Two main types are FIRST PERSON (told through the eyes of the main character, uses “I”) and THIRD PERSON (told through a reporter’s point of view). NOTE: Third person can be broken down into third person limited (knowing the thoughts of only one character), third omniscient (the narrator is God-like and knows all characters’ thoughts. Third objective does not reveal any thoughts, but is just what the narrator can see or hear.
Setting – the time and the place of the story
Characterization – the way the author reveals the character (examples: through the character’s actions or words.
Theme – the main idea or message of the story. Often can be told in one word: Some of the themes in Rules are disabilities, friendship, and family.
Conflict – the struggle between two or more opposing forces. Types of struggle include: Human v. Human; Human v. Nature; Human v. Society/Technology; and Human v. Self
Plot – The way the story moves along.
Alliteration – the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of the words, in a group: PETER PIPER
Assonance – the repetition of vowel sounds, any place in the word.
How now brown cow – or – I ate eight fake grape apes.
Consonance – repetition of consonant sounds in the middle or end of words
Middle children need adored like older kids.
Onomatopoeia – a word representing a sound. MOO!
Dialogue – conversation between characters or when a character speaks aloud to him/herself
Foreshadowing – a hint by the author about what is to come
Flashback – when the story goes back in time to a previous event
Imagery – writing that appeals to the five senses. The author makes you see what is hiding in the closet, or smell the bread, or taste the bitter medicine
Irony – the contrast between what is expected and what occurs
Dramatic irony – the reader knows something the character doesn’t (think: “Scream” and other scary movies)
Situation Irony – The results of an action or event are different than what is expected (The watch/comb story – “Gift of the Magi”) (a lifeguard drowns)
Verbal Irony – intended meaning of words is opposite of what is spoken
Figurative Language – Describing something by using a comparison…this includes metaphors, similes, and personification
Metaphor – A comparison of two unlike things, in order to give added meaning to the other. The moon is a tiger. My son is a monkey.
Simile – a comparison using LIKE or AS (also: than –or– resembles)
My cousin is as smart as a brick. My daughter’s mind is like a filing cabinet.
Personification – giving an inanimate object or animal human characteristics. The tractor leapt with joy as the farmer approached. The dog winked conspiratorially when he knew I would keep his secret.
Mood/Atmosphere – Emotional feeling of the story (happy, romantic, scary)
Refrain/Repetition – used to emphasize the message or point made by author
Symbol/Symbolism – using one item to stand for something else. The Statue of Liberty symbolizes freedom. In Snow Whitethe apple represents evil
Tone – the author’s attitude toward the subject, character, or audience. (passionate, humorous, angry)
Allusion – a reference in a work of literature to another work, event in history, art, sports, science, etc.
Idiom – an expression in a particular language that the meaning is different from the words. In English: It is raining cats & dogs; hold your tongue