DHS, NIPP, 2006, Preface)
CIP: Critical Infrastructure Protection.
CIPAC: Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council. (DHS, NIPP, 2006, p. 101)
CIP-DSS: Critical Infrastructure Protection – Decision Support System. (DHS, PBO FY 2008, 29)
CIP-MAA: Critical Infrastructure Program – Mission Assurance Assessments. (Blum, 19Jul07, 5)
CIR: Critical Information Requirements. (FEMA, Federal Interim CONPLAN: NMSZ, Dec. 2007, C-4)
CIS: Critical Incident Supplement (Federal Response Plan, 2005)
CISM: Critical Incident Stress Management.
Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI): “The Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) is a federally funded effort to prepare major US cities and metropolitan areas to effectively respond to a large scale bioterrorist event by dispensing antibiotics to their entire identified population within 48 hours of the decision to do so…[The CRI]: Aids state and local officials in developing plans that support mass dispensing drugs to 100% of the identified population within 48 hours of a decision to do so; provides funding to states, whose CRI jurisdictions cover 500 counties. This means that 56% of the US population lives within a CRI jurisdiction…. The CRI project started in 2004 and has grown each year thereafter:
2004: CRI stared with 21 cities

2005: CDC funded 15 additional cities…

2006: CDC funded an additional 36 cities, for a total of 72 participating cities….

In addition, the United States Postal Service (USPS) is working with select CRI cities to develop Postal Plans, in which mail carriers will deliver antibiotics to the homes in selected zip codes. This option is only available to jurisdictions with an approved USPS Dispensing Plan.” (CDC, Key Facts about the Cities Readiness Initiative July 3, 2007)

Citizen Corps: “Citizen Corps, administered by DHS, is a community-level program that brings government and private sector groups together and coordinates the emergency preparedness and response activities of community members. Through its network of community, tribal and State councils, Citizen Corps increases community preparedness and response capabilities through public education, outreach, training and volunteer service.” (DHS, National Response Framework (Comment Draft), September 10, 2007, p. 17)
Citizen Emergency Response Team (CERT): “Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) training is one way for citizens to prepare for an emergency. CERT training is designed to prepare people to help themselves, their families and their neighbors in the event of a catastrophic disaster. Because emergency services personnel may not be able to help everyone immediately, residents can make a difference by using the training obtained in the CERT course to save lives and protect property.” (DHS, National Response Framework (Comment Draft). DHS, September 10, 2007, p. 18)
Civil Air Patrol (CAP): “The CAP, the official auxiliary of the United States Air Force, is mandated by Congress to fulfill three missions around aerospace education, youth programs, and emergency services.” (Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Div., “Civil Air Patrol Assists During Emergencies,” Secure & Prepared, Vol. 3, Issue 21, December 4, 2007, 3)

Civil Authorities: “Those elected and appointed officers and employees who constitute the

government of the United States, the governments of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States possessions and territories, and political subdivisions thereof.” (JCS/DoD, Civil Support, 2007, p. I-2)

Civil Damage Assessment: “An appraisal of damage to a nation's population, industry, utilities, communications, transportation, food, water, and medical resources to support planning for national recovery. See also damage assessment.” (DOD, DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)
Civil Defense (CD): “Like many terms, civil defense has several different connotations and communication is often impossible when different meanings are used without some agreement on usage. In its most inclusive meaning, civil defense connotes a function. Thus, civil defense is a description of any and all activities carried out by governmental or quasi-governmental agencies in preparation for and during actual emergencies. This most inclusive meaning is often associated with wartime and potential nuclear attack situations…. According to this meaning, civil defense is "civil government in emergency." The analysis which follows does not use such an inclusive meaning. The referent here is the activities and functions which are performed by the social units called civil defense within the local community. We have found that in the vocabularies of most American communities, civil defense is most commonly used not as a function, but to refer to the particular identity and activities of the "civil defense office." In American society, the local civil defense office is not exclusively concerned with problems relating to potential nuclear attack but also becomes involved in other types of community

emergencies, especially disasters. To the other community organizations which become involved in these disaster operations, the civil defense office is seen as only one part of the total emergency picture.” (Anderson, Local Civil Defense in Natural Disaster…, 1969, p. 4)

