Historic Archaeological Component Form Instructions This form should be completed for each historical resource with archaeological potential and attached to a completed Management Data Form. Additional copies of the form may be used to describe individual features. Please note at the top of the form if the form pertains to the historical archaeological component in general or to a particular feature. Please see the Colorado Cultural Resource Survey Manual for detailed information concerning many of these categories.
1. Resource Number: Please put the resource number (Smithsonian trinomial number) here, as it appears on the Management Data Form.
2. Temporary Resource Number: List any temporary numbers assigned in the field.
3. Site Name: Please put the site name here, as it appears on the Management Data Form.
4. Site or Feature: Check if this form pertains to the entire site in general. If no, please supply a feature/structure number or name to which the form applies.
5. Site, Component, or Feature Type: Describe the type of site/feature, specifying function if known. Examples of site, component, or feature types can be found in Appendix A of these instructions.
6. Narrative History: The narrative history should be focused on the history of this property and directly pertain to the property's historic significance and integrity. The description should include both a synthesis of the artifacts and features and any additional important information. You may wish to complete parts 19, 22, and 24 before writing this section. Please see National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National Register Registration Form page 47, http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb16a/
This narrative is the most important section of the form. Please be as complete as possible.
7. N.R.H.P. Historic Landscape: Indicate, by checking the appropriate box, whether the resource is located in a cultural or historic landscape. A cultural landscape is defined as "a geographic area, including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values." There are four general types of cultural landscapes, which are not mutually exclusive: historic sites, historic designed landscapes, historic vernacular landscapes, and ethnographic landscapes. (see http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb30/nrb30_8.htm - National Register Bulletin 30 Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes for more information).
8. Component or Feature Description: If the form pertains to a particular component or feature of the overall site, please describe it here in full. Be as specific as possible concerning the component or feature function, and location within the overall site.
9. Historic Component Date(s) and/or Sociopolitical Period: Give date or range of dates of the historic component, being as specific as possible (e.g., 1810-1830, rather than the early 1800s). It may be appropriate to also reference the sociopolitical period (The Depression, The Civil War, etc.) corresponding to these dates here. Describe the criteria used to date the site (e.g., diagnostic artifacts, patent dates, map). Provide the citation for the source(s) where data was gathered.
10. Component Function(s): If possible, identify the original and present uses of the site, being as specific as possible. If the site has been abandoned, indicate that in present use. If a site has had multiple uses or has multiple components with different uses, please elaborate.
11. Ethnic Affiliation of Occupants: When known, indicate the ethnic affiliation of site occupants (e.g., Euroamerican, Hispanic, etc.). The preference is for “Historic” for generic historic cultural affiliation over “Euroamerican” (or its variants). Although “Historic” is not a culture it is recommended as a placeholder that demonstrates that consideration of culture has taken place. In cases where an ethnic affiliation has been identified though historical records or site elements, the culture should be identified by country of association such as Germany, other comparable ethnic identifier (such as Basque, Hispanic, or African American), or Native American group. Describe the criteria you used to determine affiliation (e.g., artifacts or architectural features, historic references, etc.)
12. Historic Boundary: Select boundaries that encompass the entire resource, with historic and contemporary additions. Include any surrounding land historically associated with the resource that retains its historic integrity and contributes to the property's historic significance. The historic boundary may not match the legal property ownership.
13. N.R.H.P. Area of Significance: List the aspect of historic development in which this property made contributions for which it meets the National Register criteria, such as agriculture or politics/government. See http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb16a/nrb16a_III.htm#statement for a listing of areas of significance. Provide the citation for the source(s) where data was gathered.
14. N.R.H.P. Period of Significance: List the span of time in which a property attained the significance for which it meets the National Register criteria. This could be a specific date or a date range. A property can have multiple periods of significance based on the appropriate areas of significance. If this is the case, list the multiple periods of significance. Provide the citation for the source(s) where data was gathered.
15. Theme: List the themes found in Appendix A of this document that pertain to the site.
16. Eligibility Support: If you are using this component form to document only a portion of the site, please check whether or not the portion you are recording supports the N.R.H.P. eligibility of the entire site. Justify your selection below. If you are using this component form to record the site in its entirety, check the N/A box.
