Gwalior region an-introduction

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Gwalior region an-introduction
Gwalior is a city at Madhya Pradesh in India. It lies 76 miles (122 km) south of Agra and has a population of over 1.2 millions. Gwalior was the capital city of Great Maratha Sardar (Knight) & Warrior Maharaja Shrimant Madhavraoji Shinde – Sawstant, Gwalior. The Gwalior metropolitan area is the 46th most populated area in the country. Gwalior is one of the most famous tourist places of India. It is the biggest tourist place of Madhya Pradesh and called as tourist capital of MP state.

Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of India, and the city and its fortress have served as the center of several of North India's historic kingdoms. At present also its strategic location is marked by the presence of major air base at Maharajpura. Gwalior is the administrative headquarters of Gwalior district and Gwalior division.


Origin of name:

According to local history, Gwalior owes its name to a sage of former times. The story goes that Suraj Sen, a prince of the Kachhwaha clan of the 8th century had lost his way in the jungle and ultimately wandered up to a secluded hill. Thereafter, he met an old man, Sage Gwalipa, whose influence almost took him by surprise. On asking the sage for some drinking water he was led to a pond. The pool waters not only quenched his thirst but cured him of leprosy as well. Out of gratefulness, he wished to offer something in return to the sage and the sage asked him to build a wall on the hill in order to protect the other sages from wild animals that often disturbed their yagnas (pujas). Later ,Suraj Sen built a palace inside the fort. Thus, came up the fort named Gwalior, and eventually, the city that developed around it, got its name.i


3.1 GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND

Physical setting

India of the pre-independence period was inter-spread with as many as over 500 princely states. With the attainment of national independence, a quick, satisfactory and smooth working programme for the integration of these states into viable administrative units became necessary to safeguard the hard-won freedom. Thanks to the political wisdom and fore sightedness of late Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel to whom the credit goes for integration of the princely statesii. Madhya Bharat was the first such unit in which the states of Gwalior, Indore and 20 other minor states including Dhar were integrated.

The present state of Madhya Pradesh came into being in Nov.1956 as a result of the re-organisation of states. Having had the privilege of being the capital of one of the important erstwhile princely states and then that of the part ‘B’ state of Madhya Bharat, the emergence of Greater Gwalior as a principal city in the present set up can be viewed more or less, as a befitting finale in the glorious history of this regal city. However, it could not retain its seat as the state capital and lost the advantage to another city, Bhopal.

Location:

Location of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh claims a position of prominence as the second largest state of India, with Rajasthan being the first. Earlier, the place was deemed as the largest state of India, before Chhattisgarh was carved out of it. Literally, Madhya Pradesh means 'Central Province'. It is an apt name, as the state is exactly located in the center of the Indian map, located 26.22o North and 78.18oEast, at an average elevation of 197 m (646 ft), The entire state of Madhya Pradesh stretches for miles and covers a total area of 3,08,144 sq kmiii. Today, Madhya Pradesh borders the neighboring states of Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan.

On the west of Madhya Pradesh lies Gujarat; on the northwest is Rajasthan, on the northeast is Uttar Pradesh, on the east is Chhattisgarh, and on the south lies Maharashtra. The state can be geographically segregated into various regions, based on the distinct cultures and languages of these areas. For example, Malwa plateau falls in the north-west of the state, north of the Vindhya Range. Nimar (Nemar) is the western portion of the Narmada valley and is positioned south of the Vindhyas, in the southwest portion of the state. The fecund region of Bundelkhand, on the other hand, falls in the northern part of the state.

The northwestern region of the state is Chambal. This mountainous expanse of Chambal is rich in sandstone and was once famous for rampaging pirates. The hilly terrains towards the northeast are home to the Baghelkhand region, which also incorporates the eastern end of the Vindhya Range. Mahakoshal (Mahakaushal) is the southeastern portion of the state and include the eastern part of the Narmada valley and the eastern Satpuras within its realm. Lastly, there is the Central Vindhya and Satpura region, which spreads over most of the central Narmada river valley.

Excluding the valleys of the Narmada and the Tapti, the entire state is perched atop, a plateau, at an elevation of 500 m. above sea level. Apart from that, another noteworthy geographical feature of the state is its association with great river basins and watersheds of the various rivers. The two rivers, viz. the Narmada and the Tapti and their basins divide it into two, and add on to the aquatic charm of the state. To sum it all, it can be said that the topography of Madhya Pradesh clasps every facet of nature. The place bustles with plateaus, plains, ravines and many dramatic slopes that disappear into the darkness of many thick forests.