Civil Defense: “All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to: (a) minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an enemy attack on the United States; (b) deal with the immediate emergency conditions that would be created by any such attack; and (c) effectuate emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by any such attack.” (Dept. of Army, WMD-CST Operations, Dec. 2007, Glossary-9)

Civil Defense: “Civil defense operations are the activities and measures undertaken in event of attack…They will be undertaken in a wartime environment by the civil defense operating system…. Many of the civil defense operations needed to save lives and property in event of attack are also needed in peacetime emergencies. Therefore civil defense operational readiness can serve both wartime and peacetime purposes. However, preparedness for peacetime contingencies does not automatically ensure readiness for attack preparedness.” (DCPA, DCPA Attack Environment Manual, Chapter 1: Introduction to Nuclear Emergency Operations, 1973, Panel 1)
Civil Defense (CD): “All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to: a. minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an enemy attack on the United States; b. deal with the immediate emergency conditions that would be created by any such attack; and c. effectuate emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by any such attack.” (DOD, DOD Dictionary of Military and Related Terms, 2007)

Civil Defense: “…a systematic, efficient way of dealing with attack on the home front. A strong civil defense can save fifty percent of the lives that might otherwise be lost. It can ease human suffering. It can reduce the destruction of property. It can maintain the flow of food and munitions needed by our Armed Forces. Civil defense can sustain the people and augment the will to survive against any attack by any aggressor. Civil defense is an insurance policy that will ease the effect of attack if and when it comes. Importantly, a strong civil defense, like strong armed forces, will proclaim that we are ready for anything an enemy can hurl against us and that no matter what hits us we can successfully fight back. Such readiness may actually help deter attack by making the results too small to warrant the cost, and thus serve the cause of peace in the world.” (FCDA, Annual Report for 1951, 1952, pp. ix-x)

Civil Defense (CD): “All activities and measures designed or undertaken for the following reasons: (a) to minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused by, or which would be caused by, an attach upon the United States or by a natural disaster; (b) to deal with the immediate emergency conditions which would be created by any such attack or natural disaster; and (c) to effectuate emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by any such attack or natural disaster.” (FEMA, Definitions of Terms, April 4, 1990.)
Civil Defense (CD): “The system of measures, usually run by a governmental agency, to protect the civilian population in wartime, to respond to disasters, and to prevent and mitigate the consequences of major emergencies in peacetime. The term “civil defense” is now used increasingly. (UNDHA, Disaster Management Glossary, 1992, p.22)
Civil Defense Act of 1950 (Public Law 81-875).

Civil Defense Alternatives (President Eisenhower, 1956): “The threat we face affords us only three basic alternatives. One extreme would be to hold our people subject to a rigid discipline, on the premise that a regimented citizenry would be better able to survive a nuclear attack. But this approach, continued, would destroy the America we are determined to preserve. The opposite extreme would be to accept the ultimate annihilation of all person in urban target areas as unavoidable or too costly to prevent, and by this unwarranted decision remove the burdens and cares of a peacetime civil defense program. Of course we reject both extremes. There is another way we must follow. We must continue to avoid Federal preemption of all civil defense programs which are so dependent upon widespread citizen participation. But it is now evident that the exigencies of the present threat require vesting in the Federal Government a larger responsibility in our national plan of civil defense…. The Federal civil defense law was written before the advent of the hydrogen bomb and the recent striking advances in methods of delivering modern weapons. This law must be realistically revised. Plans to meet post-attack situations are, of course, essential, but the Federal Civil Defense Administration needs authority to carry out necessary pre-attack preparations as well. It must be enable to assure adequate participation in the civil defense program. It must be empowered to work out logical plans for possible target areas which overlap state and municipal boundaries….” (Quoted in Nehnevajsa, Civil Defense and Society, 1964, p. 554)


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