In the Himalaya they call him Yeti. As you must already have guessed we are talking about a legendary wild man. He must have a distant relative in the North America since strange human-like beings are sometimes reported from the American North-west. In the States he is called Bigfoot because of the size of his footprints, although across the border, in Canada, they prefer the word “Sasquatch”. There is a scientific term, which is rather seldom used, Abominable Snowman. From numerous reports we may say that these elusive creatures are ape-like, heavily built, hairy, and smelly. They communicate only with grunts, cries, or whistles. The stories about “wild men of the woods” can be found practically in all cultures, in different periods of history: from Enkidu in the Gilgamesh epic to fauns and satyrs in Greek mythology to Grendel in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.
Authorities disagree as to whether modern reports of the Abominable Snowman are merely a continuation of these legendary traditions, or whether the ancient reports prove that such creatures have existed for generations and may still live in remote regions. The physical evidence —footprints, body parts, hair, and indistinct photographs—are ambiguous; on investigation many reports have proved either to be misidentifications (such as blurred footprints of a known animal) or outright hoaxes.
In 1960 the New Zealand mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary undertook to investigate reports of the yeti in the Himalaya. He found no evidence of the creature; a so- called “yeti scalp” brought from a Tibetan monastery proved to be a fur cap made from goat skin. Numerous “bigfoot hunters” continue the search, and the literature of the subject is huge and contentious. Investigators have collected many casts of footprints, reviewed native folklore of regions where “bigfoots” were reported, and devised schemes for the capture of the creatures.
As the early European settlers moved westwards into the northwestern United States and western Canada they began to record stories of Bigfoot, which had long been a part of the traditions of the Native Americans. As early as 1784, the London Times reported the capture of a huge, manlike, hair-covered creature in Manitoba, Canada. In 1840, after spending nine years living among the Indians of the Pacific Northwest, missionary Elkanah Walker described them as believing in the existence of a race of giants which inhabit a certain mountain off to the west.
Nineteenth century newspapers record many encounters between Bigfoot and the early settlers. The July 4, 1884 edition of the Colonist from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada descibed the capture of what may have been a young Sasquatch. The creature, nicknamed 'Jacko' by his captors, was described as being "half man and half beast," 1 metre tall and weighing 57 kg. "He has long, black, strong hair and resembles a human being with one exception, his entire body is covered with hair about one cm long... and he possesses extraordinary strength." It was planned to send the creature to London but Jacko seems to have mysteriously disappeared some months later. Nothing else is known about this case.
Up to the late 1950s, media coverage of Bigfoot stories was mainly on a local basis. All that was to change when, in 1958, a group of workers from North West California discovered that their activities were attracting a night time visitor. Over a period of several weeks, the men found many enormous, manlike footprints in the mud around their worksite. They took a footprint cast to the local newspaper, the story was reprinted by several central newspapers and "Bigfoot" became national news.
Some writers propose that an undiscovered species of ape are mistaken for bigfoots (so called a big ape hypothese). There is also a theory of a last survival of Neanderthal man. These theories may explain the sightings of these creatures but skeptics maintain that without physical evidence, all these reports remain nothing more than sensational material for which newspapers are constantly looking for. As a rule, the creatures are reported from remote areas, usually glimpsed near the edges of clearings, from a considerable distance, or crossing a road or path, the chances of mistaken identity are high. Many writers and scientists interpret the sightings as symbolizing the fascination with the wild that persists in the modern world and the sense that civilization has penetrated all areas of the world, except for a few pockets of wilderness and mystery.
Abominable Snowman – снежный человек
Gilgamesh epic эпос о Гилгамеше
Indistinct неясный (смутный)
Hoax мистификация, розыгрыш
To glimpse увидеть мельком
The text contains some references to the Greek and Roman mythology as well as to Anglo Saxon literature. Read the explanations of the following terms and say what these creatures have in common with Abominable Snowman.
Gilgamesh Epic is an important Middle Eastern literary work, written around 2000 BC. This poem is named after its hero, Gilgamesh, a king who ruled the city of Erech on the territory of present-day Iraq. The gods sent wild, brutish creature, Enkidu, to challenge Gilgamesh to a wrestling match. In the end Gilgamesh and Enkidu become close friends.