Location of Gwalior

Gwalior location, in the state of Madhya Pradesh, is at the geographical coordinates are 26° 13' 25" North, Latitude and 78° 10' 45" East Longitudeiv, It has an average elevation of 197 metres (646 feet). It is surrounded by district Morena in the North, district Shivpuri in the West, district Bhind in the East and district Datia in the South. The district is having three sub-divisions, namely, Gwalior, Dabra and Bhitarwar. There are four tehsils, namely, Ghatigaon (Barai), Morar, Dabra and Bhitarwar.

Gwalior is about 1225 km., North-East of Mumbai. It is about 121 km from Agra, 321 km from the national capital of New Delhi, 98 km., from Jhansi and 120 km., from Shivpuri one of the summer hill resorts. In the state itself, it is within easy reach of important cities of the state, being 338km., from Bhopal, the capital of M.P. it is about 500km., from Indore (via Shivpuri) and 604 km., from Jabalpur.

Geographically this region has been separated by the Vindhyan scraps in south and the ravines of Yamuna and Pahuj in the north. The silent feature with regard to the geology of Gwalior is that this area is made up of four district types of geological systems, mentioned below;

Archaeans: Bundelkhand Genesis.

Oaddapah : The Gwalior and Bijawar.

Vindhyans : Rewa and Kaimur

Alluvium which was found recently.

Gwalior is situated between two districts natural divisions namely, the plain area lying to the north and east of the city and the plateau which can be said to have begun from about 128 kilometer (80 miles) south of Gwalior. The city is located in a rock basin surrounded by Vindhyan hills in the west and Bijawar hills in the south and south east. Between the two are numerous residual hills, Gupteshwar, Satyanarayan hill and Fort Rock. In general, the city is more or less sloping from the south-west to north and north-west.


Climate:

Climate conditions of any residential area affect a lot of the activities as well as living standards of the inhabitants. The climate of Gwalior is the direct result of its continental and astronomical position. Being sufficiently far-off from sea Gwalior has a sub-tropical climate with hot summers from late March to early July, the humid monsoon season from late June to early October and a cool dry winter from early November to late February. From table (3.1.1) the highest recorded temperature was 47oC and the lowest was -1oC. Summers start in late March, and along with other cities like Nagpur and Delhi are among the hottest in India and the world. They peak in May and June with average daily temperatures being around 33-35oC (93-95oF), and end in late June with the onset of the monsoon.



The temperature of Gwalior is given in following table (3.1.1)

Table 3.1.1

Temperature of Gwalior as per 2008

S. No.

Month

Average

Temperature (Max.)

Maximum Temperature

Average

Temperature (Min.)

Minimum Temperature

1

January


20.6

26.0

5.3

1.0

2

February

26.0

31.0

8.3

4.2

3

March

30.3

39.0

13.5

7.2

4

April

37.7

42.5

18.7

10.9

5

May

42.1

45.6

26.1

20.9

6

June

42.6

47.0


29.4

22.5

7

July

36.1

43.5

27.4

23.8

8

August

31.5

34.0

25.5

23.2

9

September

33.1

36.5

24.1

20.2

10

October

34.8

37.8

18.3

11.4

11

November

29.5

32.5

11.2

6.5


12

December

24.0

27.8

8.2

4.1

Source: Weather Science Centre, Govt. Agriculture College, Gwalior.

The area of Gwalior is not benefitted by either branches of monsoon. It is only when the winds are deflected by the local pressure conditions that Gwalior casually gets a small of rainfall from this branch of monsoon. The Gwalior area gets its major part of rainfall by ‘Bengal-Current’ of monsoon. Gwalior generally, experiences rainfall in third or fourth week of June or sometimes in the first week of July. Gwalior gets 970 mm (39 in) of rain every year, most of which is concentrated in the monsoon months from late June to early October. August is the wettest month with about 310 mm (12 in) of rain. Average number of, rainy day according to weather report are about 80-85 days. The annual rain fall does not exceed 45 inches.

The average rainfall in Gwalior is given in the table below.

Table 3.1.2

Average Rainfall In Gwalior

S.No.

Month

Rainfall (mm.)

1

January

18.77

2

February


04.31

3

March

09.85

4

April

01.38

5

May

08.25

6

June

68.6

7

July

268.00

8

August

305.50

9

September

173.80

10

October

51.70

11

November

02.17

12

December

06.25

Source: Weather Science Centre, Govt. Agriculture College, Gwalior.