17. Recorder(s): Enter the full name of the recorder(s). Do not use initials.
18. Date: Enter the last day that you were in the field. The date should be in a MM/DD/YYYY format.
19. Presence and Quantity of Artifacts: Use this table to denote what artifacts you are seeing, and how many. Note that many of the artifact types have dates associated with them. Use approximations for large quantities of artifacts. Use this information to help you fill out field 9 above.
20. Assemblage Size: Enter the total number of artifacts on the site, or check the appropriate estimated box.
21. Artifact Density: Check high, medium or low for artifact density. In description, indicate if there are differences in artifact distribution (e.g., heavy in some areas and light in other areas).
22. Unique Artifact Descriptions: List specific artifact types and the important attributes in the description field. The form contains prompts concerning the important descriptors for each artifact class. All of these items should be included in the counts of the Artifact table above in item 19 – Presence and Quantity of Artifacts. This gives you the opportunity to call attention to the really cool stuff.
For a detailed discussion of the different artifact classes and their important diagnostic characteristics, please see Appendix B, Historic Artifact Handbook, to these instructions. It will be very helpful to those inexperienced in recording historic archaeology sites and you are encouraged to consult it.
23. Standing structures: Indicate whether or not there are standing structures on the site. If there are, please complete an Architectural Inventory Form(s) (OAHP 1403) in addition to this form. If there is enough of the structure left to describe its architectural features (e.g., architectural style, number of stories, or presence of chimneys, doors, windows, etc.) you should also complete an Architectural Inventory Form(s).
If you complete an Architectural Inventory Form(s) please reference them here. You don't need to repeat any descriptive data that is redundant to the 1403 forms.
24. Features: List and describe each feature on the site. Be as specific as possible about function (e.g., is trash related to domestic or construction activities? Use cabin or barn vs. structure). In the case of trash scatters, artifacts should also be accounted for under the artifact section(s) of this form. The "Feature/Number Name" is a symbol or identification number referring to a feature on the sketch map.
For architectural features, include available information on construction material (e.g., wood, stone, etc.) and feature dimensions (preferably in feet and inches rather than metric). Include building footprint or groundplan here when it is discernible.
25. Archaeological Potential: Note whether or not there is the potential for archaeological deposits. If there is, describe the location and summarize the potential nature, depth, and research potential for those deposits. If it is unknown, document those areas that might have potential, which only further work would confirm.
List of Themes, Site Components and Features to consider when filling out the Historical Archaeological Component Form.
Appendix B Historic Artifact Handbook by
Jonathon C. Horn
Alpine Archaeological Consultants, Inc.
PO Box 2075
Montrose, CO 81402
The intent of this handbook is to provide site recorders with little or no background in historic artifact identification sufficient information so that they can provide consistent descriptive information about the artifacts and site features they are observing. Good description of observed features and artifacts is essential for functional and chronological determinations to be made, thereby insuring that sites or site components are evaluated for significance using the proper thematic context. Regardless of whether or not an individual has the expertise to interpret the evidence present at a particular site, anyone carrying out site recordation has the obligation and should have the ability to provide good descriptive information.
A large portion of this handbook is composed of illustrations. For the most part, these are self-explanatory and little text will be written to accompany them. Many artifacts will not be described whatsoever. A list of references is also provided. The focus of the handbook will be on commonly found artifacts that are particularly useful in providing dating information. Historic artifacts from the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries are particularly time sensitive, because of the rapid growth and change of technology. Using an assemblage of historic artifacts, it is not uncommon to be able to date a site to a 5 or 10-year time period. Functional interpretations can also be quite accurate using the artifacts alone. When coupled with well-directed historical research, the information that can be learned from a historic site can be very illuminating, not only from a historical perspective, but from anthropological, behavioral, technological, and socioeconomic viewpoints as well.
When classifying historic artifacts, the preferred method is by function. Classifying artifacts by material type makes functional interpretations very difficult and is inherently troublesome because many historic artifacts are composed of a variety of materials. A classificatory system for artifacts in museum collections was devised Robert G. Chenall (1978) and updated by Blackaby and Greeno (1988). This system is used by the National Park Service for their museum collections and works very well, especially when reference is made to Sprague (1981). Reuse of artifacts for purposes other than their original intention is very important data and should be recorded, but is problematic.