FAUN- in Roman mythology, the god of the fields. He was believed to speak to people through the sounds of the forest and in nightmares. Fauns half men and half goats,
SATYR- in Greek mythology, spirits of the woods and mountains, with horns and tails and with the legs of a goat.
Beowulf is an Anglo-Saxon epic poem in which the hero Beowulf is summoned by King Hrothgar to kill Grendel- half human and half monster- who has been murdering his men.
Ex. 1 Answer the questions
1.How many names does Bigfoot have?
2.Why is this creature called “Bigfoot” in the United States?
3.Besides the Himalaya region, where else have people seen Bigfoot?
4.How is Bigfoot described?
5.Has anyone ever heard Bigfoot speak?
6.There are numerous stories about half men and half monsters in ancient literature, are not there?
7.Are there any physical evidences of the Bigfoot existence?
8.What kind of research expedition did Sir Edmnd Hillary undertake in 1960?
9.What were the results of his research?
10.Did the Native Americans know about Bigfoot?
11.What legends involving Bigfoot did the Native Americans have?
12.Why did Bigfoot become the national news in the States after 1958?
13.Do people continue the search for Bigfoot nowadays?
14.In what places is Bigfoot usually sighted?
15.Why are people fascinated with the legend about Bigfoot?
1. Я сразу догадался, что вы говорите о так называемом Снежном Человеке. 2. Вы знаете, что у этого существа, по крайней мере, 3 имени, не считая термина, который используют ученые. 3. Американцы называют его Большая Нога из-за огромного размера отпечатков его ступней. Правда, некоторые отпечатки, как выяснилось, принадлежат разным животным. 4. Снежный Человек- это мистификация! 5. Все, что мы имеем: пара нечетких снимков. 6. Есть легенда, что в одном Тибетском монастыре хранится скальп Снежного Человека. 7. В 1960 годах ученые предприняли масштабное исследование Гималайского региона. 8. Рядом со стройплощадкой мы обнаружили отпечатки огромных ступней. 9. Мы сделали слепок этого отпечатка и отнесли в местную газету. 10. Редактор был в восторге. «Это сенсационный материал»- сказал он. 11. Заметка о странных следах была перепечатана центральной прессой. 12. Без материальных доказательств все эти сообщения абсолютно ничего не значат. 13. На протяжении многих поколений местные жители рассказывали истории о таинственных существах, полулюдях и получудовищах, обитающих в горах. 14. Фольклор этого региона был тщательно изучен.
…but these plans failed when the creature mysteriously disappeared.
…a night time visitor with enormous feet.
Ex. 7 Say why:
Skeptics keep on saying that there is no such creature as Bigfoot
The Bigfoot hunters cite the legends of different peoples to prove their theory of Abominable Snowman
Ex. 8 Fill in the blanks using the information from the commentary about the legendary monsters.
Was a wild creature, sent by gods to fight with the king of Erech.
ThePatterson - Gimlinfilm is the only movie of a Bigfoot creature. It was taken by Roger Patterson in 1967. Patterson lived in Yakima, Washington State, USA. He had been involved in the search for the elusive Bigfoot or Sasquatch for many years and had written a book on the subject entitled Do Abonimable Snowmen Of America Really Exist? In this book, he calls attention to the significant amount of evidence that supports the creature's existence. Patterson often went on wilderness expeditions to search for the creature.
Equipped with a hand-held Kodak movie camera and accompanied by his friend Robert Gimlin, Patterson set out on horseback in October, 1967 and explored the wilderness regions in northern California. He concentrated his search in the area about 38 km south of the California/Oregon border and 18 km from the Pacific Ocean. This region was selected because Bigfoot footprints had been found there in prior years. Footprint sizes ranged from 30 cm to 45 cm long.
In the early afternoon of October 20, 1967 Patterson and Gimlin spotted Bigfoot down on gravel sandbar. Patterson's horse reared in alarm at the sight of the creature, bringing rider to the ground. He quickly grabbed his camera. While running toward the creature, Patterson took 7 metres of colour film footage. During this time, the creature quickly but calmly walked away into the woods. The creature, estimated to be 2 m height and weighing 310 kg, left footprints 40 cm long.