Table (3.1.2) reveals the fact that winter rains are associated with shallow depressions and their approach is marked by a slight decrease in temperature and humidity. The amount of rainfall is merged. It is of great importance for winter crops like wheat and mustard etc.

Winter in Gwalior starts in late October, and is generally very mild with daily temperatures averaging in the 14-16oC (58-62oF) range, and mostly, dry and sunny conditions. January is the coldest month with average lows in the 5-7oC range (40-45oF) and occasional cold snaps that plummet temperatures to close to freezing.


Soil and Natural Vegetation

The topography has played and important role in the formation of soil in this area. Gwalior is also surrounded by Kali-Sindh, Kunwari, sindh, Pahuj, Parvati and other rivers its tributaries meet Chambal, Madhya Bharat Pathar is connected on the eastern bank of Chambal which is surrounded by sand-stone, rocks and dense forests. In the Gazetteer of India, it is pointed out that: “Wherever there is invaluational as in the west of Shivpuri and south of Chambal between Sabalgarh and Maharajpur. The country side has a more pleasant look and has invariably a large concentration of population”v.

A link of continuous hill stretches around the Gwalior and the hills are also covered with natural vegetation. The well-known forests of Dholpur, Morena, Antari-Billowa, Barai-Panihar, Karauli-Sabalgarh, Shivpuri-Mohna, Dabra and Datia use to flourish the criminal activities by sheltering the assassinators.

There are nearly 145 Khohs in the forests. The soil of adjoining areas of Gwalior is pale-brown to Yellowish-brown with patches of grey colours. Towards Datia and Shivpuri route, the soil is of texture of clay. The process of soil-erosion is wide spread all over the Gwalior Division and adjoining districts of Bhind, Morena, Shivpuri and Datia. This is one of the greatest problems of this region.


Transportation infrastructure

Means of transport and communication include roadways, Railways and Airways. As far as Roadways is concerned, Gwalior is situated on the Agra-Mumbai National Highway No.3 in the country. The city is connected to the Jhansi by the National Highway 75, towards the south of the city. In the Northern, the city is connected to the holy city of Mathura via National Highway 3. There are bus services to and from all major and minor cities near Gwalior. It has two important bus stands, the Amkho stand, which connects people from far off distinct places, residing in adjacent villagers. The next biggest organized state bus stand is situated near railway station. It provides connecting links to almost all nearby states. The prominent one being Bhopal, Agra, Delhi, Jabalpur, Jhansi, Bhind, Morena, Datia, Jaipur and Indore. Besides this, there are so many Travel Agencies and bus transit point near Jinsi Nallah, Kampoo road junction, etc.

Next important means of communication to Gwalior is central Railways, Delhi, Mumbai and Delhi Madras main lines. The Junction GWL is part of the Jhansi Division of the North Central Railways. Gwalior's main station is one of the major commercial railway stations of the North Central Railway of Indian Railways, which zonal Head Quarter is centered in Allahabad. The station has won awards from Indian Railways for clean infrastructure in 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1992. Express trains such as the Bhopal Express, Taj Express and Bhopal Shatabdi stop at Gwalior. Gwalior is well connected via train services to all parts of the country including 4 metros. There are direct trains to Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata (Howrah), Chennai, Trivandrum, Indore, Ahmadabad, Pune, Jammu, Lucknow, Bhopal and other major towns. Gwalior is the main station serving most of the important and long distance trains. There are two other stations within the city limits, named Birla nagar and Sithouli. These stations interconnect to other stations and also serve the short distance trains connecting Gwalior to nearby towns and villages.

Gwalior is, perhaps, one of the few places where both narrow gauge and broad gauge railways tracks are still operational. The Gwalior narrow gauge track is the narrowest in India. There are other narrow gauge stations within the city, named as Motijheel. Gwalior lies on the longest functional broad gauge line in India between Delhi and Mumbai.

The third main communication media of the Gwalior is Airways. The city of Gwalior has an airport of its own, which is commonly referred to as the Gwalior airport. This airport is situated in the outskirt region of the city. The airport of Gwalior is one of the major airports that are located in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The airport at Gwalior is situated at a distance of about 8 km towards the north-east of the city. This airport is equipped with almost all the amenities that are expected in a good airport. Now-a-days, it is an air stop of Mumbai-Indore-Bhopal-Gwalior-Delhi route, Delhi to Madras route and Delhi-Jabalpur route.


3.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Gwalior city has a glorious history with healthy cultural traditions as well as the main centre for music. The data of the first settlement of Gwalior is disputable among historians. According to Kharag Rai, the origin of Gwalior took place as early as 3101 BCvi, according Fazal Ali, it took place in the year 339, after Vikramaditya or in A.D. 275vii. The history of Gwalior can be divided into three parts; as


Ancient

Mr.B.B. Lal has discovered implements of Paleolithic age in Gwalior. Many cave paintings of the Middle Stone Age have also been found in the area. Pottery of Iron Age has been excavated in Gwalior and adjoining areas. Old name of Gwalior is Gopadri or Gopgiri. In the Mahabharta Gopalkaksh has been mentioned as the place of victory of Bhima. Probably, Gopalkaksh is same Gopadri. During the later period of 2nd Century a new dynasty called Nagvans (vans means clan) took roots in Vidisha-Gwalior region. Vrashnath was the founder of the Nagvans. A coin has been found of this ruler in Vidisha during Veshnagar excavations.

Bhimnag was the next ruler of this clan who shifted it's capital from Vidisha to Padmavati (modern Pawaya near Gwalior). Coins of descendant of Bhimnag, Skandnag, Vashunag, and Vrahaspatinag have been found in Pawaya. According to a pillar inscription found in Allahbad, Samudragupta had defeated last ruler of Nagvans, Ganpatinag. Pawaya is some 68 kms from Gwalior. The life-size statue of Chaksha Manibhadra has been found here. The Parmars built the fort and the nearby Dhoomeshwar Mahadeo temple, which are the main attractions of Pawaya. Beginning of legendary Gwalior fort found it's roots in the 5th Century during the rule of a Kachhwaha Rajput prince, Suraj Senviii. It is believed that Gwalior was also under the rule of Mihir Bhoj (836-882 AD). In the 10th Century, second ruler of Kachapghat Rajvans, Vrajdaman had taken over Gwalior after defeating king of Kannauz. Mangleraj and Kirtiraj were the subsequent rulers of Gwalior. In 1021 AD, Mahmud of Gazni attacked on Gwalior. One of his lieutenants, Malik Bahauddin Tughluq won Gwalior fort after lot of hard work.

Medieval

In 1195-96 AD, Mohammad Ghauri on Gwalior and its ruler Sallachan accepted the supreme command of Mohammad Ghauri so, Ghauri allowed him to be the ruler of Gwalior. Later on, Qutbuddin Aibak appointed Iltutmish as it's Kiledar (In-charge of Fort). Iltutmish was the most famous ruler of Slave dynasty who, after winning Sindh in 1228 A.D., expanded his empire by taking over Mandu, Gwalior, Malwa and Ujjain. Later on, various rulers of Slave and Tughlaq dynasty ruled here.

During the later period of 14th ix Century, Tomar clan took advantage of weak position of Islamic rulers, and Vir Singh Dev established Tomars as rulers of Gwalior. Udhwaraddev, Vikramdev, Dungrandra singh were the subsequent rulers of Gwalior. Dungrandra singh is famous for his support for Jain Dharma (Religion). Kirti singh, Kalyanmal and Man singh were the descendants of Dungrandra singh. Most famous and the noblest amongst the Rajput kings was Maharaja Mansingh Tomar (1486-1517)x. Many famous buildings of historical importance had been constructed at the fort during the regime of Raja Mansingh Tomar. His period has been regarded as the time of Cultural, Political and economic prosperity. After his death, his son Vikramjit ruled over the state till 1526 A.Dxi. Ibrahim Lodhi had defeated son of Man singh, Vikramjit. Vikramjit was killed in the first battle of Panipat. Thereafter, Gwalior was mostly a part of the Mughal Empirexii. Babur has given beautiful description of Gwalior in his autobiography "Babarnama".

Modern

During the third battle of Panipat (1761), Maratha Empire received a severe jolt. Jat ruler Lokandra singh took over Gwalior after the battle of Panipat. Yet, again in 1765 an able Scindhia ruler Mahadji scindhiaxiii regained Gwalior. Dulatrao (1794-1827)xiv was successor who in 1810xv shifted capital from Ujjain to Gwalior. After the death of Dulat Rao, his adopted son Jankoji Rao ruled, but he was a physically weak ruler and was incapable to control the internal conflicts and conspiracies in the state. He has no son, therefore, he adopted Bhagirath Rao who was later enthroned with the name of Jiyaji Rao. The splendid places, namely Moti Mahal, Jai Vilash Palace were built by Jiyaji Rao. Jiyaji rao died on 20th june1886 A.D.