Fearing a possible confrontation with the creature Patterson and Gimlin decided not to pursue Bigboot into the forest. The film has been studied by many scientists throughout the world who continue to remain divided on the authenticity of the sighting. Roger Patterson died in 1972 steadfast in his belief in the creature's existence. Gimlin always publicly discussed the subject, often appeared on TV talk shows and Bigfoot conferences. He enthusiastically talked about his encounter with the creature and retired from public due to the falling health in the 2000s. Skeptics have judged the film a hoax with a man in an ape suit, but many contend the film depicts a creature unknown to science.
Both Patterson and Gimlin have consistently dismissed allegations that they had hoaxed the footage by filming a man wearing a costume.
Assignment: How well have you read the text. Choose the right answer
How many movies of Bigfoot are there?
5 b. 2 c. 1
did not believe in Bigfoot b. wrote 1 book about this creature c. was a hunter
When Patterson set out for his famous 1967 expedition, he was equipped with…
a camera b. a rifle c. a movie camera
He explored the region on the California/Oregon border because…
Bigfoot footprints were found there b. Patterson lived there c. he had seen Bigfoot there before
Patterson sighted Bigfoot…
at night b. in the evening c. in the afternoon
Patterson did not follow Bigfoot into the forest because…
it was dark b. he was afraid c. his friend stopped him
The scientists who studied the film...
are sure that it is a fake b. can not come to the final conclusion on its authenticity c. made no comments
WebQuest Find the Patterson-Gimlin Film on the Internet (it is available on the youtube), watch it and decide for yourself, if it is really Bigfoot or not.
Bigfoot Sightings in the USA.
Task: read these reports and say if you believe these people.
The database of eyewitness reports of huge, hair-covered large “animals” — now numbering over 3000 reports and distributed over a period of over 150 years.
1) In the summer of 2008, a 12 year old boy was fishing on a small creek in Grays Harbor County, Washington when he looked up and noticed a brown Bigfoot looking at him from the opposite bank, approximately 6 m away. The creature was about 1.8 tall, with blue eyes, its nose was wide and pink. The boy threw his belongings down before jumbing onto his motorbike and leaving the area.
The boy wanted to retrieve his belongings but was too scared to go alone. Eventually he managed to persuade his father, who didn't believe his story, to go with him. When they returned to the area they found the creature's footprints.
2) Bob and his son Larry, were going camping at the Wynoochee Reservoir, Grays Harbor County, Washington. It was the fourth weekend of July 2005. They arrived at the campsite on a very clear morning and decided to continue on to the waterfalls to look for mountain sheep with their binoculars. Bob was scanning a very rocky area about a kilometre away, just above the lake, when he exclaimed:
"They do exist!".
"What?" asked Larry.
His father explained that he was looking at two Bigfoots, a black one and a white one, who were wrestling on the ground. Six or seven other people had also stopped to watch the creatures playing, the sighting lasted for 20-30 minutes, before Bigfoots finally stopped playing and walked out of sight.
Ex. 1 Find the sentences in the text that express the same idea.
The boy was so frightened by a creature looking at him that he ran away without taking his fishing rod.
It took the boy some time to make his father go with him to the area where he saw Bigfoot.
Bob and Larry did not remain at the campsite for a long time, they went on to the waterfalls.because they wanted to look at mountain sheep.
The sight of the playing Bigfoots attracted 7 people who could not tear their eyes off for half an hour.
Ex. 2 How well have you read these reports? Check yourself. Right or wrong?
Both sightings took place in summer.
The boy saw Bigfoot from a distance of 20 m.
Both sightings took place in the same area.
Bob saw two Bigfoots on the opposite bank of the lake.
The Bigfoot creature seen by the boy was brown, about 2 m tall.
Two Bigfoots spotted by Bob and his son were fighting.
Believers get together to talk about Bigfoot at conference
When Bigfoot enthusiasts have lunch in East Texas, they still talk about football.
But they also swap stories of sightings and discuss anatomy of the creature. In fact, sometimes they're so busy eating up the conversation, their food goes untouched.
Friday at Licea's Mexican Restaurant in Jefferson, Texas, Daryl Colyer's lunch got cold while he talked about Bigfoot. His wife, Dalinda, watched with fond amusement.
"He gets so excited when he tells his stories," she said.
Colyer is a field investigator with Dallas-based Texas Bigfoot Research Center. The center's fifth annual Texas Bigfoot Conference began Friday with dinner and video presentation. The organizers and many of the speakers met up at Licea's before things got under way.