Maharaja Jiyaji Rao was succeeded by his son Madhav Rao Scindia. He took keen interest in the development of Gwalior city. In the year 1887, the municipality was founded in the Laskar and Panchayat System was organized in 1912 A.D. Many industries were opened in the city. Among them, Jiyaji Rao cotton mills Limited owned by Birla Group of industries occupies and important place in the country. Madhav Rao Scindia encouraged the inhabitants and got finalized many projects for the development of the city. In the year 1925, Maharaja Madhav Rao Scindia died and was succeeded by his son Maharaja Jiwaji Rao Scindia, who ruled till 1948 and after merging Gwalior, Indore, Malwa and other small states, Madhya Bharat State was formed in April 1948, during the meeting of rulers of Madhya Bharat in Delhi. On May 28, 1948, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru inaugurated this State and Jiwaji rao Scindhia took oath as the chief of the State. He followed his father and contributed in the development of Gwalior, many development projects were prepared and many construction works were carried out.

Upon India's independence in 1947, the Scindhia Maharaja of Gwalior acceded to India, and Gwalior, together with the 24 other princely states in the western half of the Central India Agency, formed the new state of Madhya Bharat. Gwalior was the winter capital of the new state, and Indore was the summer capital. In 1956, Madhya Bharat and the neighboring states of Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh state, with the new capital at Bhopal.

Present Madhya Pradesh was formed on 1st November 1956 after merging Madhya Bharat, Vindhya, Bhopal and MahaKoshal. Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla was the first chief minister of the State.


3.3 AREA AND POULATION

The city of Gwalior covers a geographical area of 5214.00 sq kmxvi and is situated by the banks of Chambal River. It also serves as the administrative headquarter of the district of Gwalior and Gwalior division. The landscape of Gwalior is dominated by the Gwalior Fort, situated on a rock outcrop. The historical city of Gwalior is completely land-locked. Old Gwalior lies to the eastern side of the fort. Lashkar embraces the southern side while Morar and Thatipur lie to the East of the fort. All these regions together form the present city of Gwalior. Morar is the cantonment area, whereas the new city of Gwalior has developed in the Lashkar region.



The old town of Gwalior, commonly called Hazira, which is of considerable size, but irregularly built, lies at the eastern base of the rock. It contains the tomb of the Sufi saint Khwaja Khanoon & Mohammed Ghaus, erected during the early part of Mughal emperor Akbar’s reign, and the tomb of Mian Tansen, a great singer and one of the 'Nine Jewels' of Akbar's court. A town called by his name Ghauspura situated near the tomb of Mohammed Ghaus. Close to the heart of the city is splendid Jai Vilas Palace, patterned on the French palace of Versailles. The town has a museum situated in the Gujari Mahal.

Lashkar is derived from the Persian lashkar, meaning army, or camp, as it was originally the camp, and later the permanent capital, of the Scindhia dynasty of Gwalior state. Jayaji Chowk is the central focus of Lashkar, with a large square, a former opera house, banks, tea, coffee and juice stands and a municipal market building. Thriving bazaars surround the chowk. Many jewellery shops are situated near Jayaji Chowk at Maharaj bada, A source of water for the city Tighra Dam built on Saank river is 20 km north of here. The Gajra Raja Medical College, founded in 1946 by the Maharaja Jiwaji Rao Scindhia and the Maharani Vijayaraje Scindhia, is situated in Lashkar on Palace Road, near Katora Taal, together with a group of many hospitals.


Morar, formerly a separate town, lies three miles (5 km) east of the old city. It was formerly a British military cantonment. Morar was the scene of the most serious uprising in Central India. By 1900 it had become a centre for local trade and had an important training industry, with a population of 19,179 in 1901xvii. The second Temple of the Sun in India is situated in Morar at Residency Road after The Konark Sun Temple. This Sun Temple was built by the Aditya Birla Trust. The cantonment area makes up a large area of Morar which is official residences for the Indian Army. It has many canteens for Army personnel. Near, it is located one of the schools in Gwalior: The St. Paul's School. Morar is generally a rural farming town. There is a big Galla Mandi. There are some beautiful places in Morar also and the area is known as the green part of Gwalior because much of the area is still rural. There is a air force area in the region called Pinto Park. It is very peaceful area. A Sai Mandir is there in Pinto park, Gayatri Vihar Colony.

Thatipur is said to have got its name from a state army unit no 34 (thirty four) which used to be here. Gandhi road divides the Thatipur area into two. On going along the road, one enters Morar at one end and Balwant Nagar on the other. It primarily consists of Darpan Colony, the government blocks and Suresh Nagar. The places of mention are the Dwarikadhish Mandir, bhagwan colony, Ramkrishna Aashram, Gayatri Vihar, mayur market etc. Jiwaji University also located in this area & City Center and Balwant Nagar most Poss Colonies.

Table 3.3.1

Total Area District Gwalior

Total Area


5214.00 sq.kms.

Forest Area

1091.79 sq kms

Net sown area

2601.42 sq.kms

No. of Households

209.12 thousands

Net irrigated  area

911.93 sq.kms 

Source: District Statistical office, Gwalior

Table (3.3.1) depicts the picture of area of district Gwalior it is 5214 sq. Kms out of them net irrigated area is 911.93 sq Kms only.

Population:

The trend of population growth in Gwalior has been marked nearly by 50,000 population increased within 10 years. With regards to population changes, the decade 1991-2001 saw many ups and downs but the population of Gwalior city increased by 34.60% in ten years. The classification of population in three different towns i.e. Laskar, Gwalior and Morar has been given the following table (3.3.2);



Table 3.3.2

Population of Gwalior city in 1981


S.No.

Area (Towns)

Male


Female

Total Population

Percentage

1

Laskar

1,33,364

1,33,323

2,66,487

50.24

2

Gwalior

87,110

61,878

1,48,988

28.09

3

Morar

59,670

55,324

1,14,994

21.67

Source: office of the Commissioner, municipal Corporation Gwalior

Table (3.3.2) shows that the total population in 1981 was 5,30,469 person the 50% of population concentration was in Laskar followed by 28.09% in Gwalior and 21.67 % was in Morar. The table indicates that the Male were 2,79,944 which was 52.78% and Female were 2,50,525 which was 47.22%.



Table 3.3.3

Gwalior (Municipal corporation) Population


Year

Population

Growth rate (in Percent)

1981

5,30,469

----

1991

6,90,342

30.14

2001

8,27,026

19.79

Source: office of the Commissioner, municipal Corporation Gwalior

Table (3.3.3) indicates that the total population of Gwalior (Municipal corporation) was 5,30,469 in the year 1981and 6,90,342 in 1991 it shows the growth rate 30.14% but after that in the year 2001 the total population became 8,27,026 which shows the growth rate 19.79% over the 1991 population. The expansion of many industries in Gwalior has also made to increase the population. Industrial development in the nearby Malanpur and Banmore area have also attracted the rural people to migrate to the city for want of services in industrial sector. Other important factor for the sudden growth of the population in the city was the dacoit problem in the neighbouring towns and villages of Gwalior. A large number of rural people have binned-up their agriculture and migrated to the city because of dacoity infested areas. Police force has also increased in the population of the Gwalior, being one of the head quarters of police force.

The population of district Gwalior has also been varying with the pressure of increasing population in rural and urban areas. The density of population per sq. km. has also grown very high. The growth of population with its density and sex ration is being given in the following table


Table 3.3.4

District Gwalior Population

Details

1991

2001

Population

1,412,610

1,632,109

Male

7,70,849

8,83,317

Female

6,41,761

7,48,792

Rural

5,82,163

6,49,101

Urban

8,30,447

9,83,008

Sex ratio

831

848

Density of population (per sq. km.)

271

354

Total worker


5,30,629

4,36,730

Main worker

4,41,815

4,03,580

Source: census of India report -2001, and M.P. Statistical dept. 1991, 2001

Table (3.3.4) shows that, the population of Gwalior is increasing rapidly and the sex-ratio is also shows the same trend. The ratio the rural-urban population shows a tendency of increasing urban population in the area.

As far as employment is concerned the town is providing variety of jobs and absorbs its working population in various sectors of economy. But, the fact cannot be discarded that 64.89% of people in the city are unemployed. Though efforts are being made but the increasing population had added fuel to the fire of unemployment and housing problem are becoming very serious.

Table 3.3.5

Literacy in District Gwalior

Details

1991

2001

Population

Total literate

% of

literates

Population

Total literate


% of

literates

Population

14,12,610

8,15,076

57.7

1,632,109

955,356

69.38

Male

7,70,849

5,45,838

70.81

8,83,317

599,253

80.36

Female

6,41,761

2,67,743

41.72

7,48,792

356,103

56.4

Rural

5,82,163

2,20,698

37.91

6,49,101


348697

53.72

Urban

8,30,447

5,89,950

71.04

9,83,008

784735

79.83

Source: census of India report -2001, and M.P. Statistical dept. 1991, 2001

The figures given in table (3.3.5) indicates that literacy rate in the district is increasing total literacy rate was 57.7% in 1991 which increased and became 69.38% in 2001. Male are more literate than female, male were literate 70.81% in 1991 and 80.36% in 2001 whereas female was 41.72% in 1991 and only 56.4% in 2001. Apart from this literacy rate in urban area are higher than rural areas but literary is rapidly increasing in rural areas.