The three-day conference has steadily grown since its inception, and this year Colyer said organizers are hoping for 450 attendees, up from 340 last year.
The event has started to attract state and national media attention, with recent coverage by the Associated Press, CNN, Texas Monthly and Texas Highways, to name a few.
"It's been good," said Craig Woolheater, TBRC director. "We've got a lot of good activity to our Web site, and I think we'll get a lot of people here (at the conference) because of it."
Jefferson, perched on the banks of Big Cypress Bayou seems the ideal location. The city has welcomed the researchers with open arms.
Today, Woolheater will be awarded a proclamation declaring the third weekend in October "Texas Bigfoot Weekend" in Jefferson. He'll also be given the key to the city.
"We love Bigfoot!" said Juanita Chitwood, the city's director of tourism development.
Colyer is emphatic about his belief that Bigfoot is not a monster, but simply an undocumented primate.
Woolheater says the Piney Woods offer Bigfoot an ideal habitat, with ample food and water. That's why there have been so many sightings here, he said.
Crytozoologist Loren Coleman disagrees, however. Coleman has been researching Bigfoot for 45 years.
He believes Woolheater's work in East Texas has simply uncovered reports that were already here.
In 1975, Dwaine Dennis, then editor and owner of the Jefferson Jimplecute, wrote about a sighting by a 13-year-old boy. A story about the incident also was published in the Marshall News Messenger.
Dennis' wife, Virginia, said the boy had been chased home by something "big and hairy and tall."
Ms. Dennis helped her husband investigate the report. They found unusually large footprints and a pear tree with half-eaten fruit dangling from it at least 2 m off the ground.
"I don't know what it was," Ms. Dennis said. "I assume it was something like a Bigfoot, but we didn't see it."
Ms. Colyer was with her husband when she had her own close encounter in May 2009 along the bank of the Trinity River. The couple were on their way home from a baseball game. Ms. Colyer said her husband was a little ahead of her on a path when something crawled across her foot. She bent down, and just then, Bigfoot jumped across the trail.
"I could tell he'd seen something," she said. "He looked excited, panicky."
Colyer says he's always been interested in Bigfoot, but he didn't join the TBRC until 2010.
"It would be nice if he got funding," Ms. Colyer said. The cost of gas and supplies add up, but "he enjoys it a lot. He puts in so much work and doesn't get paid for it."
Colyer will teach a seminar on Bigfoot basics this weekend. Other speakers will talk about subjects ranging from footprint casts to field research techniques.
General admission to the event, which will be on the campus of Jefferson High School, is $10.
From: The Longview News-Journal, October 2012.
Ex. 1 Complete the sentences:
The Texas Bigfoot Research Centre is located in…
The Centre has already organized…Bigfoot Conferences, all of which were very interesting.
The Conference includes dinner, video presentation and a seminar on…
The Conference lasts…
The 3rd weekend in October was declared…in Jefferson.
Loren Coleman is a noted crytozoologist and she has spent 45 years…
In 1975 a 13 year old boy sighted something…
Any person can attend the Conference, you just have to pay…
The Conference is held on…
Ms. Coyler encountered Bigfoot in…
Ex. 2 Insert the missing words
to turn on, to pick up, to sit, to recognize, towards, to chase, at the end, to grin, to believe, to frighten, to look out
One summer evening I…by the open window reading some mystery story. After a time it became too dark for me to read easily, I got up to…the light. I was about to sit down again when I heard a loud cry of “Help!”. It seemed to come from the trees…of the garden. I…but it was too dark to see anything. I decided to go out and have a look in the garden. I took a torch and… a strong walking stick. Armed with these I went out. Suddenly I saw a small figure moving… me. A second later I…one of the boys of the neighbourhood.
-What is up?- asked I.
-I was…by something
-What do you mean? A dog?
-No, it was bigger than a dog. Something big, hairy and tall,- said the boy.- It…me half to death.
-You do not say you saw Bigfoot, do you? -…I
-I do not know what it was but we must call the police.
-The police! Are you kidding? They will not…you.
the writer decided to go out
the boy was crying for help
Ex. 3 Imagine that you are Ms. Colyer. Make a short report about “your” encounter with Bigfoot. The report must be in the 1st person singular and not less than 5 sentences.