Religion has been the aspirator source of the product of civilization. It is the human response to the apprehension of something of power which is supernatural and super sensory. The inhabitant of Gwalior comprises of peoples of different religions majority of people in Gwalior are Hindus. The religious distribution is being given in table (3.3.6);

Table 3.3.6

Religion wise Distribution in 1996


S. No.

Religion

Total Population

Percentage

1

Hindu

10,16,280

91.73

2

Muslim

64,283

5.8

3

Sikh

13,613

1.23

4

Christian

1,517

0.14

5

Jain

11,248

1.02

6

Buddhist

938

0.08

Total

11,07,879

100.00

Source: office of the Commissioner, municipal Corporation Gwalior


Fig. 1: Religion wise Distribution in 1996

Gwalior is an important city for religious preaching. Hindu and Mughal both rulers have promoted their religions during their regime. Gwalior city is well-known city for its communal harmony, where a Hindu temple, a Muslim mosque, a Sikh Gurdwara and the theosophical lodges are situated side by side in the Phool-Bagh, vicinity as a mark of religious integration and communal harmony.

A large number of temples of different deities can easily be seen on every road of Gwalior. More than fifty big Hindu temples, five Muslim Mosque, four churches and nearly forty five Jain mandirs and ten Gurdwaras are flourishing for their religious preaching. Surya Mandir (sun temple) is a recently development in cantonment area of Morar. Gwalior fort has more attraction with the recent made Gurdwara at the top of the hill. The citizens of Gwalior take keen interests in participating in AKHAND RAYAMAN PATH, BHAGVAT GEETA and other religious activities.

3.4 EDUCATION

Education is the process of learning and knowing, which is not restricted to our school text-books. It is a holistic process and continues through our life. Even the regular happenings and events around us educate us, in one or the other way. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the existence of human beings is fruitless without education. An educated person has the ability to change the world, as he/she is brimming with confidence and assured of making the right moves.

The importance of education is quite clear. Education is the knowledge of putting one's potentials to maximum use. One can safely say that a human being is not in the proper sense till he is educated.

This importance of education is basically for two reasons. The first is that the training of a human mind is not complete without education. Education makes man a right thinker. It tells man how to think and how to make decision.

The second reason for the importance of education is that only through the attainment of education, man is enabled to receive information from the external world; to acquaint him-self with past history and receive all necessary information regarding the present. Without education, man is as though in a closed room and with education he finds himself in a room with all its windows open towards outside world.

Education makes a worthy contribution to our lives, by making us responsible citizens. We get to know our history and culture through education and imbibe those values. Education opens our mind and expands our horizon. It enables us to understand our duties as a citizen and encourages us to follow them. There is no denying the fact that an educated person is a better citizen. Education is futuristic in character, in so far that it ensures that the one who receives good education gets a secure future. Our productivity is increased by acquiring new skills and talents through education. We find ourselves in the most competitive jobs, courtesy the right training and education. The importance of education is evident by the dizzy heights we achieve in life. The significance of education, for a great part, lies in its ability to open new vistas for us. It expands our outlook and teaches us to be tolerant towards other views. An educated person will find it easier to understand a different point of view than the one who is uneducated. Education broadens our mental landscape and is the way forward to greater enlightenment - the ultimate goal of every human in life.

Gwalior is said to have a long chequered history of education and has been continued up to the early part of the Maratha-Period. The first school in Laskar was established in 1846 on the modern lines namely, ‘LASKAR-MADARSA’. In the regime of Maharaja Madhav Rao Scindia during 1849 to 1925, an appreciable progress was recorded in the history of education. The expansion of education was also accelerated by the efforts of Jiwaji Rao Scindia as the successor of Madhav Rao Scindia.

The attention towards the literacy of this area has continuously been paid by administrators, ministers and social workers of this area. Govt. and non-governmental efforts have ever been made for the better literacy. Under several private educational expansion societies, Late Shri Raghubir Singh Kushwah, freedom-fighter and Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA), Bhopal has formed Acharya Narendra Deo Educational Society under which several higher secondary schools have been functioning and imparting education to the children of remote areas of Gwalior division.

The present education position of Gwalior is given in table (3.4.1).


Table 3.4.1

Number of ‘schools’ in distt-Gwalior-2001

Year

Pre-primary

Primary schools

Middle schools

High schools

Higher Secondary

schools

Total

1992-93

--

1574

537

65

69

2245

1994-95

--

1589

544

152

107

2392

1996-97

10

1619

570

170

120


2489

2000-01

31

1779

1078

237

172

3297

Source: District statistics manual, Gwalior, 2001

Table (3.4.1) discloses the number of schools in Gwalior. In 1992-93 the total schools were 2245 out of them 1574 was primary, 537 was middle, 65 was high and 69 was higher secondary schools. In 1994-95 total schools were 2392 in which 152 was high and107 was higher secondary. 2489 was in 1996-97 and in 2000-01, it became 3297 out of them 31was pre-primary, 1779 was primary, 1078 was middle, 237 was high and remain 172 was higher secondary. From these data, it is clear that number of school are increasing in Gwalior and middle, high, and higher secondary schools are increasing rapidly which shows the peoples tendency about education.



Table 3.4.2

Number of schools run by different bodies




Pre-Primary

Primary

Middle

High

H.S.S.

Run by Education department


3

997

399

30

33

Run by Central government

0

0

0

0

7

Run by Tribal department

0

0

0

0

0

Run by private institutions

20

707

644

197

122

Run by local bodies/ other dept.

0

0

0

0

0

Grant provided by school dept.

8

75

35

10

10

Grand Total

31

1779

1078


237

172

Source: District statistics manual, Gwalior, 2001

It is clear from table (3.4.2) that most of schools are running by either Education Department or by Private institutions whereas the most of middle, high and H.S.S. school are running by private institutions; so, it is a profitable field in Gwalior.



Table 3.4.3

Number of ‘colleges and universities’ in Distt-Gwalior-2009


Year

colleges

Professional institutions

Universities

1992-93

18

21

01

1996-97

18

30

02

2008-09

18

38

03

Source: www.mpgov.in / District statistics manual, 2001

Apart from the school and colleges for general education, there are several other institutions which provide specialized education such as Madhav Institute of Technology and Sciences (MITS) it provides Engineering education in this institute B.E./B. Tech., M.E./M.tech. courses in different faculties are available. Govt. College of Education is a special institute for B.Ed and M.Ed., Aurvedic college, Polytechnic college, Music and Fine Arts college, homeopathy college, Govt. Science college, Industrial Training Institute for boys and girls are also functioning well. Old Victoria college now named as Govt. M.L.B. has been upgraded as an excellence college Status with all Facilities.



Jiwaji University was established as a teaching and affiliating University on 23rd May 1964, under the provision of M. P. Government Ordinance no. 15 of 1963. Dr. Sarwapalli Radhakrishanan, the President of India, laid the foundation stone of the University Campus on 11th December 1964. Right from its inception, Jiwaji

Univesity started with a status of a residential and an affiliating University. The territorial jurisdiction of the affiliation extends to six districts of Gwalior and Chambal Division, viz., Gwalior, Morena, Bhind, Guna, Shivpuri and Datia. To begin with, the University had a total of 29 affiliated colleges. Those have steadily increased to more than 100 colleges. Till date of 45 Government and 94 non-Government colleges impart teaching up to Post-Graduate level. Some of the colleges have also developed into recognized Research centers. University is providing degrees and diplomas in Neuroscience, Information-Technology, Jyotirvigyan, Food Technology, Molecular and Human Genetics, Medical Plants and Herbal Resource Management, Computer Application, Remote Sensing and GIS and in Bio-Physics etc.

Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education (LNIPE) was established in Gwalior by Govt. of India as National College of Physical Education in 1957, the centenary year of the War of Independence, and located where Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi, a brave heroine of the war, had laid her life. The institute was named after her as a tribute to her role in the glorious freedom struggle. Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, a deemed university in the state of Madhya Pradesh, is located in the city of Gwalior. It got the status of a Deemed University in 1995. The Institute is the only one with the status of Deemed University in the field of Physical Education across the country. It upgrades the status of physical education of its pupils by offering degree and post-graduate course.

Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (RVSKVV), located in Gwalior, was established in 2008, under the rules and regulations laid by the Government of Madhya Pradesh. The working sphere of RVS Krishi Vishwa Vidyalay is spread over 25 district of Madhya Pradesh, comprising six colleges, out of which four cater to students pursuing agriculture and the others offers Horticulture, Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry courses. RVSKVV was set up with the purpose of growth and development in the field of agriculture, live stock production in the state and optimization of profit. it provides various under graduate and post graduate level of courses in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Horticulture and Animal Husbandry.



3.5 MEDICAL CARE



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